ER (TV series)
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ER title card.
|Created by||Michael Crichton|
Season 14 cast:|
James Newton Howard |
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||14|
|No. of episodes||309 (list of episodes)|
60 minutes (including commercials) |
45 minutes (without commercials)
Constant c Productions |
Warner Bros. Television
480i (SDTV), |
|Original release||September 19, 1994 – present|
ER is an Emmy Award-winning American medical drama series created by novelist Michael Crichton and airing on NBC. It is set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago. It is produced by Constant c Productions and Amblin Entertainment in association with Warner Bros. Television Production, Inc.
ER is NBC's second longest-running drama (after Law & Order), and, at 14 seasons, the longest-running American primetime medical drama of all time. It premiered on September 19 1994 and has been aired on Thursday nights at 10:00 for its entire run. On April 2, 2008, NBC announced that the series will return for its 15th and final season, which will run for 19 episodes before the show retires at the end of the February 2009 sweeps.
History and production
The novel ER was originally slated to be a movie, directed by Steven Spielberg. However, during the early stages of pre-production, Spielberg asked Michael Crichton what his current project was. Crichton said he was working on a novel about dinosaurs and DNA. Spielberg subsequently dropped what he was doing to film this project, which became Jurassic Park. Afterwards, he returned to ER and helped develop the show, serving as a producer on season one and offering advice (he insisted on Julianna Margulies becoming a regular, for example). It was also through Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment that John Wells was contacted to be the show's executive producer.
Due to a lack of time and money to build a set, the pilot episode of ER was filmed in the former Linda Vista Community Hospital in Los Angeles, an old facility that ceased operating as a medical center in 1990. A set modelled after Los Angeles County General Hospital's emergency room was built soon after at the Warner Bros. studios in Burbank, California, although the show makes extensive use of location shoots in Chicago, most notably the city's famous "L" train platforms.
Michael Crichton wrote the script that became the pilot episode of the show in the early 1970s. It was based on some of his experiences working in an ER. By the time the pilot episode was shot and aired in 1994, it had been 20 years since it was written. On his commentary track, included on the first season DVD set, Crichton says that the script used to shoot the pilot was virtually unchanged from what he had written 20 years earlier. Dr. Lewis was written as a male character, and though producers decided Lewis should be a woman, that change didn't require an adjustment of her dialogue. The producers also decided Dr. Benton would be African-American, though he wasn't written that way. The original script had to be shortened by about 20 minutes in order to air in a two-hour block on network TV.
ER is unique in that the series was filmed in 16:9 anamorphic widescreen from the start, even though it did not air in widescreen until the seventh season when it began appearing in the 1080i HD format where NBC was being broadcast digitally. Since the beginning of the seventh season, it has appeared in letterbox format when in standard definition. As a result, every DVD box set shows the widescreen versions of the episodes, even the first six seasons that were not originally broadcast in widescreen. The episodes also appear in 1080i widescreen when rerun on TNT HD, though the first six seasons still show in fullscreen on the normal TNT network. Only the live episode "Ambush" at the beginning of the fourth season, and the opening credits for the first six seasons, are in standard 4:3 aspect.
ER has had many memorable episodes, and is particularly notable for broadcasting a live episode, "Ambush," in 1997, with the NBC camera crew disguised as a PBS crew making a documentary film in the hospital. The actors performed the show again three hours later so that the West Coast airing would be live as well. This episode received Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Directing and Outstanding Lighting Direction (Electronic), and won the Emmy for Outstanding Technical Direction/Camera/Video for a Series.
Most episodes center on the ER, with almost all scenes at the hospital. There is, however, often at least one scene showing the goings-on of the ER staff outside the hospital. Also, there is a tradition to feature storylines each season completely outside of the ER. One early such instance involved a road trip near Las Vegas, Nevada (Drs. Ross and Greene). Season Eight included a storyline in Hawaii (Drs. Greene and Corday). More recently, the series has included storylines in Democratic Republic of Congo (Drs. Kovac and Carter) and Darfur, Sudan (Drs. Pratt and Carter, with Noah Wyle appearing as a guest in the season following his departure from the show).
The original cast of relatively unknown actors consisted of Anthony Edwards as Dr. Mark Greene, George Clooney as Dr. Doug Ross, Sherry Stringfield as Dr. Susan Lewis, Noah Wyle as Dr. John Carter, and Eriq La Salle as Dr. Peter Benton. Julianna Margulies guest starred in the pilot as Nurse Carol Hathaway and then became part of the regular cast.
|Actor||Role||Appearance as Star||as Guest Star / Supporting Actor|
|CURRENT (sorted by first appearance as Star)|
|Goran Visnjic||Dr. Luka Kovač||6–||114–290, 295, 298–300, 304, 306, 309|
|Maura Tierney||Dr. Abby Lockhart||6–||125–||6||121|
|Mekhi Phifer||Dr. Gregory Pratt||9–||180–||8||175–177, 179|
|Parminder Nagra||Dr. Neela Rasgotra||10–||204–||10||202|
|Linda Cardellini||Nurse Samantha Taggart||10–||206–|
|Scott Grimes||Dr. Archie Morris||12–||246–||10–11||204–206, 208–209, 212, 215–217, 220–222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 236, 238–239, 241–242, 244–245|
|John Stamos||Dr. Tony Gates||13–||269–||12||252–253|
|PAST (sorted by last appearance as star)|
|Shane West||Dr. Ray Barnett||11–13||224–290|
|Laura Innes||Dr. Kerry Weaver||3–13||48–280||2||26–29, 31, 34–35, 38, 40, 43–47|
|Sherry Stringfield||Dr. Susan Lewis||1–3, 8–12||1–55, 161–246|
|Noah Wyle||Dr. John Carter||1–11||1–245||12||259–260, 264–265|
|Ming-Na||Dr. Jing-Mei Chen||6–11||123–232||1||13–17, 19–21|
|Alex Kingston||Dr. Elizabeth Corday||4–11||70–227|
|Sharif Atkins||Dr. Michael Gallant||8–10||172–219||8, 11–12||164–166, 168–170, 239–240, 253–254, 257, 266|
|Paul McCrane||Dr. Robert "Rocket" Romano||6–10||114–209||4, 5||74–75, 77–81, 84–90, 93, 95–96, 100–101, 103–107, 109–113|
|Anthony Edwards||Dr. Mark Greene||1–8||1–179|
|Michael Michele||Dr. Cleo Finch||6–8||114–167, 178|
|Eriq La Salle||Dr. Peter Benton||1–8||1–167, 172, 178|
|Erik Palladino||Dr. Dave Malucci||6–8||120–161||6||115–119|
|Julianna Margulies||Nurse Carol Hathaway||1–6||2–134||1||1|
|Kellie Martin||Lucy Knight||5–6||92–127|
|Gloria Reuben||Jeanie Boulet, P.A.||2–6||31–119||1, 2, 14||14–17, 20–28, 301|
|George Clooney||Dr. Doug Ross||1–5||1–106||6||134|
|Maria Bello||Dr. Anna Del Amico||4||70–91||3||67–69|
Main cast departures
Sherry Stringfield's first departure on the show was in 1996, when her character, Susan Lewis, moved to Phoenix, Arizona, in the Season 3 episode "Union Station." In 2001, Stringfield returned to the series, reprising her role of Dr. Lewis, in the Season 8 episode "Never Say Never." She departed again in the Season 12 premiere, "Canon City." This second departure was not depicted, but rather mentioned by character Kerry Weaver four episodes later in "Wake Up," when she explains that Susan had accepted a tenure-track position at a hospital in Iowa City, Iowa, after having been denied tenure at County.
After playing Anna Del Amico for one season, Maria Bello was simply not a part of the ensemble cast when Season 5 began. Like Susan Lewis's second exit, her character's departure was mentioned but not depicted; in the season premiere, "Day for Knight," Carter explains to new medical student Lucy Knight that the locker she is inheriting used to belong to Anna Del Amico, who is working in a pediatric ER back in Philadelphia, where she has family and a boyfriend.
George Clooney left the show in 1999, in the Season 5 episode "The Storm, Part 2," when his character, Doug Ross, quit before being fired by County for his involvement in a patient's death. Clooney made a brief reappearance in the Season 6 episode "Such Sweet Sorrow" when his character reunited with Carol Hathaway.
Gloria Reuben departed early in Season 6, in the episode "The Peace of Wild Things," when her character, Jeanie Boulet, decided to become a stay-at-home mom and care for her newly adopted HIV-positive baby. She returned in season 14 for one episode with her HIV positive child.
Kellie Martin, who played medical student Lucy Knight, left the series midway through Season 6 in the episode "All In The Family," when her character was killed by a patient suffering from undiagnosed schizophrenia; his psychotic break occurred before a backed-up psychiatry department could arrive in the ER for a consult.
Julianna Margulies left the show at the end of Season 6, in the episode "Such Sweet Sorrow," when her character, Carol Hathaway, decided on the spur of the moment to go to Seattle, Washington, and reunite with Doug Ross, her true love and the father of her twin daughters.
Eriq La Salle's character, Peter Benton, departed in the Season 8 episode "I'll Be Home For Christmas". He took a job with a set schedule at another hospital in order to spend more time with his son, Reese, and his girlfriend, former fellow ER doctor Cleo Finch. His character returned two more times that season in episodes "It's All In Your Head" and "On The Beach".
Michael Michele's character, Cleo Finch, departed in the Season 8 episode "I'll Be Home For Christmas" with her boyfriend, and fellow doctor, Peter Benton, after having previously taken a job at the same hospital with set schedules (in fact it was she who arranged the interview which resulted in Benton's job offer). Her character returned one more time that season in the episode "On The Beach".
Paul McCrane's character, Robert Romano, whose arm had been severed just above the elbow by a helicopter's tail rotor in the Season 9 premiere "Chaos Theory," was killed in the Season 10 episode "Freefall" when a helicopter that was taking off from the hospital roof was buffeted by strong winds, causing it to crash on the roof and plummet over the side of the building; it fell into a crowded ambulance bay and landed squarely on Romano.
Sharif Atkins left the series twice. The first time was in the Season 10 episode "Where There's Smoke," when his character, Michael Gallant, revealed that the Army was sending him to Iraq. He returned for two episodes in Season 11 and for four episodes in Season 12, where in the episode "The Gallant Hero and The Tragic Victor," he was killed by an improvised explosive device while serving a second tour in Iraq.
Alex Kingston's character, Elizabeth Corday, left the series in the Season 11 episode "Fear" after getting in trouble for performing an illegal organ donation procedure; rather than being summarily fired, County offered her a demotion to a non-tenured position, but she turned it down and opted to return to England instead. In an interview with Britain's Radio Times magazine, Kingston spoke of being written off the show due to her age, a statement that sparked some controversy. She later withdrew that claim.
Ming-Na left in Season 11 as an attending physician when her character, Jing-Mei Chen, resigned in in order to take care of her ailing father, whom she later euthanized in the episode "Twas the Night." This was the second time her character left County General; in Season 1, medical student "Deb" Chen recurred in an eight episode story arc which concluded with her leaving medical school after deciding she was better suited to research than to applied medicine.
Noah Wyle left in the Season 11 finale, "The Show Must Go On." His character, John Carter, after having received tenure at County, decided to reunite with his girlfriend Kem Likasu (portrayed by Thandie Newton). During Season 12, Wyle returned as Carter and made guest appearances in four episodes: "Quintessence of Dust," "Darfur," "No Place to Hide," and "There Are No Angels Here." He is reported to make further guest appearances in season 15.
Laura Innes left midway through Season 13, in the episode "A House Divided," when a reluctant Luka Kovač was forced by budget cuts to fire her character, Kerry Weaver. After bracing for a battle to keep her position, and in spite of the fact that Kovač realized he must find a way to keep her on staff, Weaver ultimately decided to resign from County and accept a job offer from a television station in Miami, Florida.
Shane West left at the end of the 13th season after his character, Ray Barnett lost both his legs and returned to Baton Rouge with his mother to recuperate. West's final appearance as a main cast member was in "The Honeymoon is Over." He will return for one episode in Season 15.
Goran Visnjic is expected to leave the main cast early in the 15th season. As the 14th season opened, his character, Luka Kovač was in his native Croatia to be with his father, who required surgery for cancer followed by an extended recuperation. His character remained active through dialogue and discussion of the status of his stay in Croatia, including a brief appearance in episode 5. When Kovac returned to the US, Visnjic appeared in episodes 8-10 before his character returned to Croatia for his now-deceased father's funeral. He returned again in episodes 14, 16 and 19 to complete his medical storyline, and is expected to make his final appearances early in Season 15 to wrap up Kovac's story. 
Notable guest stars
Memorable appearances on the show have included:
- Bradley Whitford in 1995, as the husband of a woman who dies at the hands of Dr. Mark Greene in a complicated emergency delivery and files a malpractice suit.
- Lucy Liu in 1995, as an Asian Immigrant whose son suffers from AIDS; (credited as "Lucy Alexis Liu").
- Jorja Fox in 1996-1999, as Dr. Maggie Doyle, a gay resident who eventually tried to bring a sexual harassment lawsuit against Dr. Robert Romano.
- Sanford Meisner in 1995, as Joseph Klein, a terminally ill patient inadvertently given a reprieve by Dr. John Carter.
- Marg Helgenberger in 1996, as one of Dr. Doug Ross's many flings.
- George Eads in 1996, as a paramedic.
- Kirsten Dunst in 1996-1997, as a troubled teenager.
- Omar Epps in 1996-1997, as an intern who jumps in front of a train.
- Ewan McGregor in 1997, as a convenience store gunman.
- Mariska Hargitay in 1997, as Cynthia Hooper, a desk clerk that Dr. Mark Greene dates.
- John Cullum in 1997 and 2000, as Dr. Mark Greene's father.
- Rebecca De Mornay in 1999, as a breast cancer survivor.
- Emile Hirsch in 1999, as a teenage alcoholic.
- David Krumholtz in 2000 and 2002, as a schizophrenic who stabs Dr. Lucy Knight and Dr. John Carter, with Liza Weil playing his wife.
- Shia LaBeouf in 2000, as Darnel Smith, a child with muscular dystrophy.
- Lea Salonga in 2001, as Amparo, a lymphoma-stricken mother of a young boy who fell while putting up Christmas lights.
- Jared Padalecki in 2001, as Paul Harris, a car crash survivor.
- Conchata Ferrell in 2001, as Mrs. Jenkins, the mother of a girl injured in a talkshow brawl.
- Michael Gross in 2001-2004, as Dr. John Carter's father, John "Jack" Carter, Jr.
- Zac Efron in 2002, as Bobby Neville, an injured teen.
- Ed Asner in 2003, as a thieving clinician.
- Thandie Newton in 2004, as Kem, Dr. John Carter's love interest from Africa and mother of his stillborn son.
- Cynthia Nixon in 2005, as a stroke victim.
- Kristen Johnston in 2005, as Eve Peyton, a zealous nurse manager.
- John Leguizamo in 2005, as Dr. Victor Clemente, a zealous but troubled attending physician.
- James Woods in 2006, as an ALS-stricken biochemistry professor.
- Stanley Tucci in 2007-2008, as Dr. Kevin Moretti, a brilliant ICU doctor turned troubled ER Chief.
- Reiko Aylesworth in 2007-2008, as Julia Dupree, the hospital chaplin.
- Kari Matchett in 2007-2008, as Skye Wexler, the Acting Chief of Emergency Medicine.
- Derrek Lee in 2007, as himself.
- Hal Holbrook in 2008, as Walter Perkins, a hospice patient who inspires Luka to make a difficult life decision.
- Steve Buscemi in 2008, as Mr. Masterson,a patient who was secretly in witness protection
Guest stars whose performances won them Emmys are:
- Sally Field in 2001, as Maggie Wyczenski, Abby Lockhart's mother.
- Ray Liotta in 2005, as Charlie Metcalf, a regret-ridden, dying alcoholic.
Guest stars whose performances earned them Emmy nominations include:
- Rosemary Clooney in 1995, as "Madame X", an Alzheimer's patient.
- Alan Alda in 2000, as Dr. Gabriel Lawrence, an Alzheimer's-stricken doctor and one-time teacher of Dr. Kerry Weaver.
- James Cromwell in 2001, as an ailing Roman Catholic Bishop who coaxes a confession from Dr. Luka Kovač, before dying.
- Mary McDonnell in 2002, as Eleanor Carter, the mother of Dr. John Carter.
- Don Cheadle in 2003, as Paul Nathan, a medical student with Parkinson's Disease.
- Bob Newhart in 2004, as Ben Hollander, an architecture model maker losing his sight.
- Forest Whitaker in 2007, as Curtis Ames, a patient filing a lawsuit against Dr. Luka Kovač.
U.S. television ratings
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Seasonal rankings (based on average total viewers per episode) of ER on NBC.
Note: Each U.S. network television season starts in late September and ends in late May, which coincides with the completion of May sweeps. All times mentioned in this section were in the Eastern & Pacific time zones.
|Season||Season Premiere||Season Finale||TV Season||Viewer
|1st||September 19, 1994||May 18, 1995||1994-1995||2||28.9|
|2nd||September 21, 1995||May 16, 1996||1995-1996||1||32.0|
|3rd||September 26, 1996||May 15, 1997||1996-1997||1||30.8|
|4th||September 25, 1997||May 14, 1998||1997-1998||2||30.2|
|5th||September 24, 1998||May 20, 1999||1998-1999||1||25.4|
|6th||September 30, 1999||May 18, 2000||1999-2000||4||25.0|
|7th||October 12, 2000||May 17, 2001||2000-2001||2||22.4|
|8th||September 27, 2001||May 16, 2002||2001-2002||3||22.1|
|9th||September 26, 2002||May 15, 2003||2002-2003||4||20.0|
|10th||September 25, 2003||May 13, 2004||2003-2004||8||19.5|
|11th||September 23, 2004||May 19, 2005||2004-2005||16||15.5|
|12th||September 22, 2005||May 18, 2006||2005-2006||30||12.3|
|13th||September 21, 2006||May 17, 2007||2006-2007||31||11.5|
|14th||September 27, 2007||May 15, 2008||2007-2008||54||9.2|
Awards and nominations
- Main article: List of ER awards and nominations.
ER won the George Foster Peabody Award in 1995. In addition, the series has earned 123 Emmy Award nominations, making it the most Emmy-nominated show in history. as well as 22 Emmy Awards (at least one every year up to and including 2005, except for 2004). It also won the People's Choice Award for "Favorite Television Dramatic Series" every year from 1995 to 2002. Over the years, it has been nominated for and/or won numerous other awards, including Screen Actors Guild Awards, Image Awards, GLAAD Media Awards, and Golden Globe Awards, among others.
The following is a partial list of major awards and nominations received by the show, its cast, and crew.
- Outstanding Drama Series (1996)
- Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series—Julianna Margulies (1995)
- Outstanding Individual Achievement in Directing for a Drama Series—Mimi Leder for episode "Love's Labor Lost" (1995)
- Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series—Sally Field (2001)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series—Ray Liotta (2005)
- Best Performance by an Actor in a TV Series-Drama—Anthony Edwards (1998)
- Best Performance by a Cast in a Drama Series (1996-1999) 4 wins
- Best Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series—Julianna Margulies (1998-99) 2 wins
- Best Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series—Anthony Edwards (1996, 1998) 2 wins
- Outstanding Drama Series (1995, 1997-2001) 6 nominations
- Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series—Anthony Edwards (1995-98) 4 nominations
- Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series—George Clooney (1995-96) 2 nominations
- Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series—Julianna Margulies (1997-2000) 4 nominations
- Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series—Sherry Stringfield (1995-97) 3 nominations
- Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series—Noah Wyle (1995-99) 5 nominations
- Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series—Eriq La Salle (1995, 1997-98) 3 nominations
- Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series- Paul McCrane (2001)
- Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series—Maura Tierney (2001)
- Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series—Laura Innes (1997-98) 2 nominations
- Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series—Gloria Reuben (1997-98) 2 nominations
- Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series—Julianna Margulies (1996)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series-Forest Whitaker (2007)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series—James Woods (2006)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series—Red Buttons (2005)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series—Bob Newhart (2004)
- Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series—Don Cheadle (2003)
- Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series—Sally Field (2003)
- Best TV Series-Drama (1995-2001) 7 nominations
- Best Performance by an Actor in a TV Series-Drama—Anthony Edwards (1996-97, 1999) 3 nominations
- Best Performance by an Actor in a TV Series-Drama—George Clooney (1996-98) 3 nominations
- Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series-Drama—Julianna Margulies (1999-2000) 3 nominations
- Best Performance by an Actress in a TV Series-Drama—Sherry Stringfield (1996-97) 2 nominations
- Best Performance by a Supporting Actor in a TV Series—Noah Wyle (1997-99) 3 nominations
- Best Performance by a Supporting Actor in a TV Series—Eriq La Salle (1998)
- Best Performance by a Supporting Actress in a TV Series—Gloria Reuben (1998)
- Best Performance by a Supporting Actress in a TV Series—Julianna Margulies (1996)
- Best Performance by a Supporting Actress in a TV Series—CCH Pounder (1997)
- Best Performance by a Cast in a Drama Series (1995, 1998, 2000-01) 4 nominations
- Best Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series—Sally Field (2001)
- Best Performance by a Female Actor in a Drama Series—Julianna Margulies (1996)
- Best Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series—Anthony Edwards (1997, 1999, 2001) 3 nominations
- Best Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series—George Clooney (1996-97) 2 nominations
|Season||Date of Region 1 DVD Release||Date of UK Region 2* DVD Release||Date of AUS Region 4 DVD Release|
|The Complete First Season (1994-1995)||August 26, 2003||February 23, 2004||April 28, 2004|
|The Complete Second Season (1995-1996)||April 27, 2004||July 26, 2004||July 15, 2004|
|The Complete Third Season (1996-1997)||April 26, 2005||January 31, 2005||December 16, 2004|
|The Complete Fourth Season (1997-1998)||December 20, 2005||May 16, 2005||April 27, 2005|
|The Complete Fifth Season (1998-1999)||July 11, 2006||October 24, 2005||November 15, 2005|
|The Complete Sixth Season (1999-2000)||December 19, 2006||April 3, 2006||May 5, 2006|
|The Complete Seventh Season (2000-2001)||May 15, 2007||September 18, 2006||October 3, 2006|
|The Complete Eighth Season (2001-2002)||January 22, 2008||July 16, 2007||September 6, 2007|
|The Complete Ninth Season (2002-2003)||June 17, 2008||October 29, 2007||October 31, 2007|
|The Complete Tenth Season (2003-2004)||Not yet released||January 28, 2008||May 07, 2008|
|The Complete Eleventh Season (2004-2005)||Not yet released||April 21, 2008||May 07, 2008|
|The Complete Twelfth Season (2005-2006)||Not yet released||September 15, 2008||Not yet released|
|The Complete Thirteenth Season (2006-2007)||Not yet released||November 03, 2008||Not yet released|
|The Complete Fourteenth Season (2007-2008)||Not yet released||Not yet released||Not yet released|
The first six DVD box sets of ER are unusual in the fact that they are all in anamorphic widescreen even though these episodes were broadcast in a standard 4:3 format. Only the live episode "Ambush" is not in the widescreen format. All "Previously on ER" segments are removed from each episode. The DVD's are boxes containing 4 discs (either 4 (seasons 1 and 2), with episodes on both sides of the disc, the fourth disc containing all special features) or 6 discs ((seasons 3-up), special features and episodes on one side of each disc only).
The first six seasons of the series have also been released in Hong Kong and other markets. Other Region 2 markets have different release dates. In Germany, Season 9 was released on 7 September 2007. Similarly, Season 10 was released to the German market on 7 December 2007. amazon.de
- ER soundtrack released in 1996 with various compositions from seasons 1 and 2 episodes by Martin Davich and James Newton Howard.
- ER video game for Windows XP and 2000 released in 2005 where the player takes control of a character in the series and treats patients.
- NBC PICKS UP CLASSIC, EMMY AWARD-WINNING 'ER' FOR 15TH AND FINAL SEASON
- NBC veteran 'ER' will end its run next year - USATODAY.com
- Linda Vista Hospital
- Zap2it - TV news - Kingston Discharged from 'ER'
- A Dramatic Achievement (Variety Magazine) – Maynard, Kevin: While cast revolves, auds stay involved (from Mai 2003), access on October 23, 2006
- "TV Winners & Losers: Numbers Racket A Final Tally Of The Season's Show (from Nielsen Media Research)". Entertainment Weekly. 1999-06-04.
- Quotenmeter.de: US-Jahrescharts 1999/2000, access on October 23, 2006
- Armstrong, Mark (2001-05-25). "Outback in Front: CBS Wins Season". E! Online.
- "How did your favorite show rate?". USA Today. 2002-05-28.
- Ryan, Joal (2003-05-22). "TV Season Wraps; 'CSI' Rules". E! Online. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
- Ryan, Joal (2004-05-27). ""Idol" Rules TV Season". E! Online. Retrieved 2006-10-14.
- "2004-05 Final audience and ratings figures". Hollywood Reporter. 2005-05-27.
- "2005-06 primetime wrap". Hollywood Reporter. 2006-05-26.
- "Hollywood Reporter: 2006-07 primetime wrap". May 25 2007. Unknown parameter
|source=ignored (help); Check date values in:
- 2005-2006 Facts and Figures from the Emmy Awards. Retrieved July 22, 2006.
- "ER" (1994) - Awards
- Play.com Release
- ER DVD news: Season 9 DVD Announced | TVShowsOnDVD.com
- Play.com (UK) : E.R. (Emergency Room): Season 9 (3 Discs) : DVD - Free Delivery
- E.R. - The Complete 10th Season (Slimline Set) @ EzyDVD
- Play.com (UK) : E.R. (Emergency Room): Season 11 : DVD - Free Delivery
- E.R. - The Complete 11th Season (Slimline Set) @ EzyDVD
- Play.com (UK) : E.R. (Emergency Room): Season 12 (3 Discs) : DVD - Free Delivery
- Play.com (UK) : E.R. (Emergency Room): Season 13 : DVD - Free Delivery
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