ESFP (Extrovert, Sensing, Feeling, Perception) is an abbreviation used in the publications of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to refer to one of the sixteen personality types. The MBTI assessment was developed from the work of prominent psychiatrist Carl G. Jung in his book Psychological Types. Jung proposed a psychological typology based on the theories of cognitive functions that he developed through his clinical observations.
From Jung's work, others developed psychological typologies. Jungian personality assessments include the MBTI instrument, developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs, and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS), developed by David Keirsey. Keirsey referred to ESFPs as Performers, one of the four types belonging to the temperament he called the Artisan. ESFPs account for about 4–10% of the population.
- 1 The MBTI instrument
- 2 Characteristics of ESFPs
- 3 Cognitive functions
- 4 Type and personal growth
- 5 Correlation with Enneatype
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The MBTI instrument
- How they focus their attention or get their energy (extraversion/introversion)
- How they perceive or take in information (sensing/intuition)
- How they prefer to make decisions (thinking/feeling)
- How they orient themselves to the external world (judgment/perception)
By using their preference in each of these areas, people develop what Jung and Myers called psychological type. This underlying personality pattern results from the dynamic interaction of their four preferences, in conjunction with environmental influences and their own individual tendencies. People are likely to develop behaviors, skills, and attitudes based on their particular type. Each personality type has its own potential strengths as well as areas that offer opportunities for growth.
The MBTI tool consists of multiple choice questions that sort respondents on the basis of the four "dichotomies" (pairs of psychological opposites). Sixteen different outcomes are possible, each identified by its own four-letter code, referred to by initial letters. (N is used for iNtuition, since I is used for Introversion). The MBTI is approximately 75% accurate according to its own manual.
- E – Extraversion preferred to introversion: ESFPs often feel motivated by their interaction with people. They tend to enjoy a wide circle of acquaintances, and they gain energy in social situations (whereas introverts expend energy).
- S – Sensing preferred to intuition: ESFPs tend to be more concrete than abstract. They focus their attention on the details rather than the big picture, and on immediate realities rather than future possibilities .
- F – Feeling preferred to thinking: ESFPs tend to value personal considerations above objective criteria. When making decisions, they often give more weight to social implications than to logic.
- P – Perception preferred to judgment: ESFPs tend to withhold judgment and delay important decisions, preferring to "keep their options open" should circumstances change.
Characteristics of ESFPs
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ESFPs live in the moment, experiencing life to the fullest. They enjoy people, as well as material comforts. Rarely allowing conventions to interfere with their lives, they find creative ways to meet human needs. ESFPs are excellent team players, focused on completing the task at hand with maximum fun and minimum discord. Active types, they find pleasure in new experiences.
ESFPs take a hands-on approach in most things. Because they learn more by doing than by studying or reading, they tend to rush into things, learning by interacting with their environment. They usually dislike theory and written explanations. Traditional schools can be difficult for ESFPs, although they tend to do well when the subject of study interests them, or when they see the relevance of a subject and are allowed to interact with people.
Observant, practical, realistic, and specific, ESFPs make decisions according to their own personal standards. They use their Feeling judgment internally to identify and empathize with others. Naturally attentive to the world around them, ESFPs are keen observers of human behavior. They quickly sense what is happening with other people and immediately respond to their individual needs. They are especially good at mobilizing people to deal with crises. Generous, optimistic, and persuasive, they are good at interpersonal interactions. They often play the role of peacemaker due to their warm, sympathetic, and tactful nature.
Living in the here-and-now, they often do not think about long-term effects or the consequences of their actions. While very practical, they generally despise routines, instead desiring to 'go with the flow.' They are, in fact, very play minded. Because ESFPs learn better through hands-on experience, classroom learning may be troublesome for many of them, especially those with a very underdeveloped intuitive side.
Perception of ESFPs
Others usually see ESFPs as resourceful and supportive, as well as gregarious, playful, and spontaneous. ESFPs get a lot of satisfaction out of life and are fun to be around. Their exuberance and enthusiasm draw others to them. They are flexible, adaptable, congenial, and easygoing. They seldom plan ahead, trusting their ability to respond in the moment and deal effectively with whatever presents itself. They dislike structure and routine and will generally find ways to bend the rules.
Potential areas for growth
Sometimes life circumstances do not support ESFPs in the development and expression of the Sensing and Feeling preferences. If they have not developed their Sensing preference, they may focus on the sensory data available in the moment. Their decisions may then be limited to gratification of sensual desires, particularly those involving interactions with other people. If they have not developed their Feeling preference, ESFPs may get caught up in the interactions of the moment, with no mechanism for weighing, evaluating, or anchoring themselves.
If ESFPs do not find a place where they can use their gifts and be appreciated for their contributions, they usually feel frustrated and may become distracted or overly impulsive. They may have trouble accepting and meeting deadlines. They may also become hypersensitive, internalizing others’ actions and decisions.
It is natural for ESFPs to give less attention to their non-preferred Intuitive and Thinking parts. If they neglect these too much, they may fail to look at long-term consequences, acting on immediate needs of themselves and others. They may also avoid complex or ambiguous situations and people, putting enjoyment ahead of obligations.
Under great stress, ESFPs may feel overwhelmed internally by negative possibilities. They then put energy into developing simplistic global explanations for their negativity.
According to Keirsey, based on observations of behavior, notable Performers might include Bill Clinton, Ronald Reagan, Marilyn Monroe, Cristiano Ronaldo, and Pablo Picasso. For more information, see Performer (role variant).
Drawing upon Jungian theory, Isabel Myers proposed that for each personality type, the cognitive functions (sensing, intuition, thinking, and feeling) form a hierarchy. This hierarchy represents the person's default pattern of behavior.
The Dominant function is the personality type's preferred role, the one they feel most comfortable with. The secondary Auxiliary function serves to support and expand on the Dominant function. If the Dominant is an information gathering function (sensing or intuition), the Auxiliary is a decision making function (thinking or feeling), and vice versa. The Tertiary function is less developed than the Dominant and Auxiliary, but it matures over time, rounding out the person's abilities. The Inferior function is the personality type's fatal weakness. This is the function they are least comfortable with. Like the Tertiary, the Inferior function strengthens with maturity.[page needed]
Jung and Myers considered the attitude of the Auxiliary, Tertiary, and Inferior functions to be the opposite of the Dominant. In this interpretation, if the Dominant function is extraverted, then the other three are introverted, and vice versa. However, many modern practitioners hold that the attitude of the Tertiary function is the same as the Dominant.
Using the more modern interpretation, the cognitive functions of the ESFP are as follows:
Dominant: Extraverted Sensing (Se)
Se focuses on the experiences and sensations of the immediate, physical world. With an acute awareness of the present surroundings, it brings relevant facts and details to the forefront and may lead to spontaneous action.
Auxiliary: Introverted Feeling (Fi)
Fi filters information based on interpretations of worth, forming judgments according to criteria that are often intangible. Fi constantly balances an internal set of values such as harmony and authenticity. Attuned to subtle distinctions, Fi innately senses what is believed to be good and what is bad in a situation.
Tertiary: Extraverted Thinking (Te)
Te organizes and schedules ideas and the environment to ensure the efficient, productive pursuit of objectives. Te seeks logical explanations for actions, events, and conclusions, looking for faulty reasoning and lapses in sequence.
Inferior: Introverted Intuition (Ni)
Attracted to symbolic actions or devices, Ni synthesizes seeming paradoxes to create the previously unimagined. These realizations come with a certainty that demands action to fulfill a new vision of the future, solutions that may include complex systems or universal truths.
Later personality researchers (notably Linda V. Berens) added four additional functions to the descending hierarchy, the so-called "shadow" functions to which the individual is not naturally inclined but which can emerge when the person is under stress. For ESFP, these shadow functions are (in order):
- Introverted Sensing (Si): Si collects data in the present moment and compares it with past experiences, a process that sometimes evokes the feelings associated with memory, as if the subject were reliving it. Seeking to protect what is familiar, Si draws upon history to form goals and expectations about what will happen in the future.
- Extraverted Feeling (Fe): Fe seeks social connections and creates harmonious interactions through polite, considerate, and appropriate behavior. Fe responds to the explicit (and implicit) wants of others, and may even create an internal conflict between the subject’s own needs and the desire to meet the needs of others.
- Introverted Thinking (Ti): Ti seeks precision, such as the exact word to express an idea. It notices the minute distinctions that define the essence of things, then analyzes and classifies them. Ti examines all sides of an issue, looking to solve problems while minimizing effort and risk. It uses models to root out logical inconsistency.
- Extraverted Intuition (Ne): Ne finds and interprets hidden meanings, using “what if” questions to explore alternatives, allowing multiple possibilities to coexist. This imaginative play weaves together insights and experiences from various sources to form a new whole, which can then become a catalyst to action.
Type and personal growth
Each person is unique; there is no "right" or "wrong" type. The purpose of learning about personality type is to understand oneself better and enhance relationships with others. Results on the MBTI suggest the probable type based on the choices made when answering the questions; however, only the individual can determine his or her true type preference. Moreover, type does not explain everything. Human personality is much more complex.
Correlation with Enneatype
- "Myers-Briggs Foundation: The 16 MBTI Types". Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Keirsey.com Portrait of the Performer". Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "CAPT". Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- Myers, Isabel Briggs (1998). Introduction to Type: A Guide to Understanding your Results on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Mountain View, CA: CPP, Inc.
- Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-89106-027-8.
- "Changing Minds: Extraversion vs. Introversion". Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- "Changing Minds: Sensing vs. Intuiting". Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- "Changing Minds: Thinking vs. Feeling". Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- "Changing Minds: Judging vs. Perceiving". Retrieved 2009-01-10.
- Yoffe, Emily. "The Supervisor, the Champion, and the Promoter". Slate.
- Barron-Tieger, Barbara; Tieger, Paul D. (1995). Do what you are: discover the perfect career for you through the secrets of personality type. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-84522-1.
- Myers, Isabel Briggs; Mary H. McCaulley (1985). Manual: A Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. ISBN 0-89106-027-8.
- "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Sensing". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Introverted feeling". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted thinking". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Introverted intuition". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "CognitiveProcesses.com". Retrieved 2008-05-21.
- "Cognitive Processes: Introverted sensing". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted Feeling". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Introverted thinking". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- "Cognitive Processes: Extraverted intuition". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- * Wagele, Elizabeth; Renee Baron (1994). The Enneagram Made Easy. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-251026-6.