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ESKAPE is an acronym encompassing the names of six bacterial pathogens commonly associated with antimicrobial resistance:[1] ESKAPE is an acronym for their names and a reference to their ability to escape the effects of commonly used antibiotics through evolutionarily developed mechanisms.:[2]

Enterococcus faecium

Staphylococcus aureus

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Acinetobacter baumannii

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Enterobacter spp.


ESKAPE pathogens are differentiated from other pathogens due to their increased resistance to commonly used antibiotics such as penicillin, vancomycin, carbapenems, and more. This increased resistance, combined with the clinical significance of these bacteria in the medical field, results in a necessity to understand their mechanisms of resistance and combat them with novel antibiotics. Common mechanisms for resistance include the production of enzymes that attack the structure of antibiotics (for example, β-lactamases inactivating β-lactam antibiotics), modification of the target site that the antibiotic targets so that it can no longer bind properly, efflux pumps, and biofilm production.[3] Efflux pumps are a feature of the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that allows them to constantly pump out foreign material, including antibiotics, so that the inside of the cell never contains a high enough concentration of the drug to have an effect.[3] Biofilms are a mixture of diverse microbial communities and polymers that protect the bacteria from antibiotic treatment by acting as a physical barrier.[3]

Clinical threats[edit]

Due to their heightened resistance to frequently used antibiotics, these pathogens pose an additional threat to the safety of the general population, particularly those who frequently interact with hospital environments, as they most commonly contribute to hospital-acquired infections (HAI). The increased antimicrobial resistance profile of these pathogens varies, however they arise from similar causes. One common cause of antibiotic resistance is due to incorrect dosing. When a sub-therapeutic dose is prescribed, or a patient chooses to use less of their prescribed antibiotic, bacteria are given the opportunity to adapt to the treatment. At lower doses, or when a course of antibiotics is not completed, certain strains of the bacteria develop drug-resistant strains through the process of natural selection.[2] This is due to the random genetic mutations that are constantly occurring in many forms of living organisms, bacteria and humans included. Natural selection supports the persistence of strains of bacteria that have developed a certain mutation that allows them to survive. Some strains are also able to participate in inter-strain horizontal gene transfer, allowing them to pass resistance genes from one pathogen to another.[2] This can be particularly problematic in nosocomial infections, where bacteria are constantly exposed to antibiotics and those benefiting from resistance as a result of random genetic mutations can share this resistance with bacteria in the area that have not yet developed this resistance on their own.

Bacterial profiles[edit]

Enterococcus faecium[edit]

Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria, most commonly involved in HAI in immunocompromised patients. It often exhibits a resistance to β-lactam antibiotics including penicillin and other last resort antibiotics.[2] There has also been a rise in vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) strains, including an increase in E. faecium resistance to vancomycin, particularly vancomycin-A.[2] These vancomycin-resistant strains display a profound ability to develop and share their resistance through horizontal gene transfer, as well as code for virulence factors that control phenotypes. These virulence phenotypes range from thicker biofilms to allowing them to grow in a variety of environments including medical devices such as urinary catheters and prosthetic heart valves within the body.[4] The thicker biofilms act as a “mechanical and biochemical shield” that protects the bacteria from the antibiotics and are the most effective protective mechanism that bacteria have against treatment.[3]

Staphylococcus aureus[edit]

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive round-shaped (coccus) bacteria that is commonly found as a part of the human skin microbiota and is typically not harmful in humans with non-compromised immune systems in these environments. However, S. aureus has the ability to cause infections when it enters parts of the body that it does not typically inhabit, such as wounds. Similar to E. faecium, S. aureus can also cause infections on implanted medical devices and form biofilms that make treatment with antibiotics more difficult.[2] Additionally, approximately 25% of S. aureus strains secrete the TSST-1 exotoxin responsible for causing toxic shock syndrome.[2] Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, or MRSA, includes strains distinct from other strains of S. aureus in the fact that they have developed resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Some also express an exotoxin that has been known to cause “necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia” in those who suffer from infection.[2] Vancomycin and similar antibiotics are typically the first choices for treatment of MRSA infections, however from this vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, or VRSA (VISA for those with intermediate resistance) strains have emerged.[2]

Klebsiella pneumoniae[edit]

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria that is particularly adept to accepting resistance genes in horizontal gene transfer. It is commonly also resistant to phagocyte treatment due to its thick biofilm with strong adhesion to neighboring cells.[2] Certain strains have also developed β-lactamases that allow them to be resistant many of the commonly used antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the creation of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), for which there are very few antibiotics in development that can treat infection.[2]

Acinetobacter baumannii[edit]

Acinetobacter baumannii is most common in hospitals, which has allowed for the development of resistance to all known antimicrobials. The Gram-negative short-rod-shaped (coccobacillus) A. baumannii thrives in a number of unaccommodating environments due to its tolerance to a variety of temperatures, pHs, nutrient levels, as well as dry environments.[2] The Gram-negative aspects of the membrane surface of A. baumannii, including the efflux pump and outer membrane, affords it a wider range of antibiotic resistance.[2] Additionally, some problematic A. baumannii strains are able to acquire families of efflux pumps from other species, and commonly first to develop new β-lactamases to improve β-lactam resistance.[2]

Pseudomonas aeruginosa[edit]

The Gram-negative, rod-shaped (bacillus) bacteria Pseudomonas aeurginosa is ubiquitous hydrocarbon degrader that is able to survive in extreme environments as well as in soil and many more common environments. Because of this versatility, it survives quite well in the lungs of patients suffering from late-stage cystic fibrosis (CF).[2] It also benefits from the same previously mentioned Gram-negative resistance factors as A. baumannii. Mutants of P. aeurginosa with upregulated efflux pumps also exist that make finding an effective antibiotic or detergent incredibly difficult.[2] There are also some multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of P. aeruginosa that express β-lactamases as well as upregulated efflux pumps which can make treatment particularly difficult.[2]


Enterobacter encompasses a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped (bacillus) species of bacteria. Some strains cause urinary tract (UTI) and blood infections and are resistant to multiple drug therapies, which therefore puts the human population in critical need for the development of novel and effective antibiotic treatments.[5] Colistin and tigecycline are two of the only antibiotics currently used for treatment, and there are seemingly no other viable antibiotics in development.[2] In some Enterobacter species, a 5- 300 fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentration was observed when exposed to several gradually increasing concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC).[6] Other Gram-negative bacterias (including Enterobacter, but also Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella species, and more) also displayed a similar ability to adapt to the disinfectant BAC.[6]


  1. ^ "Detection of ESKAPE Bacterial Pathogens at the Point of Care Using Isothermal DNA-Based Assays in a Portable Degas-Actuated Microfluidic Diagnostic Assay Platform".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Pendleton, Jack N; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F (2013). "Clinical relevance of the ESKAPE pathogens". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 11 (3): 297–308. doi:10.1586/eri.13.12. ISSN 1478-7210.
  3. ^ a b c d Santajit, Sirijan; Indrawattana, Nitaya (2016). "Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens". BioMed Research International. 2016: 2475067. doi:10.1155/2016/2475067. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 4871955. PMID 27274985.
  4. ^ Stewart, Philip S; William Costerton, J (2001). "Antibiotic resistance of bacteria in biofilms". The Lancet. 358 (9276): 135–138. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)05321-1. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 11463434.
  5. ^ Ronald, Allan (July 2002). "The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens". The American Journal of Medicine. 113 (1): 14–19. doi:10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01055-0. ISSN 0002-9343.
  6. ^ a b Kampf, G. (2018). "Adaptive microbial response to low-level benzalkonium chloride exposure". Journal of Hospital Infection. 100 (3): e1–e22. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2018.05.019. ISSN 0195-6701.