European United Left–Nordic Green Left

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European United
Left–Nordic Green Left
European parliamentary group
GUE-NGL logo.svg
GUE/NGL logo
NameEuropean United Left–Nordic Green Left
English abbr.GUE/NGL[1]
French abbr.GUE/NGL[2][3]
Formal nameConfederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left[2][4][5]
IdeologyDemocratic socialism (majority)[6]
Communism (minority)[6]
Soft Euroscepticism[7]
European partiesParty of the European Left
Maintenant le Peuple
Associated organisationsNordic Green Left Alliance
From6 January 1995; 23 years ago (1995-01-06)[8]
Preceded byEuropean United Left
Chaired byAlonso José Puerta (1999–2004)[5]
Francis Wurtz (2004–2009)
Lothar Bisky (2009–2012)
Gabriele Zimmer (2012–present)
MEP(s)
51 / 751
Websiteguengl.eu

European United Left–Nordic Green Left (French: Gauche unitaire européenne, GUE/NGL) is a left-wing political group in the European Parliament established in 1995.[9]

The group comprises political parties of socialist and communist orientation.[10][11]

History[edit]

In 1995, the enlargement of the European Union led to the creation of the Nordic Green Left group of parties. The Nordic Green Left (NGL) merged with the Confederal Group of the European United Left (GUE) on 6 January 1995,[8] forming the Confederal Group of the European United Left/Nordic Green Left.[2][4][5] The NGL suffix was added to the name of the expanded group on insistence of Swedish and Finnish MEPs.[12] The group initially consisted of MEPs from the Finnish Left Alliance, the Swedish Left Party, the Danish Socialist People's Party, the United Left of Spain (including the Spanish Communist Party), the Synaspismos of Greece, the French Communist Party, the Portuguese Communist Party, the Communist Party of Greece and the Communist Refoundation Party of Italy.

In 1999, the German Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) and the Greek Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) joined as full members while the five MEPs elected from the list of the French Trotskyist alliance LOLCR joined as associate members.

In 2002, four MEPs from the French Citizen and Republican Movement also joined the group.

In 2004, no MEPs were elected from LO–LCR and DIKKI—which was undergoing a dispute with its leader over the party constitution—did not put forward candidates. MEPs from the Portuguese Left Bloc, the borth Irish and Northern Irish Sinn Féin, the Progressive Party of Working People of Cyprus and the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia joined the group.

Position[edit]

According to its 1994 constituent declaration, the group is opposed to the present European Union political structure, but it is committed to integration.[13] That declaration sets out three aims for the construction of another European Union, namely the total change of institutions to make them fully democratic, breaking with neo-liberal monetarist policies, and a policy of co-development and equitable cooperation. The group wants to disband the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and strengthen the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

The group is ambiguous between reformism and revolution, leaving it up to each party to decide on the manner they deem best suited to achieve these aims. As such, it has simultaneously positioned itself as insiders within the European institutions, enabling it to influence the decisions made by co-decision; and as outsiders by its willingness to seek another Europe which would abolish the Maastricht Treaty.[citation needed]

Organisation[edit]

The GUE/NGL is a confederal group who is composed of MEPs from national parties. Those national parties must share common political objectives with the group as specified in the group's constituent declaration. Nevertheless, those national parties and not the group retain control of their MEPs, therefore the group may be divided on certain issues.

Members of the group meet regularly to prepare for meetings, debate on policies and vote on resolutions. The group also publishes reports on various topics.

Member parties[edit]

MEPs may be full or associate members.

  • Full members must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate members need not fully do so, but they may sit with the full members.

National parties may be full or associate members.

  • Full member parties must accept the constitutional declaration of the group.
  • Associate member parties may include parties that do not have MEPs (e.g. French Trotskyist parties which did not get elected in the 2004 European elections), are from states that are not part of the European Union, or do not wish to be full members.

Member parties[edit]

Member states with one MEP in GUE/NGL are in pink while with two or more members are in red
Country National electoral alliance National party European party MEPs
 Cyprus Progressive Party of Working People PEL (observer)
2 / 6
 Czech Republic Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia PEL (observer)
3 / 21
 Denmark People's Movement against the EU EUD
1 / 13
 Finland Left Alliance MLP
1 / 13
 France Left Front French Communist Party PEL
2 / 74
Left Party
1 / 74
La France Insoumise MLP
1 / 74
Alliance of the Overseas Communist Party of Réunion
1 / 74
 Germany The Left PEL
7 / 96
Stefan Eck (independent)
1 / 96
 Greece Syriza (Coalition of the Radical Left) PEL
3 / 21
Popular Unity
1 / 21
Kostas Chrysogonos (independent)
1 / 21
Sofia Sakorafa (independent)
1 / 21
 Ireland Sinn Féin
3 / 11
Luke 'Ming' Flanagan (independent)
1 / 11
 Italy The Other Europe Italian Left PEL (observer)
1 / 73
Communist Refoundation Party PEL
1 / 73
Barbara Spinelli (independent)
1 / 73
 Netherlands Socialist Party
2 / 26
Party for the Animals (Partij voor de Dieren) Euro Animal 7
1 / 26
 Portugal Left Bloc MLP
1 / 21
Unitary Democratic Coalition Portuguese Communist Party INITIATIVE
3 / 21
 Spain Plural Left United Left PEL
4 / 54
Anova-Nationalist Brotherhood
1 / 54
Podemos (We Can)[14] MLP
5 / 54
The Peoples Decide (Los Pueblos Deciden)
1 / 54
 Sweden Left Party MLP
1 / 20
 United Kingdom Sinn Féin
1 / 73

European Parliament results[edit]

Election year No. of
overall seats won
+/–
1995
34 / 567
1999
42 / 626
8 Increase
2004
41 / 732
1 Decrease
2009
35 / 766
6 Decrease
2014
52 / 751
17 Increase
2019
0 / 705
TBD

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Democracy in the European Parliament" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d "Political Groups Annual Accounts 2001-2006". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  3. ^ a b "Political Groups of the European Parliament". Konrad Adenauer Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 May 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  4. ^ a b c "Group names 1999". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  5. ^ a b c d "European Parliament profile of Alonso José Puerta". Europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  6. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  7. ^ "How Eurosceptic is the new European Parliament?". BBC. 1 July 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "EUL/NGL on Europe Politique". Europe-politique.eu. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
  9. ^ Andreas Staab (24 June 2011). The European Union Explained, Second Edition: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact. Indiana University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-253-00164-1. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
  10. ^ Alexander H. Trechsel (13 September 2013). Towards a Federal Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 72. ISBN 978-1-317-99818-1.
  11. ^ Marlies Casier; Joost Jongerden (9 August 2010). Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey: Political Islam, Kemalism and the Kurdish Issue. Taylor & Francis. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-203-84706-0.
  12. ^ Tapio Raunio; Teija Tiilikainen (5 September 2013). Finland in the European Union. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-135-76204-9.
  13. ^ a b "GUE/NGL Site". Guengl.eu. 14 July 1994. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  14. ^ "Podemos acuerda con Tsipras entrar en el grupo de la Izquierda Unitaria de la Eurocámara". Público (in Spanish). 26 May 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2018.