President of the European Union
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The official title President of the European Union (or President of Europe) does not exist, but there are a number of presidents of European Union institutions:
- the President of the European Council (since 1 December 2014, Donald Tusk)
- the President of the European Commission (since 1 November 2014, Jean-Claude Juncker)
- the President of the European Parliament (since 17 January 2017, Antonio Tajani)
- the Presidency of the Council of the European Union (since 1 July 2017, Estonia - Jüri Ratas)
Though the President of the European Council is sometimes referred to as the "President of the European Union" (EU) in international media, the President of the European Council presides only over the European Council – just one of the institutions of the EU. The post does not have executive powers like presidents in presidential systems such as the President of the United States of America.. Letters of credentials for ambassadors of non-member countries to the European Union are presented to the President of the European Council.
The Commission Presidency has had fewer mentions using the term "President of the European Union", despite being the one with the most powers as the head of the executive branch of the European Union.  (as opposed to the separate role of President of the European Council, who could be seen as the European Union's Head of State)[full citation needed]
Prior to the Treaty of Lisbon, each member state (in turn) took the responsibilities of both the Presidency of the European Council and the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, the latter held by its Prime Minister or President. The press frequently summarised these responsibilities to the shorthand tag "EU Presidency" or "EU President", both for the country holding it or its political leader. Nevertheless, this, too, was a misnomer.
There are other EU institution Presidents, but they do not hold the profile to have had the title applied to them.
There is, simply, no President of the European Union as a whole: each of its institutions has its own President. Each one is chosen by the members of the institution concerned, except the Council, whose Presidency rotates automatically among Member States, and the Commission, whose President is elected by the European Parliament. In protocol (ceremonial) terms, it is the President of the Parliament who comes first, as it is the only directly elected institution and is listed first in the treaties.
It has been suggested that the terms "Speaker" of the European Parliament, "Governor" of the European Central Bank, "Chairman" of the Council, "President" of the European Council" and "Prime Commissioner" would give a clearer indication of their respective roles .
The question of whether the European Council or Commission President is more important has been potent since the former's creation by Lisbon. Both attend international summits and since 2010 the Commission president has started to deliver State of the Union addresses, modelled after the US President's.
- Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Dagnis (September 2014). "Uno, duo, trio? Varieties of trio presidencies in the Council of Ministers". Journal of Common Market Studies. Wiley-Blackwell. 52 (5): 1035–1052. doi:10.1111/jcms.12130.
- Profile: Herman Van Rompuy: EU's new president Waterfield, Bruno The Telegraph, 20 November 2009
- President Who? The Washington Post, 22 November 2009
- Hix, 2008: 155
- ‘The European Union: How Does it Work?' (3rd ed) Elizabeth Bomberg, John Peterson and Richard Corbett (2012, Oxford University Press) ISBN 978-0-19-957080-5 and ISBN 0-19-957080-9
- José Manuel Durão Barroso President of the European Commission State of the Union 2012 Address Plenary session of the European Parliament/Strasbourg, 12 September 2012