EU three

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For the strategy computer game, see Europa Universalis III.
EU-3 ministers and Iran's top negotiator Hassan Rouhani, Sa'dabad Palace, Tehran, October 2003
The foreign ministers from the EU three in 2006

The EU three (or EU-3) refers to an informal troika consisting of the foreign ministers of France, Germany and the United Kingdom who collectively wield most influence within the European Union.[1]

The group is most noted for negotiations started in 2003 attempting to limit the Iranian nuclear program, which led to the Tehran Declaration of 21 October 2003 and the voluntary Paris Agreement of 15 November 2004.[2][3][4]

"EU 3 + 3" (also referred to as the "E3+3"[5] or "E3/EU+3"[6]) refers to a grouping which includes the EU-3 and China, Russia, and the United States. It was coined when these states joined the EU diplomatic efforts with Iran in 2006. In the United States and Russia, it is more commonly known as P5+1, which refers to the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany.[7]

Following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, the EU-3 group had a declining influence in the European Union, and has acted more often within the G6.[8]

Current Ministers[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bretherton, Charlotte; John Vogler (2006). The European Union as a Global Actor. Routledge. p. 174. ISBN 9780415282451. 
  2. ^ Peter Crail, Maria Lorenzo Sobrado (1 December 2004). "IAEA Board Welcomes EU-Iran Agreement: Is Iran Providing Assurances or Merely Providing Amusement?". NTI. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  3. ^ Kjell Engelbrekt, Jan Hallenberg (2010). European Union and Strategy: An Emerging Actor. Routledge. pp. 94–97. ISBN 9781134106790. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  4. ^ Joachim Koops, Gjovalin Macaj (2014). The European Union as a Diplomatic Actor. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137356864. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  5. ^ "Nuclear talks between Iran and E3+3 to continue in November". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 16 October 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013. 
  6. ^ "E3/EU+3". Delegation of the European Union to the United States of America. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Strategic Vision: America & the Crisis of Global Power, Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski, pp 43-45. ISBN 9780465029556. Published 2012.

External links[edit]