Earl Cameron

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Earl Cameron

Earlp8 (cropped).jpg
Cameron in 2017
Born(1917-08-08)8 August 1917
Died3 July 2020(2020-07-03) (aged 102)
OccupationActor
Years active1951–2013
Spouse(s)
Audrey J. P. Godowski
(m. 1959; died 1994)
[1][2]
Barbara Bower
(m. 1994)
[3]

Earlston Jewitt Cameron,[4] CBE (8 August 1917 – 3 July 2020) was a Bermudian actor who lived and worked in the United Kingdom. After appearing on London’s West End stage, he became one of the first black stars in the British film industry.[5] With his appearance in 1951's Pool of London, Cameron became one of the first black actors to take up a starring role in a British film after Paul Robeson, Nina Mae McKinney and Elisabeth Welch in the 1930s.[6][7]

According to Screenonline, "Earl Cameron brought a breath of fresh air to the British film industry's stuffy depictions of race relations. Often cast as a sensitive outsider, Cameron gave his characters a grace and moral authority that often surpassed the films' compromised liberal agendas."[8] He starred alongside Sean Connery in the 007 blockbuster Thunderball (1965). He also had appearances in many 1960s British science fiction programmes, including Doctor Who, The Prisoner, and The Andromeda Breakthrough.[9]

Early career[edit]

Cameron was born in Pembroke, Bermuda,[9] and grew up on Princess Street, Hamilton. His father was a stonemason who died in 1922, after which Cameron's mother took on various jobs to support the family.[10] As a young man, Cameron joined the British Merchant Navy: "I was working on a ship, going from Bermuda to New York and back. I always had a great desire to travel as a kid, and so I transferred to another ship called the Eastern Prince sailing to South America. On our second trip, the war started. ...the British Admiralty sent for the ship, and that brought me to London."[11] In an interview, he summed up what happened next by saying: "I arrived in London on 29 October 1939. I got involved with a young lady and you know the rest. The ship left without me, and the girl walked out too."[11]

Cameron initially faced difficulties as a black person trying to find employment; he was reluctantly taken on as a dishwasher in a hotel and had to accept whatever casual work came his way.[9][11] In 1941, his friend Harry Crossman gave Cameron a ticket to see a revival of Chu Chin Chow at the Palace Theatre. Crossman and five other black actors had bit parts in the West End production. Cameron, who was working at the kitchen of the Strand Corner House at the time, was fed up with menial jobs and asked Crossman if he could get him on the show. He told Cameron that all the parts had been cast, but two or three weeks later, when one of the actors did not show up, Crossman arranged a meeting with the director Robert Atkins, who cast Cameron on the spot.[9] According to Cameron, he had an easier time than other black actors because his Bermudian accent sounded American to British ears (Bermuda, nearest to North Carolina, was settled as an extension of Virginia and retained strong links to Virginia and the Carolinas for the first two centuries of settlement, though it had remained British when they and ten other continental colonies had seceded to form the USA). The following year, he landed a speaking role as Joseph, the chauffeur in the American play The Petrified Forest by Robert E. Sherwood.[9] Cameron commented that when he began working as an actor, he encountered fellow Bermudian Ernest Trimingham still working in the West End.[12][13]

In 1945 and 1946, Cameron took on the role of one of the Dukes in the singing trio the Duchess and Two Dukes, which toured with the Entertainments National Service Association (ENSA) to play to British armed forces personnel in India in 1945, and the Netherlands in 1946. In 1946, Cameron went back to Bermuda for five months but then returned to work as an actor in the UK. He took a job on the London stage as an understudy in the play Deep Are the Roots.[14] Written by Arnaud d'Usseau and James Gow, this play was staged at the Wyndham's Theatre[15] in London for six months (featuring Gordon Heath)[16] and then went on tour. It was during this tour that Cameron first met, and worked alongside, Patrick McGoohan during a production of that play in Coventry. (In 2012, Cameron participated alongside local actors in Bermuda in a reading of Deep Are the Roots, which the Bermuda Sun described as a play "dear to Earl's heart, for it not only gave him his first break in the West End as Britain's first black actor, but he also met his first wife when he travelled on tour with the production.")[15]

He understudied in Deep are the Roots with fellow understudy Ida Shepley, a singer.[17] As Cameron was having problems with his diction, she introduced him to voice coach Amanda Ira Aldridge, the daughter of Ira Aldridge, a black Shakespearian American actor of the 19th century.[18]

Film career[edit]

Cameron's breakthrough acting role was in Pool of London, a 1951 film directed by Basil Dearden, set in post-war London involving racial prejudice, romance — Cameron's character is a merchant sailor who falls in love with a young white woman, played by Susan Shaw — and a diamond robbery. He won much critical acclaim for his part in the film, which is considered "the first major role for a black actor in a British mainstream film".[19]

Cameron's next major film role was in the 1955 film Simba. In this drama about the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya, Cameron played the role of Peter Karanja, a doctor trying to reconcile his admiration for Western civilisation with his Kikuyu heritage. That same year Cameron played the Mau Mau general Jeroge in Safari.[20]

He told The Guardian in a 2017 interview: "I never saw myself as a pioneer. It was only later, looking back, that it occurred to me that I was."[21] He also found work hard to come by: "Unless it was specified that this was a part for a black actor, they would never consider a black actor for the part. And they would never consider changing a white part to a black part. So that was my problem. I got mostly small parts, and that was extremely frustrating – not just for me but for other black actors. We had a very hard time getting worthwhile roles."[21]

From the 1950s, Cameron gained major parts in many films, including: The Heart Within (1957), in which he played a character Victor Conway in a crime movie again set in the London docklands; and Sapphire (1959) in which he played Dr. Robbins, the brother of a murdered girl; and The Message (1976) – the story of the Prophet Muhammad, where he played the King of Abyssinia.[22]

Cameron's other film appearances include Tarzan the Magnificent (1960), in which he played Tate; Flame in the Streets (1961), in which he played Gabriel Gomez; Tarzan's Three Challenges (1963), in which he played Mang; Guns at Batasi (1964), in which he played Captain Abraham; and Battle Beneath the Earth (1967), in which he played Sergeant Seth Hawkins;[23] A Warm December (1973), working with Sidney Poitier and Esther Anderson, in which Cameron played the part of an African ambassador to the UK.[24]

Cameron was considered for the role of Quarrel in Dr. No (1962) by director Terence Young and co-producer Albert R. Broccoli, whom he knew from his Warwick Films work; however, producer Harry Saltzman did not think him suitable for the role and cast John Kitzmiller.[25] They asked Cameron back to the James Bond series for Thunderball (1965), in which he played Bond's Bahamian assistant Pinder.[23] Cameron also acted alongside Thunderball lead Sean Connery in Cuba (1979), in which he played Colonel Levya.[26]

Cameron's later film appearances include a major role in Sidney Pollack's The Interpreter (2005) as dictator Edmond Zuwanie who is a fictionised version of Robert Mugabe (then leader of Zimbabwe).[21][27] Cameron's performance was praised. The Baltimore Sun wrote: "Earl Cameron is magnificent as the slimy old fraud of a dictator...",[28] and Rolling Stone described his appearance as "subtle and menacing".[29] Philip French in The Observer referred to "that fine Caribbean actor Earl Cameron".[30] He appeared in a cameo as a portrait artist in the 2006 film The Queen (directed by Stephen Frears), alongside Helen Mirren.[31] In 2010 he appeared as "Elderly Bald Man" in the film Inception.[32] In 2013, he appeared as Grandad in the short film Up on the Roof.[33]

Television career[edit]

Cameron had roles in a wide range of TV shows, but one of his earliest major roles was a starring part in the BBC 1960 TV drama The Dark Man, in which he played a West Indian cab driver in the UK. The show examined the reactions and prejudices he faced in his work. In 1956 he had a smaller part in another BBC drama exploring racism in the workplace, A Man From The Sun, in which he appeared as community leader Joseph Brent, the cast also featuring Errol John, Cy Grant, Colin Douglas and Nadia Cattouse.[34]

Cameron appeared in a range of popular television shows including series Danger Man (Secret Agent in the US) alongside series star Patrick McGoohan.[35] Cameron worked with McGoohan again when he appeared in the TV series The Prisoner as the Haitian supervisor in the episode "The Schizoid Man" (1967).[23]

His other television work includes Emergency – Ward 10,[36] The Zoo Gang,[37] Crown Court (two different stories, each three episodes long, in 1973), Jackanory (a BBC children's series in which he read five of the Brer Rabbit stories in 1971), Dixon of Dock Green,[37] Doctor WhoThe Tenth Planet[20][38] (reportedly becoming the first black actor to portray an astronaut on television, and also became only the third actor from the series to reach 100 years of age),[39] Waking the Dead, Kavanagh QC, Babyfather, EastEnders (a small role as a Mr Lambert), Dalziel and Pascoe,[40] and Lovejoy.[37] In 1996 he appeared on BBC2 as The Abbot in Neverwhere, an urban fantasy television series by Neil Gaiman.[40]

He also appeared in many one-off TV dramas, including: Television Playhouse (1957); A World Inside BBC (1962); ITV Play of the Week (two stories – The Gentle Assassin (1962) and I Can Walk Where I Like Can't I? (1964); the BBC's Wind Versus Polygamy (1968); ITV's A Fear of Strangers (1964), in which he played Ramsay, a black saxophonist and small-time criminal who is detained by the police on suspicion of murder and is also racially abused by a Chief Inspector Dyke (played by Stanley Baker); Festival: the Respectful Prostitute (1964); ITV Play of the Week – The Death of Bessie Smith (1965); Theatre 625: The Minister (1965); The Great Kandinsky (1994); and two episodes of Thirty-Minute Theatre (Anything You Say in 1969 and Soldier Ants in 1971).

Personal life[edit]

From 1963,[22] Cameron was a practitioner of the Baháʼí Faith,[41] joining the religion at the time of the first Baháʼí World Congress, held at London's Royal Albert Hall.[42] The Baháʼí community held a reception in London in 2007 to honour his 90th birthday.[43] He lived in Kenilworth, Warwickshire, England.[44] He was married to Barbara Cameron (née Bower).[45] His first wife, Audrey Cameron (née Godowski), whom he had married in 1954, died in 1994.[6][44] He had six children.[21]

Honours[edit]

Cameron was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2009 New Year Honours.[46][47]

The Earl Cameron Theatre in Hamilton, Bermuda, was named in his honour at a ceremony he attended there in December 2012.[48]

The University of Warwick awarded Cameron an honorary doctorate in January 2013.[49]

In September 2016, he became the first inductee into the Screen Nation "Hall of Frame" at the BFI Southbank, where he was interviewed by Samira Ahmed.[50][51]

In 2019, the Earl Cameron Award – for "a Bermudian professional who has demonstrated exceptional passion and talent in the field of theatre, cinematography, film or video production" – was established in his honour by the Bermuda Arts Council.[52]

Death[edit]

Cameron died peacefully on 3 July 2020, aged 102, at home in Kenilworth surrounded by his wife and family.[20]

His children said in a statement: "Our family have been overwhelmed by the outpourings of love and respect we have received at the news of our father's passing … As an artist and as an actor he refused to take roles that demeaned or stereotyped the character of people of colour. He was truly a man who stood by his moral principles and was inspirational."[20]

Bermudian Premier Edward David Burt paid tribute to Cameron, describing him as an "iconic actor" and "a proud son of Bermuda whose constant, dignified presence added to stage and screen over decades. All Bermuda joins with me in celebrating his long and remarkable life."[10] In the UK, on Twitter, David Harewood described Cameron as a "total legend" and Paterson Joseph wrote: "His generation's pioneering shoulders are what my generation of actors stand on. No shoulders were broader than this gentleman with the voice of god and the heart of a kindly prince."[20] Historian David Olusoga wrote: "A remarkable and wonderful man. Not just a brilliant actor but a link to a deeper history."[20]

Filmography cinema[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
1951 Pool of London Johnny Lambert [26]
There Is Another Sun (or Wall of Death) Ginger Jones [53]
1952 Emergency Call (or The Hundred Hour Hunt) George Robinson [53]
1953 The Heart of the Matter Ali
1955 Simba Karanja [26]
La grande speranza Johnny Brown, POW
The Woman for Joe Lemmie [54]
Dollars for Sale Earl Rutters
1956 Safari Jeroge (Njoroge) [53]
Odongo Hassan [54]
1957 The Heart Within Victor Conway [53]
The Mark of the Hawk Prosecutor [54]
1959 Sapphire Dr. Robbins [26]
Killers of Kilimanjaro Witchdoctor [54]
1960 Tarzan the Magnificent Tate [26]
No Kidding (or Beware of Children) Black father [54]
1961 Flame in the Streets Gabriel Gomez [54]
1962 Term of Trial Chard
1963 Tarzan's Three Challenges Mang [54]
1964 Guns at Batasi Captain Abraham [26]
1965 Thunderball Pinder [26]
1966 The Sandwich Man Bus conductor [53]
1967 Battle Beneath the Earth Sgt. Seth Hawkins [54]
1968 Two a Penny Verger [54]
1969 Two Gentlemen Sharing Charles Marriott, Jane's step-father [54]
1971 The Revolutionary Speaker
1973 Scorpio Black employee in toilet
A Warm December Ambassador George Oswandu [26]
1976 The Message (Al-Risâlah) Annajashi
1977 Mohammad, Messenger of God Annajashi [54]
1979 Cuba Col. Rosell Leyva [26]
1998 Déjà Vu Doctor
Hiekkamorsian (or Sand Bride) Rui (voice)
2001 Revelation Cardinal Chisamba [32][55]
2005 The Interpreter Edmond Zuwanie [26]
2006 The Queen Portrait artist [26]
2010 Inception Elderly bald man [26]
2013 Up on the Roof Grandad [56]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "England and Wales Marriage Registration Index, 1837-2005". FamilySearch.
  2. ^ "England and Wales Marriage Registration Index, 1837-2005". FamilySearch.
  3. ^ "Earl Cameron - Actor", Bermudians in the UK.
  4. ^ Kurutz, Steven (10 July 2020). "Earl Cameron, Barrier-Breaking British Actor, Is Dead at 102". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  5. ^ "Video: Channel 4 Interviews Actor Earl Cameron - Bernews". Bernews. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  6. ^ a b Imogen Blake, "Pioneering actor Earl Cameron, 98: 'Showbusiness was just a means to an end'", Ham & High, 7 April 2016.
  7. ^ Nathalie Morris, "Paul Robeson: the singer and activist who pioneered a path for black actors", BFI, 3 April 2017. As the movie posters on this website show, Robeson, McKinney and Welch all received top billing for their work on the 1930s British screen.
  8. ^ Dylan Cave, "Cameron, Earl", Screenonline, BFI.
  9. ^ a b c d e Bourne, Stephen (2001). "Earl Cameron:A Class Act". Black in the British Frame. London and New York: Continuum. pp. 104–10. ISBN 9780826478986. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s Earl Cameron added a touch of class to a number of British film and television productions.
  10. ^ a b 1st Earl of the silver screen. The Royal Gazette, City of Hamilton, Pembroke Parish, Bermuda. Published 4 July, 2020
  11. ^ a b c Yvonne Brewster, "Earl Cameron—Actor", in Rodreguez King-Dorset, Black British Theatre Pioneers: Yvonne Brewster and the First Generation of Actors, Playwrights and Other Practitioners, McFarland & Company, 2014, p. 112.
  12. ^ Such stuff as dreams are made on. The Royal Gazette, City of Hamilton, Pembroke Parish, Bermuda. Published 17 July, 2013
  13. ^ Bermudian Actor’s Play Was A Black UK First. Bernews. 28 December, 2010
  14. ^ Owain Johnston-Barnes, "Acting legend Cameron thrilled to be back on island", The Royal Gazette, 20 October 2017.
  15. ^ a b Sarah Lagan, "Earl Cameron in play reading", Bermuda Sun, 27 April 2012.
  16. ^ Eleanor Blau, "Gordon Heath, 72; Co-Starred in Play 'Dweep are the Roots'", The New York Times, 31 August 1991.
  17. ^ King–Dorset, Rodreguez (1 October 2014). Black British Theatre Pioneers: Yvonne Brewster and the First Generation of Actors, Playwrights and Other Practitioners. McFarland. p. 117. ISBN 9781476616896.
  18. ^ "Coventry pays tribute to African-American actor Ira Aldridge". University of Warwick. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  19. ^ Wendy Mitchell, "Earl Cameron on breaking racial boundaries in Pool of London", The Telegraph, 12 July 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Pulver, Andrew (4 July 2020). "Earl Cameron, 'Britain's first black film star', dies aged 102". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  21. ^ a b c d Xan Brooks, "'I've not retired!' Earl Cameron, Britain's first black film star, on Bond, racism – and turning 100", The Guardian, 8 August 2017.
  22. ^ a b Baháʼí World News Service. "100-year-old pioneering actor reflects on life, faith, and change", 8 August 2017.
  23. ^ a b c "Earl Cameron". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  24. ^ "A Warm December (1973)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  25. ^ Bourne, Stephen, Black in the British Frame (2005), p. 110.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mordeu, Jordan (4 July 2020). "Earl Cameron, One of British Cinema's First Lead Black Actors, Dies at 102". Variety.
  27. ^ "The Interpreter (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  28. ^ Sragow, Michael (22 April 2005). "The Language of Suspense". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  29. ^ Travers, Peter (22 April 2005). "The Interpreter". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  30. ^ French, Philip (17 April 2005). "Listen very carefully". The Observer. London. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  31. ^ "The Queen (2006)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  32. ^ a b "Earl Cameron". British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  33. ^ "Up on the Roof (2013)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  34. ^ "A Man from the Sun (1956)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  35. ^ "Danger Man – Season 3 Episode 6". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  36. ^ Bourne, Stephen (1 May 2005). Black in the British Frame: The Black Experience in British Film and Television. A&C Black. p. 117. ISBN 9781441161352.
  37. ^ a b c Hope, Russell (4 July 2020). "Earl Cameron: Tributes paid to 'groundbreaking' black actor who appeared in Bond and Doctor Who". Sky News. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  38. ^ "Doctor Who News - Earl Cameron 1917 - 2020". m.doctorwhonews.net.
  39. ^ Haring, Bruce (4 July 2020). "Earl Cameron Dies: Black Pioneer In British Film And TV Was 102". Deadline. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  40. ^ a b "Cameron, Earl – credits". BFI Screenonline. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  41. ^ Robert Weinberg, "Veteran actor Earl Cameron brings a sense of world citizenship to UN role", One Country, Volume 17, Issue 1, April–June 2005.
  42. ^ Jonathan Bell, "Legendary actor Cameron hits 100", The Royal Gazette, 8 August 2017.
  43. ^ Brian Watson, "Earl Cameron 90th Birthday Tribute", The Unmutual, 2007.
  44. ^ a b "Breakthrough black actor who starred with 007 turns 100", BBC News, Coventry & Warwickshire, 8 August 2017.
  45. ^ Baxter, Brian (5 July 2020). "Earl Cameron obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  46. ^ "No. 58929". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 2008. p. 7.
  47. ^ Smyth, Chris (31 December 2008). "Terry Pratchett "flabbergasted" over knighthood". The Times. London, UK: News International. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  48. ^ Rebecca Zuill, "City Hall Theatre named after 'back of town boy'", The Royal Gazette, 6 November 2012.
  49. ^ "Bond, Baking, Buildings & BBC in Roll Call of Honorary Graduates Announced by University of Warwick", News & Events, Warwick.
  50. ^ Joel Campbell (2 November 2016). "Screen Nation Pays Tribute To Pioneer". Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  51. ^ "Watch: Earl Cameron CBE (First Black British Screen Star) in Revealing 40-Minute Hall of Fame Induction Conversation". Shadow and Act. 20 April 2017. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  52. ^ Jonathan Bell (4 July 2020). "1st Earl of the silver screen". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  53. ^ a b c d e "Earl Cameron List of Movies and TV Shows". TV Guide. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Filmography for Earl Cameron". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  55. ^ "Cameron, Earl (1917– )". BFI Screenonline. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  56. ^ "Up on the Roof (2013) – Full Cast & Crew". IMDb. Retrieved 5 July 2020.

External links[edit]