Earl of Arundel
Earl of Arundel is an earldom and the oldest extant peerage in the Peerage of England. It is currently held by the Duke of Norfolk, and is used (along with the Earldom of Surrey) by his heir apparent as a courtesy title. It was created c. 1138 for the Norman baron Sir William d'Aubigny. Its origin was the earlier grant by Henry I to his second wife Adeliza of the forfeited "honour" of Arundel, which included the castle and a large portion of Sussex. After his death she married William, who thus became master of the lands, and who from about the year 1141 is variously styled earl of Sussex, of Chichester, or of Arundel. His first known appearance as earl is at Christmas 1141. Until the mid-13th century, the earls were also frequently known as Earl of Sussex, until this title fell into disuse. At about the same time, the earldom fell to the originally Breton FitzAlan Family, a younger branch of which went on to become the Stuart Family, which later ruled Scotland.
A tradition arose that the holder of Arundel Castle should automatically be Earl of Arundel, and this was formally confirmed by King Henry VI. An Act of Parliament in 1627 confirmed this designation, and retrospectively applied the earldom to the Lords of Arundel, some authorities holding that the earldom stretched back to the reign of Richard I (specifically 1189). However, this designation was not always followed. Some of the Lords of Arundel were never addressed as earl during their lifetime, but nevertheless are counted and numbered as earls here. Other sources may not include some of the earls listed below, and may consider the earldom to have been created more than once.
In his 1834 book on the Earls of Arundel, M. A. Tierney (chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk) maintains that the first incarnation of the earldom was with the House of Montgomery. Roger of Montgomery, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury was one of William the Conqueror's top generals, and William bestowed on him, amongst several hundred other manors, the property at Arundel, with the charge to fortify it with a castle. Montgomery is believed to have built the motte that survives to this day, and is thought to have built a wooden keep on it, overlooking the river Arun. Montgomery and two of his sons are counted by many as being the first incarnation of the earldom, but are often not counted amongst the earls.
In 1580 the 12th Earl, and last FitzAlan to hold the title, died without a male heir. His daughter Mary FitzAlan had married the attainted 4th Duke of Norfolk, and the title passed to their son, Philip Howard, The dukedom was restored to his son following the accession of King James I. The 5th Earl of Arundel, the 5th Howard to hold the title, was restored to the principal Howard title of Duke of Norfolk in 1660, and the title has descended with that Dukedom ever since.
Earls of Arundel (c. 1138)
- William d'Aubigny, 1st Earl of Arundel (d. 1176)
- William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel (d. 1193)
- William d'Aubigny, 3rd Earl of Arundel (d. 1221)
- William d'Aubigny, 4th Earl of Arundel (d. 1224)
- Hugh d'Aubigny, 5th Earl of Arundel (d. 1243)
- John FitzAlan 6th Earl of Arundel (1223–1267)
- John FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel (1246–1272)
- Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel (1267–1302), received a writ in 1289, at his majority, summoning him to Parliament; this is thought to perhaps be a creation of another Earldom of Arundel.
Second creation (1289) (dubious)
- Richard FitzAlan, 1st or 8th Earl of Arundel (1267–1302)
- Edmund FitzAlan, 2nd or 9th Earl of Arundel (1285–1326) (forfeit 1326)
- Richard FitzAlan, 3rd or 10th Earl of Arundel (1313–1376) (restored 1331)
- Richard FitzAlan, 4th or 11th Earl of Arundel (1346–1397) (forfeit 1397)
- Thomas FitzAlan, 5th or 12th Earl of Arundel (1381–1415) (restored 1400)
- John FitzAlan, 6th or 13th Earl of Arundel (1385–1421)
- John FitzAlan, 7th or 14th Earl of Arundel (1408–1435)
- Humphrey FitzAlan, 8th or 15th Earl of Arundel (1429–1438)
- William FitzAlan, 9th or 16th Earl of Arundel (1417–1487)
- Thomas FitzAlan, 10th or 17th Earl of Arundel (1450–1524)
- William FitzAlan, 11th or 18th Earl of Arundel (1476–1544)
- Henry FitzAlan, 12th or 19th Earl of Arundel (1512–1580)
- Philip Howard, 13th or 20th Earl of Arundel (1557–1595) (forfeit 1589)
- Thomas Howard, 14th or 21st Earl of Arundel (1585–1646) (restored 1604)
- Henry Howard, 15th or 22nd Earl of Arundel (1608–1652)
- Thomas Howard, 16th or 23rd Earl of Arundel (1627–1677) (restored as 5th Duke of Norfolk in 1660)
Thereafter the Earldom of Arundel has been held by the Dukes of Norfolk. The 18th Duke of Norfolk (29th or 36th earl) is the current holder.
- Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk (1627–1677)
- Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1628–1684)
- Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk (1655–1701)
- Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683–1732)
- Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685–1777)
- Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk (1720–1786)
- Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk (1746–1815)
- Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (1765–1842)
- Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk (1791–1856)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk (1815–1860)
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk (1847–1917)
- Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk (1908–1975)
- Miles Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk (1915–2002)
- Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (b. 1956)
The heir apparent is Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey (b. 1987). Next in line of succession are Arundel's brothers, Lords Thomas and Philip Fitzalan-Howard.
- "Charles's Roll". Riantimms.net. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p.833
- G.E. Cokayne; with Vicary Gibbs, H.A. Doubleday, Geoffrey H. White, Duncan Warrand and Lord Howard de Walden, editors, The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910-1959; reprint in 6 volumes, Gloucester, U.K.: Alan Sutton Publishing, 2000), volume I, page 233. Cited at The Peerage.com, Page 10225 (retrieved 19 August 2018).
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Round, John Horace (1911). "Arundel, Earldom of". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 705–706.
- "The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom : extant, extinct, or dormant". Archive.org. pp. Volume 1, p. 239 and footnote b on p. 231, as corrected by Vol. 14, p. 38. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 12th Earl of Arundel Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 4th Duke of Norfolk Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 20th Earl of Arundel Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 21st Earl of Arundel Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 5th Duke of Norfolk Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- cracoftspeerage.co.uk 14th Duke of Norfolk Archived 23 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- G E Cokayne, et al., The Complete Peerage (London 1910-1958, 3rd of 14 vols.)