Early's raids in Pennsylvania

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Early's raids in Pennsylvania were a series of June military actions before the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg in which the Confederate forces of Major General Jubal Early conducted raids and military engagements from Chambersburg through Gettysburg to York.

Date Event
23 Jenkins' Confederate cavalry, from the "Hughes iron works,"[1] raided "Stevens' Furnace"[2] and took $5,000 in mules/horses.[3] The destroyed facility was rebuilt for $80,000 (c. 1890 the "big house" burned).[4]
25 Early's headquarters was at Greenwood on the turnpike near the summit of South Mountain.[5]
26 Early demanded a $10,000 ransom (plus supplies) from Gettysburg,[6] and his forces engaged local militia along the Baltimore Pike; killing G. W. Sandoe at a site later on the Gettysburg Battlefield.
27 On the east border of the borough of Gettysburg, Early's forces burned the Gettysburg Railroad trestle over Rock Creek[1] and pushed burning railroad cars into the fire (17 burnt).[7]

Following the railroad eastward, White's Confederate cavalry raided Hanover, including the telegraph lines and the Hanover Junction Railroad Station.

28 Hunter's Union cavalry captured 13 of 18 in a Confederate squad that had taken horses from a Fairfield church service.[7]
Early demanded a $100,000 ransom (plus supplies) from York[6]: 14  but didn't burn the community.[8]
30 Early returned through East Berlin[6]: 17  and camped at Heidlersburg[9] returning from York en route to Cashtown and on July 1, learned of the Battle of Gettysburg when he was ordered to approach on the Harrisburg Road.[10]


  1. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=JU4mAAAAIBAJ&sjid=G_8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=7087%2C7564306 "Gen. Early replied that Mr. Stevens was 'an enemy of the South, in favor of confiscating the property and arming their negroes, and the property must be destroyed."
  2. ^ "The Adams Centinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  3. ^ "Gettysburg Times - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  4. ^ "Thaddeus Stevens…" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler (reprinted from Philadelphia Times). July 23, 1893. Retrieved 2011-12-31.
  5. ^ "The Adams Centinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  6. ^ a b c Long, James T (1906). The 16th Most Decisive Battle of the World--Gettysburg. "Gettysburg Compiler Print". The National Monument stands on that portion of the ground where the immortal Lincoln made his famous speech at the dedication of those grounds on the 19th of November, 1865
  7. ^ a b "The Compiler - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  8. ^ "VERY IMPORTANT NEWS - Further Particulars of the Battle Near Gettysburgh on Wednesday. Gen. Reynolds' First Army Corps in the Advance…". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2016-07-24.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2012-01-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "The First Day: The Battle of Oak Ridge". NPS Historical Handbook: Gettysburg (The First Day). NPS.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-31.