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|Subdivisions of the Quaternary System|
|Subdivision of the Quaternary period according to the ICS, as of 2018.
For the Holocene, dates are relative to the year 2000 (e.g. Greenlandian began 11,700 years before 2000). For the begin of the Northgrippian a date of 8,236 years before 2000 has been set . The Meghalayan has been set to begin 4,250 years before 2000, apparently from a calibrated radio-carbon date of 4,200 years BP i.e. before 1950.[clarification needed]
'Chibanian' and 'Tarantian' are informal, unofficial names proposed to replace the also informal, unofficial 'Middle Pleistocene' and 'Upper Pleistocene' subseries/subepochs respectively.
In Europe and North America, the Holocene is subdivided into Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, and Subatlantic stages of the Blytt–Sernander time scale. There are many regional subdivisions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; usually these represent locally recognized cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends with the cold Younger Dryas substage.
The Early Pleistocene (also known as the Lower Pleistocene) is a subepoch in the international geologic timescale or a subseries in chronostratigraphy, being the earliest or lowest subdivision of the Quaternary period/system and Pleistocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 2.588 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) and 0.781 ± 0.005 Ma. The Early Pleistocene consists of the Gelasian and the Calabrian ages.
- Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.C.; Gibbard, P.L.; Fan, J.-X. "International Chronostratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
- "IUGS ratifies Holocene". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
- "announcement ICS chart v2018/07". Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "Formal subdivision of the Pleistocene Series/Epoch" http://quaternary.stratigraphy.org/definitions/pleistocenesubdivision/ Accessed 2014-02-09
- "Early/Lower Pleistocene subepoch" http://fossilworks.org/bridge.pl?action=displayInterval&interval_no=924 Accessed 2014-02-09
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