Earth-One

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Earth-One
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance The Flash #123 (September 1961)
Pre-Crisis version: Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956)
52 version: 52 #52 (May 2, 2007)
Created by Gardner Fox
In story information
Type Dimension
Notable people Silver Age Justice League of America
Notable races Humans

Earth-One (also Earth-1) is a name given to two fictional universes (The Pre-Crisis and Post-Crisis versions of the same universe) that have appeared in American comic book stories published by DC Comics. The first Earth-One was given its name in Justice League of America #21 (August 1963), after The Flash #123 (September 1961) explained how Golden Age (Earth-Two) versions of characters such as the Flash (Jay Garrick) could appear in stories with their Silver Age counterparts (Barry Allen). This Earth-One continuity included the DC Silver Age heroes, including the Justice League of America. Earth-One, along with the four other surviving Earths of the DC Multiverse, are merged into one in the 1985 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths. This Earth's versions of characters were primarily the Earth-One versions (i.e. Superman, Batman), but some characters from the four other worlds were also "folded" in. In Infinite Crisis, Earth-One was resurrected and merged with the primary Earth of the publication era to create a New Earth that brought back more aspects of Earth-One's original history. In 2007, a new version of Earth-One was created in the aftermath of events that occurred within the 52 series.

Pre-Crisis version[edit]

Flash of Two Worlds[edit]

The Flash (September 1961) cover art by Carmine Infantino and Murphy Anderson

Characters from DC Comics were originally suggestive of each existing in their own world, as superheroes never encountered each other. However, this was soon changed with alliances being formed between certain protagonists. Several publications, including All-Star Comics (publishing tales of the Justice Society of America), Leading Comics (publishing tales of the Seven Soldiers of Victory) and other comic books introduced a "shared-universe" among several characters during the 1940s until the present day.

Alternative reality Earths had been used in DC stories before, but were usually not referred to after that particular story. Also most of these alternative Earths were usually so vastly different that no one would confuse that Earth and its history with the so-called real Earth. That would change when the existence of another reliable Earth was established in a story titled "Flash of Two Worlds"[1][2] in which Barry Allen, the modern Flash later referred to as Earth-One (the setting of the Silver Age stories) first travels to another Earth, accidentally vibrating at just the right speed to appear on Earth-Two, where he meets Jay Garrick, his Earth-Two counterpart.

Major events[edit]

  • More Fun Comics #101 (1944): the first appearance of Superboy.[3] According to canon, the Superman of Earth-Two did not fight crime until reaching Metropolis as an adult, therefore this is the first appearance of Earth-One in comics.
  • Superman #47 (1947): an adventure of Superman that mentions his time as Superboy, which means that it is unofficially the first story written about the Earth-One Superman.
  • Superman #76 (1952): the first appearance of the Earth-One Batman, teaming up with what must be Earth-One Superman. The two crime fighters meet for the first time in this story.[4] Their Earth-Two counterparts knew each other from their time in the Justice Society of America in the 1940s.
  • (1954): Superman and Batman books unofficially make the switch from the Earth-Two characters to the Earth-One characters, though it wasn't apparent at the time.
  • Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #1 (1954): debut issue of spinoff title for supporting character from the Superman series.[5]
  • Detective Comics #225 (1955): the first appearance of J'onn J'onzz, the Martian Manhunter.[6]
  • Showcase #4 (1956): popularly the first Earth-One comic (though not mentioned in text as such), featuring the introduction of Barry Allen as The Flash.[7]
  • Adventure Comics #229 (1956): unofficially the first appearance of Earth-One Aquaman.[8]
  • Adventure Comics #246 (1958): unofficially the first appearance of Earth-One Green Arrow.[9]
  • Wonder Woman #98 (1958): unofficially the first appearance of Earth-One Wonder Woman.[10]
  • Showcase #22 (1959): the first appearance of Hal Jordan, the Green Lantern of Earth-One.[11]
  • The Brave and the Bold #34 (1961): the first appearance of Katar Hol, the Hawkman of Earth-One.[12]
  • The Flash #123 (1961): "The Flash of Two Worlds" Barry Allen meets Jay Garrick. This is the first story to explain the concept of the Multiverse, namely that the actions of Barry Allen and Jay Garrick took place on separate but similar Earths.[1]
  • Showcase #34 (1961): the first appearance of Ray Palmer, the Atom of Earth-One.[13]
  • Justice League of America #21 (1963): "Crisis on Earth-One" The first team up between the JLA and the JSA, which became a yearly feature in the Justice League of America comic. This is the story in which both Earth-One and Earth-Two were first given names.[14]
  • Green Lantern (vol. 2) #85 (1971): "Snowbirds Don't Fly" A story focusing on drug addiction, showing Green Arrow's ward Roy Harper addicted to heroin.[15] The story won the 1971 Shazam Award for Best Original Story.
  • Swamp Thing #1 (1972): the first adventure of Alec Holland, the Swamp Thing.[16] The story won the 1972 Shazam Award for Best Original Story.
  • Justice League of America #244 and Infinity, Inc. #19 (1985): the final team-up of the Justice League and the Justice Society before Earth-One and Earth-Two are merged.[17][18]
  • Crisis on Infinite Earths #10 (1986): The issue in which Earth-One, Earth-Two, Earth-Four (the home of the Charlton Comics heroes), Earth-S (the home of the Fawcett Comics heroes), and Earth-X (the home of the Quality Comics heroes) were combined into one reality, hereafter known as New Earth.[19]
  • DC Comics Presents #97 (1986): "Phantom Zone: The Final Chapter" The last official Earth-One story.[20]
  • Superman #423 and Action Comics #583 (1986): "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?": The last story of the Superman of Earth-One,[21] though it is technically classified as an Imaginary Story and not an official Earth-One story. It features cameos by all the other heroes of Earth-One.[22][23]

Destruction[edit]

Crisis on Infinite Earths (1985–1986) was an effort by DC Comics to clean up their continuity, resulting in the multiple universes, including that of Earth-One, combining into one. This involved the destruction of the multiverse, including Earth-One and the first appearance of the post-Crisis Earth.

Post-52 version[edit]

At the end of the Infinite Crisis limited series, the realigned world is called "New Earth". There are now 52 universes: "New Earth" (aka Earth-0), and Earths-1 to 52. In the final issue of the 52 weekly series, it is revealed that fifty-two duplicate worlds have been created and all but New Earth have been altered from the original incarnation.[24]

Earth-1 is featured in the Batman: Earth One[25] and Superman: Earth One[26][27] graphic novels.[28]

Characters[edit]

Earth-One
(1961-1985)
Earth-1
The New 52
(2007-2010/2010–present)
Notes New Earth / Prime Earth
counterpart
Kal-El/Clark Kent Since Superman was one of several DC characters continuously published throughout the 1950s, there isn't a clear dividing line between the Earth-One and Earth-Two versions of Superman. Several stories published before the mid-1950s took place on Earth-One. Also, any Superman stories published before the mid-1950s that featured or mentioned Superboy also took place exclusively on Earth-One, as the Earth-Two Superman, per the earliest Superman comics, never had a Superboy career. His first appearance in comics was in Superman vol. 1 #46 (May 1947), the first time Superboy was referenced in a Superman story. This version of Superman remained in publication until 1986, as the miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths (1985–86), he was written out of continuity with John Byrne's miniseries The Man of Steel.

In Superman: Earth One (Volume 1), Kal-El crash-landed in Kansas and was discovered by Jonathan and Martha Kent, who barely managed to escape the site before the military arrived and took custody of his ship. When Jonathan and Martha revealed to Clark that he came to Earth in a spaceship, and that he was an alien, Jonathan gave Clark a piece of metal from his ship. At some point in Clark's teenage years, Jonathan died. Arriving at Metropolis, he tries out several jobs: pro footballer, Major League baseball player, and positions in a scientific research company, and in financial services and media industries. His last job stop is at the Daily Planet newspaper. The metal piece of Clark's rocket, emits some kind of energy and Clark discovers Kryptonian symbols in the fragment's atoms. Just as this is happening, an invading alien force suddenly arrives and attacks Earth's major cities. After he stops the invasion, Clark returns to the Daily Planet, and presents Perry White an interview he wrote about the new hero. Amazed by Clark's story, Perry gives him a job as a reporter. Perry promotes Clark to write articles to help rebuild the Daily Planet‍ 's reputation. Lois is suspicious of Clark and the authenticity of his Superman article, so she decides to investigate his past. In Volume 2, a week later, Perry promotes Clark to write articles to help rebuild the Daily Planet‍'s reputation. Lois Lane is suspicious of Clark and the authenticity of his Superman article, so she decides to investigate his past. Clark later meets his neighbors Lisa Lasalle, whom he starts dating. Superman later goes head to head with the villain Parasite, whom he defeats with the help of warsuit, in which he can fight Parasite on equal terms. In Volume 3, Lois subsequently warns Superman that she learned from her uncle, a United Nations delegate, that the U.N is developing fail-safes against Superman. She later reveals that she has ceased her investigation because she now sees Clark is a decent person of good character, and not the type of person to fabricate a story. Superman later meets another super-powered being, named Zod-El, who says he is Superman’s biological uncle. Zod claims that he has been searching for Kal-El ever since Krypton exploded. Superman later discovers that Zod not only intends to kill Superman but has convinced the world's governments that he is an enemy. After Zod's death, Superman announces that although he is disappointed that the United Nations aligned against him, it will not deter him from his mission to protect Earth. Seeing their fear, Superman asks Lois to be his political conscience.

Superman
Bruce Wayne Batman is not significantly changed by the late 1950s for the new continuity. Batman is not significantly updated in the manner of other characters until Detective Comics #327 (May 1964), in which Batman reverts to his detective roots, with most science-fiction elements jettisoned from the series. Details of Batman's history were altered or expanded upon through the decades. Additions include his upbringing by his uncle Philip Wayne after his parents' death. In 1969, Bruce moves from his mansion, Wayne Manor into a penthouse apartment atop the Wayne Foundation building in downtown Gotham City, in order to be closer to Gotham City's crime. Batman spends the 1970s and early 1980s mainly working solo, with occasional team-ups with Robin and/or Batgirl. Batman's adventures also become somewhat darker and more grim during this period, depicting increasingly violent crime. This version of Batman remained in publication until 1986, as the miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths (1985–86), he was written out of continuity.

In Batman: Earth One (Volume 1), Bruce Wayne is the eight-year-old son of Dr. Thomas Wayne, a mayoral candidate for Gotham City, and Martha Wayne (née Arkham). During an outing with his parents, Bruce is taken hostage by a mugger. He demands that the Waynes pay a ransom for the return of their son and as Thomas tries to intervene and the criminal shoots them both in front of Bruce. As a teenager, Bruce befriends his classmate, Jessica Dent, and develops a rivalry with her twin brother, Harvey Dent. He also learns about Arkham Manor, where his mother lived as a child. Bruce later convinces his guardian Alfred to train him in various forms of martial arts and acrobatics. Bruce also learns investigative techniques. Following this training, he discovers evidence that Mayor Oswald Cobblepot was involved in his parents' assassination. In his mid-twenties, Bruce dons a bat-themed costume as a disguise, inspired by his pre-training experience at Wayne Manor. Following an altercation between Cobblepot's bodyguards and Bruce at a function organized by the mayor, Bruce's alter ego is named "Batman" by the press and the topic becomes a public sensation. In a subsequent confrontation between Batman and Cobblepot, the mayor reveals that he intended to murder the Waynes, but the couple ran into the mugger instead. Cobblepot then prepares to kill an unmasked Bruce but is fatally shot by Alfred. Bruce is left disappointed by the truth behind his parents' death, but with Alfred's encouragement, decides that he will continue on to refine his new persona as Batman. In Volume 2, six months later, after losing track of one of the drug dealers he fought during a car chase, Wayne had Lucius Fox to build him a custom-made race car. A mysterious serial killer who calls himself "The Riddler," is murdering people in Gotham, hoping to get Batman’s attention. Seeing Gordon’s excellence as a detective, Batman asks Gordon to train him in forensics and deduction. Bruce is later accused of being the Riddler after the real one frames him in an attempt to divert James Gordon's investigation, but Jessica Dent, who knows about Brice's double identity, is able to provide Bruce an alibi so he is not arrested. After chasing the Riddler Batman subdues the killer. After he is cleared of all charges, Bruce generously writes a check to help the city's police department rebuild their precinct.

Batman
N/A Tyrell In Superman: Earth One (Volume 1), Tyrell is the genocidal leader of an alien armada from the planet Dheron, a neighboring world of the destroyed planet Krypton. He invades Earth and aims to kill Krypton's last survivor or to destroy most of humanity if he does not reveal himself. After killing millions of natives, his target finally revealed himself against him. Tyrell dies when he is impaled by a sharp piece of falling equipment after his battle with Clark. Before he dies, Tyrell warns Clark that other Dheronians will also try to find and eliminate him. He has some of the same powers as Clark under a yellow sun.
Raymond Maxwell Jensen Coming soon

In Superman: Earth One (Volume 2), Jensen was a troubled youth who bullied his classmates and mutilated animals. During his adult years he would become a criminal who would do anything to get what he wanted. After an accident at S.T.A.R. Labs, he becomes a serial-killing metahuman with the ability to absorb energy and life force through physical contact and to convert that energy into health and power for himself. By absorbing Superman's life force, he gains his powers and renders the Man of Steel powerless. Later, the two fight once again, until Jensen's sister arrives, only to be unwillingly murdered by him, who then blamed her death on Superman. He was later defeated by Superman, arrested and is currently under the military's custody.

Parasite
Alexis "Lex" Luthor Alexander Luthor

Alexandra "Lex" Luthor

Luthor grew up in the suburbs of Smallville with his parents and sister. As a teenager, Luthor learned about the existence of Smallville's own hometown hero, Superboy. After a fire in his lab, which resulted in loosing both his hair and all of his experiments. Superboy saved him from the fire but Luthor accused the hero of destroying his experiments on purpose out of jealousy. From that moment onward, Lex Luthor became the sworn enemy of Superboy. Fearing that their son would never reform his ways, Lex's parents decided to move away from Smallville and changed their name to "Thorul" in hopes to raise their daughter in a relatively peaceful life away from the evil Lex. During one of his outer space explorations Lex would find Lexor, a planet which would become his primary refuge from the rest of the galaxy. The people of Lexor accepted Lex as their hero and First citizen. Lex would mostly settle down on Lexor taking a wife, Adora, and fathering a son. Lex would largely remain on Lexor until the planet was destroyed by his really never-ending battle with Superman.

In Superman: Earth One (Volume 2), Alexander Luthor has a genius intellect surpassing most people but has trouble relating to people. An inventor with degrees in many fields, specializing in particle physics, he married Alexandra, a xenobiologist who had an intellect rivaling his own. The two started their own consulting firm, jokingly calling it "Lex-squared" after their common nickname. Major Lee recruits the wealthy couple of scientists, as independent contractors, to initially study Superman's ship, and later on find a way to neutralize Superman, in case he would pose a threat to national security. Alexander actively argues with his wife on the subject of researching ways to kill Superman, believing it is distasteful but Alexandra, who is the more aggressive of the two, sees it as an intellectual exercise. In Volume 3, the couple figures out that Superman is vulnerable to red solar radiation. During a battle between Superman and Zod, Alexander sacrifices himself helping Superman and succeeds to greatly weaken Zod with his red solar weapon. Alexandra, consumed by rage and grief, murders Zod but blames Superman for her husband's death. She then vows to dedicate her life to destroy him. She subsequently places her husband's corpse in suspended animation and takes Zod's green kryptonite from his ship.

Lex Luthor
Dru-Zod Zod-El Zod is a megalomaniacal Kryptonian, in charge of the military forces on Krypton. He knew Jor-El, when he was an aspiring scientist. When the space program was abolished after the destruction of the inhabited moon Wegthor, he attempted to take over Krypton. He was sentenced to exile in the Phantom Zone for 40 years for his crimes. Zod was eventually released by Superboy when his term of imprisonment was up. However, he attempted to conquer Earth with his superpowers acquired under the yellow sun. With his threat now obvious, Superboy was forced to oppose him and ultimately returned him to the Zone.

In Superman: Earth One (Volume 3), Zod-El was a Kryptonian soldier, the brother of Jor-El and the one responsible for Krypton's destruction. Starting a coup against the Science Council, Zod went behind his brother's help to no avail, starting a long and painful civil war that lasted six months until Zod's forces were on the run and Zod himself forced to flee Krypton to avoid arrest. On his defeat, Zod went towards Krypton's old enemy, the Dheronians, and gave them the means of finally destroy Krypton, and in return they will hunt any surviving Kryptonian and, should they fail, Zod will do it himself. He arrived Earth sometime after Tyrell's defeat at the hands of Superman. To gain Kal-El's trust, he purposely placed several lives at stake in order to stage the idea that he, too, arrived to help, immediately gaining the trust of his nephew. Luring Kal to a trap, he intended to use his longtime saved Kryptonite in order to finally kill him, but Superman outsmarted him and destroyed his protective Skin-Suit, forcing him to seal the Kryptonite while Kal escaped. Later when Zod was ready to kill Kal-El, Alexander Luthor shot him with his red solar weapon leaving him completely powerless but before that Zod was able to deliver a fatal stroke to Alexander. Being powerless, Zod was later killed by the revengeful wife of Alexander.

General Zod

Zor-El

Oswald Cobblepot Coming soon

In Batman: Earth One (Volume 1), Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot was the mayoral competition for Dr. Thomas Wayne. Cobblepot holds a grudge against the Wayne family, believing the Waynes have disgraced the Cobblepot legacy. He planed for the Waynes to be murdered, but was not ultimately responsible for their death. He is the current, corrupt mayor of Gotham City, whom Batman fights against. When Batman confronts him, he sticks Batman with a trick stiletto from his umbrella then he removes Batman's cowl, finding out that Batman is Bruce Wayne. Fortunately, Alfred arrives on the scene and empties two barrels into Cobblepot's chest. The blast sent Cobblepot's body out of the window where he landed into the street below. After his death, his crimes were finally outed to the public.

Penguin
Harvey Dent Harvey Dent

Jessica Dent

Coming soon

In Batman: Earth One (Volume 1), Harvey Dent along with his twin sister Jessica were friends with young Bruce Wayne from preparatory school, though Harvey had a rather antagonistic relationship with him. In their adult years, Harvey becomes Gotham City's District Attorney, and Jessica is the president of the city's board of supervisors. After taking office, the two were known for investigating Mayor Oswald Cobblepot due to rumors of his illicit activities. Jessica was appointed Mayor of Gotham City after the death of Cobblepot. In Volume 2, Jessica discovers that Bruce is Batman, and they each reciprocate the romantic affection they had for each other since childhood. Harvey is later murdered by former Cobblepot henchman, Sal Maroni, during a prison riot, having a molotov cocktail smashed into his face after being stabbed in the back with a knife. Seconds before he dies, his grieving sister puts the left side of her own face onto his, burning her. After the incident, it is implied she has developed a dissociative identity disorder; half of the personality she refined is based of her late brother's.

Two-Face
Edward Nigma Unknown Coming soon

In Batman: Earth One (Volume 1), Riddler is a serial killer who is obsessed with riddles and targets Batman, attempting to learn his secret identity to satiate his curiosity. In Volume 2, it is revealed that he once worked as Oswald Cobblepott's lieutenants, and is targeting his fellow members, staging a coup to take over Cobblepott's criminal empire. He starts murdering people in Gotham, hoping to get Batman's attention. Using discovered clues, Batman deduces that these killings were not random. Bruce Wayne is later accused of being the Riddler after the real Riddler frames him in an attempt to divert James Gordon's investigation. He was subsequently arrested by the Gotham City Police Department alongside Maroni, and brought up on 43 charges of murder.

Riddler

In other media[edit]

Batman's Earth-One costume is available for download in Batman Arkham City.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1960s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. This classic Silver Age story resurrected the Golden Age Flash and provided a foundation for the Multiverse from which he and the Silver Age Flash would hail. 
  2. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Infantino, Carmine (p), Giella, Joe (i). "Flash of Two Worlds!" The Flash 123 (September 1961)
  3. ^ Siegel, Jerry (w), Shuster, Joe (p), Shuster, Joe (i). "The Origin of Superboy" More Fun Comics 101 (January–February 1945)
  4. ^ Hamilton, Edmond (w), Swan, Curt (p), Fischetti, John; Kaye, Stan (i). "The Mightiest Team in the World!" Superman 76 (May–June 1952)
  5. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 73: "Jimmy Olsen got his own adventures in Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen #1. A comic remarkable for its inventiveness and longevity, it ran for 163 issues."
  6. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 77: "The Martian called J'onn J'onzz debuted as a regular feature in Detective Comics #225. 'The Strange Experiment of Dr. Erdel', by writer Joe Samachson and artist Joe Certa, gave the origin for the lonely Martian Manhunter."
  7. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 80: "The arrival of the second incarnation of the Flash in [Showcase] issue #4 is considered to be the official start of the Silver Age of comics."
  8. ^ Fradon, Ramona (p)Fradon, Ramona (i)"Aquaman's Undersea Partner" Adventure Comics 229 (October 1956)
  9. ^ Herron, France (w), Papp, George (p), Papp, George (i). "The Rainbow Archer" Adventure Comics 246 (March 1958)
  10. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 90: "Wonder Woman's origin story and character was given a Silver Age revamp, courtesy of writer Robert Kanigher and artist Ross Andru."
  11. ^ Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 95: "DC had decided to revamp a number of characters to inject new life into the genre. Writer John Broome and artist Gil Kane ensured that Green Lantern got his turn in October [1959]'s Showcase #22."
  12. ^ Fox, Gardner (w), Kubert, Joe (p), Kubert, Joe (i). "Creature of a Thousand Shapes!" The Brave and the Bold 34 (February–March 1961)
  13. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "The Atom was the next Golden Age hero to receive a Silver Age makeover from writer Gardner Fox and artist Gil Kane."
  14. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
  15. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 146 "It was taboo to depict drugs in comics, even in ways that openly condemned their use. However, writer Denny O'Neil and artist Neal Adams collaborated on an unforgettable two-part arc that brought the issue directly into Green Arrow's home, and demonstrated the power comics had to affect change and perception."
  16. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 153: "Following his debut in House of Secrets #92 in 1971, the Swamp Thing grew into his own series, albeit with a reimagining of his origins by writer Len Wein and artist Bernie Wrightson."
  17. ^ Thomas, Roy; Thomas, Dann (w), McFarlane, Todd (p), Montano, Steve (i). "Last Crisis on Earth-Two" Infinity, Inc. 19 (October 1985)
  18. ^ Conway, Gerry (w), Staton, Joe (p), Machlan, Mike (i). "The Final Crisis" Justice League of America 244 (November 1985)
  19. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Pérez, George (p), Ordway, Jerry (i). "Death at the Dawn of Time" Crisis on Infinite Earths 10 (January 1986)
  20. ^ Gerber, Steve (w), Veitch, Rick (p), Smith, Bob (i). "Phantom Zone: The Final Chapter" DC Comics Presents 97 (September 1986)
  21. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 220: "In 'Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?', a two-part story written by Alan Moore and illustrated by Curt Swan, the adventures of the Silver Age Superman came to a dramatic close."
  22. ^ Moore, Alan (w), Swan, Curt (p), Pérez, George (i). "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" Superman 423 (September 1986)
  23. ^ Moore, Alan (w), Swan, Curt (p), Schaffenberger, Kurt (i). "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" Action Comics 583 (September 1986)
  24. ^ Johns, Geoff; Morrison, Grant; Rucka, Greg; Waid, Mark (w), Giffen, Keith; Barrows, Eddy; Batista, Chris; Justiniano; McKone, Mike; Olliffe, Patrick; Robertson, Darick (p), Geraci, Drew; Lanning, Andy; Ramos, Rodney; Robertson, Darick; Wong, Walden (i). "A Year in the Life" 52 52 (May 2, 2007)
  25. ^ Johns, Geoff; Frank, Gary (July 2012). Batman: Earth One. DC Comics. p. 144. ISBN 978-1401232085. 
  26. ^ Straczynski, J. Michael; Davis, Shane (October 2010). Superman: Earth One. DC Comics. p. 144. ISBN 978-1401224684. 
  27. ^ Straczynski, J. Michael; Davis, Shane (November 2012). Superman: Earth One Vol. 2. DC Comics. p. 136. ISBN 978-1401231965. 
  28. ^ "DCU in 2010: Welcome to Earth One". DC Comics. December 7, 2009. Archived from the original on September 1, 2012. Retrieved September 1, 2012. 
  29. ^ Jackson, Leah (August 1, 2011). "New Batman Arkham City Bonus Costumes Revealed -- Earth One, The Animated Series, Batman Beyond, And More". G4. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.