Earth Observing-1

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Earth Observing-1
EO-1 (transparent).png
Mission type Earth observation
Operator NASA / GSFC
COSPAR ID 2000-075A
SATCAT no. 26619
Mission duration Planned: 1 year
Final: 16 years, 4 months, 8 days
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer Swales Aerospace
Northrop Grumman
Launch mass 573 kg (1,263 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 21 November 2000, 18:24:25 (2000-11-21UTC18:24:25) UTC[1]
Rocket Delta II 7320-10C, D282[1]
Launch site Vandenberg SLC-2W
End of mission
Disposal Decommissioned
Deactivated 30 March 2017 (2017-03-31)
Decay date 2056 (estimated)
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Sun-synchronous
Semi-major axis 7,058 km (4,386 mi)
Eccentricity 0.00071
Perigee 690 km (430 mi)
Apogee 700 km (430 mi)
Inclination 98.21nbsp;degrees
Period 98.7 minutes
Epoch 21 November 2000, 08:24:00 UTC[2]
Advanced Land Imager (ALI)
Hyperspectral Imager (Hyperion)
Atmospheric Corrector

Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) is a NASA Earth observation satellite created to develop and validate a number of instrument and spacecraft bus breakthrough technologies. These will enable the development of future Earth imaging observatories that will have a significant increase in performance while also having reduced cost and mass. The spacecraft is part of the New Millennium Program.

Its Advanced Land Imager (ALI) measures nine different wavelengths simultaneously, instead of the seven measured by the imager in Landsat 7. This permits a greater flexibility in false-color imagery. Another improvement is that instead of having an imaging spectrometer that sweeps from side to side, the ALI has a linear array of spectrometers that each scan a strip of ground parallel to that of adjacent spectrometers. In order to compare the two imagers, EO-1 follows Landsat 7 in its orbit by exactly one minute. Other new technologies include:

EO-1 has also been used to test new software, like the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment. This allows the spacecraft to decide for itself how best to create a desired image. It is only limited by a priority list of different types of images, and by forecasts of cloud cover provided by the NOAA.

It was expected to function for twelve months and was designed to function for eighteen months. Those expectations were greatly exceeded[3] however the hydrazine fuel was mostly depleted in February 2011. Small maneuvers were successful for debris avoidance but long duration burns for orbit maintenance could not be performed due to insufficient fuel.[4]

EO-1 was deactivated on 30 March 2017. At its current altitude, it is estimated that the satellite will remain in orbit until the 2050s, when it will burn up in Earth's atmosphere.[5][6]


  1. ^ a b Ray, Justin (22 November 2000). "Delta 2 rocket puts three satellites into Earth orbit". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  2. ^ "EO 1 - Trajectory Details". National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  3. ^ Riebeek, Holli (22 November 2010). "Earth Observing-1: Ten Years of Innovation". NASA. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  4. ^ EO-1 Phase F Report
  5. ^ Clark, Stephen (1 April 2017). "Pioneering Earth observation satellite retired by NASA". Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  6. ^ Boyle, Rebecca (6 April 2017). "Our Planet's Eye in the Sky Finally Closes". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 

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