Earth Observing System

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth. The satellite component of the program was launched in 1997. The program is centerpiece of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE).

Mission list with launch dates[edit]

NASA Earth Science Division Operating Missions as of 2 February 2015.
This animation shows the orbits of NASA's 2011 fleet of Earth remote sensing observatories
Active Mission Completed Mission
Satellite Launch Date Designed Life Completion Date Launch Site Agency Mission description
ACRIMSAT 20 December 1999 30 July 2014 Vandenberg NASA Study Total Solar Irradiance
ADEOS I 17 August 1996 30 June 1997 Tanegashima NASA / NASDA Study wind scattering and map the ozone layer
ADEOS II (Midori II) 14 December 2002 24 October 2003 Tanegashima JAXA  / NASA Monitor the water and energy cycle as a part of the global climate system
ATS-3 7 December 1966 3 years 1 December 1978[1] Cape Canaveral NASA Weather observation
ATLAS-1 24 March 1992 2 April 1992 NASA Unravel man's impact on the environment
CHAMP 15 July 2000 5 years 19 September 2010 Plesetsk 132/1 GFZ Atmospheric and ionospheric research
CRRES 25 July 1990 3 years 12 October 1991 Cape Canaveral NASA Investigate fields, plasmas, and energetic particles inside the magnetosphere
DE 1 and DE 2 3 August 1981 28 February 1991 and 19 February 1983 Vandenberg NASA Investigate the interactions between plasmas in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere
ERBS 5 October 1984 2 years 14 October 2005 Cape Canaveral NASA Study the Earth's radiation budget and stratospheric aerosol and gases
ESSA program 1966 - 1969 Cape Canaveral ESSA / NASA Provide cloud-cover photography
ERS-1 17 July 1991 March 2000 Kourou ESA Measure wind speed and direction and ocean wave parameters
SeaWiFS 1 August 1997 1 August 2002 11 December 2010 Vandenberg GeoEye / NASA Provide quantitative data on global ocean bio-optical properties
TRMM 27 November 1997 27 November 2000 9 April 2015 Tanegashima NASA / JAXA Monitor and study tropical rainfall
Landsat 7 15 April 1999 Active Vandenberg NASA Supply the world with global land surface images
QuikSCAT 19 June 1999 19 June 2002 19 November 2009 Vandenberg NASA / JPL Acquire global radar cross-sections and near-surface vector winds
Terra (EOS-AM) 18 December 1999 18 December 2005 Active Vandenberg NASA Provide global data on the state of the atmosphere, land, and oceans
NMP/EO-1 21 November 2000 Active Vandenberg NASA Demonstrate new technologies and strategies for improved Earth observations
Jason 1 7 December 2001 1 July 2013 Vandenberg NASA / CNES Provide information on ocean surface current velocity and heights
Meteor 3M-1/Sage III  10 December 2001 6 March 2006 Baikonur Roscosmos Provide accurate, long-term measurements of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, and other key parameters of Earth's atmosphere
GRACE 17 March 2002 Active Plesetsk Cosmodrome NASA / DLR Measure Earth's mean and time-variable gravity field
Aqua 4 May 2002 4 May 2008 Active Vandenberg NASA Collect water information in the Earth system
ICESat 12 January 2003 14 August 2010 Vandenberg NASA Measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, and land topography and vegetation characteristics
SORCE 25 January 2003 Active Cape Canaveral NASA Improve our understanding of the Sun
Aura 15 July 2004 15 July 2010 Active Vandenberg NASA Investigate questions about ozone trends, air-quality changes and their linkage to climate change
CloudSat 28 April 2006 28 April 2009 Active Vandenberg NASA Provide the first direct, global survey of the vertical structure and overlap of cloud systems and their liquid and ice-water contents
CALIPSO 28 April 2006 Active Vandenberg NASA / CNES Improve understanding of the role aerosols and clouds play in regulating the Earth’s climate
SMAP 31 January 2015 31 May 2018 Active Vandenberg NASA Measure surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw state
OCO-2 2 July 2014 2 July 2019 Active Vandenberg NASA Provide space-based global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide
Aquarius 10 June 2011 17 June 2015 [2] Vandenberg NASA  / CONAE Map the spatial and temporal variations of sea surface salinity
Landsat 8 11 February 2013 11 February 2018 Active Vandenberg NASA / USGS Supply the world with global land surface images

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]