Earthquake Early Warning (Japan)

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Earthquake Early Warning in Japan: When two or more Seismometers[1] detect P-waves (upper), the JMA immediately analyzes the readings and distributes the warning information to advanced users such as; broadcasting stations and mobile phone companies, before the arrival of S-waves (lower).

The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) (緊急地震速報 Kinkyū Jishin Sokuhō?) is a warning issued just after an earthquake in Japan is detected.[2] The warnings are issued mainly by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), along with tips on how to react to the warnings.[3][4]

External audio
The alarm of the Earthquake Early Warning on TVs or radios of NHK[5] by ja:伊福部達[6]
The sign sounds of the Earthquake Early Warning by REIC[7]

Introduction[edit]

The JMA has two Earthquake Early Warning schemes. One is for the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services [8] and the other is for the general public.[9] Upon detection of a P-wave from any two or more of the 4,235 seismometers installed throughout Japan (as of 1 April 2010), the JMA automatically analyzes and predicts the rough area of the earthquake's epicenter. These rough predictions allow the JMA to warn people in affected prefectures through TV and radio if strong shaking is expected.[9]

An Earthquake Early Warning alert (緊急地震速報(警報)) is issued to the general public when an earthquake of Japan seismic scale 5-lower or higher is expected.[10] An Earthquake Early Warning forecast (緊急地震速報(予報)) is issued to the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services when an earthquake of Japan seismic scale 3 or higher, or magnitude 3.5 or more is expected, or when a measurement of more than a 100 gals is detected in the amplitude of P-wave or S-wave.[10]

The Earthquake Early Warning is set up to aid people in minimizing damages caused by an earthquake: people may take shelter or move away from dangerous areas such as cliffs. Railway workers use this warning to slow down trains, and factory workers may use it to stop assembly lines before the shaking reaches them.[2]

The effectiveness of a warning depends on the position of the receiver. After receiving a warning, a person may have few seconds to a minute or more to take action. Areas near the epicenter may experience strong tremors before any warning.[11]

After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, the early warning system, along with Japan's tsunami warning system, was considered to be effective.[12] Although the tsunami killed over 10,000 people, many more people would have lost their lives without the early warning system.[original research?]

In April 2011, the Chilean Subsecretary of Telecommunications disclosed that they also hope to establish a similar earthquake early warning system.[13]

Hit rate[edit]

The JMA announced the hit rate of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) on 31 May 2012, for the end of fiscal year 2011. The hit rate is defined as the percentage occurrence of the warning issued immediately upon P-waves detected having a Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale (震度 shindo?) number (range 0 to 7) that falls within plus-minus 1 Magnitude-Shindo Number of ten Magnitude-Shindo Numbers measured for that earthquake.[14]

  • Fiscal year 2007: 75%
  • Fiscal year 2008: 82%
  • Fiscal year 2009: 76%
  • Fiscal year 2010: 28%
  • Fiscal year 2011: 56%

For the fiscal years 2007 to 2009 the hit rate was recorded as over 75%. In the fiscal year 2010 the hit rate came down to 28% due to the number of successive aftershocks after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami which occurred near the end of fiscal year 2010. The hit rate for that year had been 72% until the Tohoku earthquake. Measurement techniques have subsequently been refined to ignore small scale earthquakes; the hit rate for the fiscal year 2011 increased to 56%. The JMA aims to increase hit rate over 85% in fiscal year 2015.

Format of EEW broadcasts[edit]

Television[edit]

On NHK television channels and other Japanese TV broadcasters [15][16] (Analog TV and ISDB-T including 1seg), an alert consists of a message window that flashes on the screen showing the earthquake epicenter and the areas most vulnerable to strong tremors. At the same time, two sets of chimes sound, after which a voice announces in Japanese:

The announcement above is used by the NHK and Tokyo MX, whilst Nippon TV and TBS simply abbreviate it to "Kinkyū Jishin Sokuhō desu". Fuji Television and Terebi Asahi both sound a set of chimes, but do not use a voice announcement.

These alerts also inform viewers whether or not there is a risk of a landslide or tsunami caused by the quake in the affected area. If tsunami warnings are issued, the Emergency Warning Broadcast system utilizes 1seg to automatically turn on (and tune to NHK) all radios and televisions with 1seg technology in the areas at risk. All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small populations who speak these languages), as well as Japanese, as of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[17]

Mobile phone networks[edit]

Japan's three major mobile phone carriers, NTT docomo, au (KDDI and Okinawa Cellular) and SoftBank Mobile, have developed simultaneous broadcast systems to allow multiple users to receive an SMS telling of the EEW ('Cell Broadcast').[18][19][20]

It is now mandatory for 3G cellular phones that were put on the market after 2007 to receive this service, though overseas manufacturers (Nokia, Apple, HTC, LG, Samsung, etc.) are not supported. In August 2011, Apple announced that its iOS 5 iPhone platform will support early warning notification.[21] Also REMOTEGUN.com mentioned a new technology of earthquake early warning systems would be released in the 2nd quarter of 2015. New earthquake early warning technology method.

NTT docomo[edit]

EEW is enabled by default on all models of the FOMA 905i series (FOMA 905iシリーズ?) released on 26 November 2007, some FOMA High-Speed models of the FOMA 705i series (FOMA 705iシリーズ?) released in February 2008 and all the newer models.[22][23]

au[edit]

EEW is enabled on all models newer than spring 2008, including W61CA, W61H, W61K, W61SA, W61SH, W62SA and a few smartphone models, such as IS02 (TSI01). KDDI and Okinawa Cellular started EEW broadcast via au's Short Message Service called C-mail (ja:Cメール?) for free on 25 March 2008.[24]

SoftBank Mobile[edit]

On 30 May 2007, SoftBank announced development of an EEW broadcast system similar to those of NTT docomo and au.[25] Deployment of this system was originally planned in the fiscal year 2008 but postponed for two years. On 25 August 2010, EEW service started in all areas of the Kansai region, Tokai region, Tohoku region (seven prefectures), Chugoku region, and Shikoku region as well as limited areas of the Kanto region. The EEW broadcast network covers the whole country since 7 December 2010. As of March 2011, ja:SoftBank 831N is the only model that supports EEW, although more models are expected to support EEW after summer 2010.

Other[edit]

RC Solution Co. developed an iPhone application named "Yurekuru Call for iPhone" to receive EEW, which is distributed on the Apple App Store for free; the application is now also available for Android. Notification of an EEW might be delayed or blocked if communication lines are congested.[26][27] The Japan-localized version of iOS 5 for iPhone has built-in EEW functionality.

Radio receivers[edit]

FM radio type, Iris Ohyama Model:EQA-001, front view (upper), rear view (Lower)

The specific and common chime tone from FM stations is automatically detected internally and turns on the radio (if in sleep mode) and loudly sounds a chime tone and EEW message before shaking occurs by S-wave. Once the S-wave has been analyzed, detailed information on the earthquake, such as its seismic scale and the areas under threat, is announced.

These receivers utilize EEW broadcast from radio stations and are free of specific information fees or connection fees. EEW radio waves can be received even in areas where no broadband Internet access is available. The quality of service, rapidity, and service area may vary from station to station.

Radio Stations with the EEW System[edit]

Cable television[edit]

A rental EEW receiver of JCN Funabashi-Narashino

Japanese cable TV stations offer affordable EEW services. For example, Japan Cablenet (ja:ジャパンケーブルネット?) (JCN) rents out a receiver that receives EEW for advanced users and notifies the user of the estimated Shindo scale and the remaining time (0 to 5 seconds).[34][35] Some cable TV stations also broadcast EEW on community radio FM and provide equipment to prefectural and municipal facilities for free.

Internet[edit]

Weathernews Inc. (ja:ウェザーニューズ?), a weather information company, started a paid service to broadcast EEW for advanced users, The Last 10-Second, targeted at individuals and businesses on 15 October 2007.[36][37][38] This service requires a computer running Windows 2000 or later with an always-on connection to the Internet and offers an affordable alternative to a costly communication terminal used exclusively for EEW. The EEW application installed on the computer can be configured to receive information on all earthquakes with a JMA magnitude of 3.5 or higher or with a seismic intensity of 3 or higher. Newer versions of the program allow for the announcement of lower-intensity earthquakes. When an EEW warning is issued, the program will announce the approximate location of the epicenter, the expected JMA seismic intensity and display a countdown of when major shaking is to be expected.

After the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, a similar Windows program was made available for free by the Strategy Corporation (ja:ストラテジー株式会社) called SignalNow Express.[39]

On 7 July 2008, ANET Co., Ltd. (ja:ANET アネット?), a disaster prevention technology company of the Railway Technical Research Institute Group, released an application, EQMessenger, to receive ANET Alert, which ciphers and broadcasts EEW information on the epicenter, the estimated seismic intensity at the user's location, and the remaining time before the arrival of the S-wave.[40] When the estimated seismic intensity exceeds the preset level, EQMessenger can sound a warning and display the epicenter, the intensity estimation point, and the arrival of the tremor on a pop-up map.

Identification of EEW capable devices[edit]

The current Earthquake Early Warning logo used by the Japan Meteorological Agency uses a yellow catfish known as a Namazu (鯰). Many earthquake preparedness activities in Japan use the catfish as a mascot, as Japanese lore suggested that earthquakes were caused by a giant catfish making tremors, or that the sight of catfish foretold of earthquakes.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 地震・津波と火山の監視・予測 [Monitoring and prediction of earthquake, tsunami and volcano] (PDF) (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. Retrieved 2011-04-03. Seismometers installed at 4,235 locations are working throughout Japan as of 1 April 2010 (per right side figure on page 1) 
  2. ^ a b "What is the Earthquake Early Warning (or "緊急地震速報 (Kinkyu Jishin Sokuho)" in Japanese)?". Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  3. ^ "Earthquake Early Warning Starting 1 October 2007" (PDF). Japan Meteorological Agency. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  4. ^ "How to respond to earthquake early warnings" (in Japanese). NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation). Retrieved 2009-05-09. 
  5. ^ giving guidelines
  6. ^ Sankei-MSN News (2011-05-01 21:55) "The Earthquake Early Warning - the chime contained the tone of pains, even examined the 'Godzilla'" http://sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/news/110501/dst11050121570027-n1.htm
  7. ^ guidelines for use
  8. ^ http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/en/NMHS/indexe_nmhs.html
  9. ^ a b 緊急地震速報について|緊急地震速報の内容 (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  10. ^ a b 緊急地震速報のしくみと予報・警報 [About EEW alert and forecast] (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  11. ^ 緊急地震速報とは (in Japanese). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  12. ^ Amitabh Sinha (2011-03-12). "Early warning system saved Japan worst of tsunami wrath". Indian Express. 
  13. ^ "The Japanese earthquake pushed ISDB-T alert system in Chile". NexTV Latam, TV Telco Latam. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  14. ^ 平成24年報道発表資料 [Fiscal year 2012 (Heisei 24) press release, Material No.2 FY 2011 (Heisei 23) task review report] (PDF) (in Japanese). Tokyo: JMA. 2012-05-31. p. 25/147 sheet, page 2–15. Retrieved 2012-06-03. 
  15. ^ 4 Channels ran by NHK broadcasting the EEW simultaneously.
  16. ^ 8 Japanese Channels broadcasting the EEW simultaneously.
  17. ^ Tsunami Warning in multiple languages.
  18. ^ 緊急地震速報に対応した一斉同報配信基盤を開発(NTT docomo press release 30 May 2007)
  19. ^ 緊急地震速報に対応した一斉同報配信基盤を開発(KDDI news release 30 May 2007 )
  20. ^ 「緊急地震速報」について(SoftBank Mobile press release 30 May 2007)
  21. ^ http://9to5mac.com/2011/08/21/ios-5-includes-early-earthquake-warning-notifications-for-japanese-iphone-users/
  22. ^ CEATEC ドコモの905i、緊急地震速報を無償で受信可能に(Nikkei ITPro 2 October 2007)
  23. ^ 緊急速報「エリアメール」
  24. ^ 緊急地震速報の提供開始について KDDI Corporation
  25. ^ 「緊急地震速報」について SoftBank
  26. ^ ゆれくるコール"for iPhone サポートサイト RC Solution Co.
  27. ^ あと何秒で地震が来るか分かるiPhoneアプリに惚れた! Weekly ASCII PLUS, 30 November 2010
  28. ^ http://www.irisohyama.co.jp/news/2009/0820.html Iris Ohyama
  29. ^ http://www.irisohyama.co.jp/news/2010/0310.html Iris Ohyama
  30. ^ http://www.uniden.jp/products/ewr/ewr200.html Uniden
  31. ^ Bay FM's Earthquake Early Warning
  32. ^ Tokyo FM's Earthquake Early Warning
  33. ^ J-Wave's Earthquake Early Warning
  34. ^ 事例報告:地震の揺れが到達する前に緊急地震速報をお知らせしました! Kabushiki-gaisha JCN Funabashi-Narashino
  35. ^ 事例報告:地震の揺れが到達する前に緊急地震速報をお知らせしました! Kabushiki-gaisha Kamakura Cable Communications
  36. ^ 個人向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』10月15日から開始 (Weathernews Inc. press release 27 September 2007)
  37. ^ 個人向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』 Weathernews Inc.
  38. ^ 事業者向け緊急地震速報サービス『The Last 10-Second』 Weathernews Inc.
  39. ^ http://www.estrat.co.jp/download.html
  40. ^ 株式会社ANETが緊急地震速報受信ソフト EQMessenger:イーキューメッセンジャー)の発売を開始 ANET Co., Ltd.
  41. ^ [1]

External links[edit]