Ease of doing business index

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The ease of doing business index is an index created by the World Bank Group.[1] Higher rankings (a low numerical value) indicate better, usually simpler, regulations for businesses and stronger protections of property rights. Empirical research funded by the World Bank to justify their work show that the economic growth impact of improving these regulations is strong.[2]

"Empirical research is needed to establish the optimal level of business regulation—for example, what the duration of court procedures should be and what the optimal degree of social protection is. The indicators compiled in the Doing Business project allow such research to take place. Since the start of the project in November 2001, more than 800 academic papers have used one or more indicators constructed in Doing Business and the related background papers by its authors."[3]

Methodology[edit]

The index is based on the study of laws and regulations, with the input and verification by more than 9,600 government officials, lawyers, business consultants, accountants and other professionals in 185 economies who routinely advise on or administer legal and regulatory requirements.

The ease of doing business index is meant to measure regulations directly affecting businesses and does not directly measure more general conditions such as a nation's proximity to large markets, quality of infrastructure, inflation, or crime. A nation's ranking on the index is based on the average of 10 subindices:

  • Starting a business – Procedures, time, cost and minimum capital to open a new business
  • Dealing with construction permits – Procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse
  • Getting electricity – procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly constructed warehouse
  • Registering property – Procedures, time and cost to register commercial real estate
  • Getting credit – Strength of legal rights index, depth of credit information index
  • Protecting investors – Indices on the extent of disclosure, extent of director liability and ease of shareholder suits
  • Paying taxes – Number of taxes paid, hours per year spent preparing tax returns and total tax payable as share of gross profit
  • Trading across borders – Number of documents, cost and time necessary to export and import
  • Enforcing contracts – Procedures, time and cost to enforce a debt contract
  • Resolving insolvency – The time, cost and recovery rate (%) under bankruptcy proceeding

The Doing Business project also offers information on following datasets:

  • Distance to frontier - Shows the distance of each economy to the “frontier,” which represents the highest performance observed on each of the indicators across all economies included in Doing Business since each indicator was included in Doing Business
  • Entrepreneurship - Measures entrepreneurial activity. The data is collected directly from 130 company registrars on the number of newly registered firms over the past seven years
  • Good practices - Provide insights into how governments have improved the regulatory environment in the past in the areas measured by Doing Business
  • Transparency in business regulation - Data on the accessibility of regulatory information measures how easy it is to access fee schedules for 4 regulatory processes in the largest business city of an economy

For example, according to the Doing Business (DB) 2013 report, Canada ranked third on the first subindex "Starting a business" behind only New Zealand and Australia. In Canada there is 1 procedure required to start a business which takes on average 5 days to complete. The official cost is 0.4% of the gross national income per capita. There is no minimum capital requirement. By contrast, in Chad which ranked among the worst (181st out of 185) on this same subindex, there are 9 procedures required to start a business taking 62 days to complete. The official cost is 202% of the gross national income per capita. A minimum capital investment of 289.4% of the gross national income per capita is required.

While fewer and simpler regulations often imply higher rankings, this is not always the case. Protecting the rights of creditors and investors, as well as establishing or upgrading property and credit registries, may mean that more regulation is needed.

Research and influence[edit]

More than 800 academic papers have used data from the index.[4] The effect of improving regulations on economic growth is claimed to be very strong. Moving from the worst one-fourth of nations to the best one-fourth implies a 2.3 percentage point increase in annual growth.

The various sub-components of the index in themselves provide concrete suggestions for improvement. Many of them may be relatively easy to implement and uncontroversial (except perhaps among corrupt officials who may gain from onerous regulations requiring bribes to bypass). As such, the index has influenced many nations to improve their regulations. Several have explicitly targeted to reach a minimum position on the index, for example the top 25 list.

Somewhat similar annual reports are the Indices of Economic Freedom and the Global Competitiveness Report. They, especially the later, look at many more factors that affect economic growth, like inflation and infrastructure. These factors may however be more subjective and diffuse since many are measured using surveys and they may be more difficult to change quickly compared to regulations.

According to some critics, however, some of the research lacks the rigor of a coherent economic theory, contains unstated ideological biases, and too much of it is undertaken by individuals closely associated with the index and reforms, so it is not sufficiently independent to be fully credible.[5]

Doing Business Report[edit]

The Doing Business Report (DB) is a study elaborated by the World Bank Group since 2003 every year that is aimed to measure the costs to firms of business regulations in 185 countries. The study has become one of the flagship knowledge products of the World Bank Group in the field of private sector development, and is claimed to have motivated the design of several regulatory reforms in developing countries. The study presents every year a detailed analysis of costs, requirements and procedures a specific type of private firm is subject in all countries, and then, creates rankings for every country. The study is also backed up by broad communication efforts, and by creating rankings, the study spotlights countries and leaders that are promoting reforms.[6]

The DB has been widely known and used by academics, policy-makers, politicians, development experts, journalists and the business community to highlight red tape and promote reforms. As stated by the IEG study from the World Bank: “For country authorities, it sheds a bright, sometimes unflattering, light on regulatory aspects of their business climate. For business interests, it has helped to catalyze debates and dialogue about reform. For the World Bank Group, it demonstrates an ability to provide global knowledge, independent of resource transfer and conditionality. The annual exercise generates information that is relevant and useful.”.

Contents[edit]

In 2012, the study contains quantitative measures of regulations for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, getting an electricity connection and closing a business. As stated in the introduction of the study, “A fundamental premise of DB is that economic activity requires good rules. These include rules that establish and clarify property rights and reduce the costs of resolving disputes, rules that increase the predictability of economic interactions and rules that provide contractual partners with core protections against abuse”.

Origins[edit]

The Doing Business Report has its origins in a paper first published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics by Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes and Andrei Shleifer called “The Regulation of Entry” in 2002. The paper presented data on the regulation of entry of start-up firms in 85 countries covering the number of procedures, official time and official cost that a start-up must bear before it could operate legally. The main findings of the paper were that: “Countries with heavier regulation of entry have higher corruption and larger unofficial economies, but no better quality of public or private goods. Countries with more democratic and limited governments have lighter regulation of entry.” The paper became widely known because it provided quantitative evidence that entry regulation benefits politicians and bureaucrats without adding value to the private sector, or granting any additional protection.[7]

Since The Regulation of Entry was published, Simeon Djankov and Andrei Shleifer have published eight other academic studies, one for each set of indicators covered by the report.

Methodology[edit]

DB is above all, a benchmark study of regulation. The process of gathering data, is first based on a survey of over 8,000 expert contributors (lawyers, accountants etc.) in 183 countries who deal with business regulations in their day-to-day work. The surveys are not a statistical sample, and the results are interpreted and cross-checked for consistency before being included in the report. Results are also validated with the relevant government before publication. DB respondents fill out written surveys and provide references to the relevant laws, regulations and fees, based on standardized case scenarios with specific assumptions, such as the business being located in the largest business city of the economy. In most indicators, the case study refers to a small domestically-owned manufacturing company - hence the direct relevance of the indicators to foreign investors and large companies is limited.

DB uses a simple averaging approach for weighting sub-indicators and calculating rankings. A detailed explanation of every indicator can be found through the DB website, and a .xls archive that simulates reforms.

As stated in the main body of the DB 2010, some caveats regarding the rankings and main information presented have to be considered by every user of the report. Mainly:

  • DB does not measure all aspects of the business environment that matter to firm or investors, such as the macroeconomic conditions, or the level of employment, corruption, stability or poverty, in every country.
  • DB does not consider the strengths and weakness neither of the global financial system, nor the financial system of every country. It also doesn’t consider the state of the finances of the government of every country.
  • DB does not cover all the regulation, or all the regulatory requirements. Other types of regulation such as financial market, environment, or intellectual property regulations that are relevant for the private sector are not considered.

This is why, the DB is not a complete assessment of competitiveness or of the business environment of a country, and in any case, it should only be considered as a proxy of the regulatory framework faced by the private sector in a specific country.

Main Findings

According to the DB, regulation does matter for the development of the private sectors, and several reforms are suggested across the report in order to promote the development of the private sector and enable the business environment. Some highlighted findings of the DB are:

Evaluation[edit]

Doing Business is a controversial study, with passionate critics and devoted fans. As recognized by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank, “ Some have questioned the reliability and objectivity of its measurements. Others doubt the relevance of the issues it addresses or fear it may unduly dominate countries reform agendas at the expense of more crucial development objectives. And the attention given to the indicators may inadvertently signal that the World Bank Group values less burdensome business regulations more highly than its other strategies for poverty reduction and sustainable development.

According to Snodgrass, several limitations are present in the DB studies and have to be kept in mind when using the study:

  • The indicators and measures are referred to the costs, requirements and fees of doing business in the country’s largest business city; thus conditions elsewhere within the country may differ.
  • To achieve cross-country standardization respondents are asked to give estimates for a limited liability company of a specific size.[vague]Costs for other forms and scales of businesses may differ.
  • Transactions and fees to be cost out are very specifically defined. The costs of other types of transactions may differ.
  • The cost estimates come from individuals identified as expert respondents. Sometimes the estimates give by such individual may differ with other experts and with public officials. If so, the responses are cross-checked for consistency.
  • The estimates assume that a business knows what is required and does not waste time. Satisfying regulatory requirements will obviously take longer if the business lacks information or is unable to follow up promptly. A related point here is that DB may not understand “work-arounds”, “facilitating fees”, and “learning time” that speed or delay approvals and causes variation costs.

Related studies[edit]

Published now for twelve years, the DB has originated a growing body of research on how performance on DB indicators, and reforms generated by the reports, related to specific development desirable outcomes. As stated by the DB 2010, about “405 articles have been published in peer-reviewed academic journals and about 1143 working papers are available through Google Scholar”.

The DB has acknowledged the limitation of getting data from one city to give information and a ranking valid for all the country. Several regional and sub-national studies have been carried out using the Doing Business methodology to assess variations within countries and regions across different cities, including sub-national studies for countries like Brazil, Mexico and Colombia and regional studies for the Caribbean, the Arab World, Bulgaria and other south eastern European countries. All studies are available from the DB website.

DB sometimes unintentionally has been widely used as a study to measure competitiveness. However, regulation rather than competitiveness is the main objective in the DB. Other studies that are also used to measure competitiveness and recognized as business enabling environment ranking systems are the Global Competitiveness Index, the Index of Economic Freedom, and the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, among others.[8]

Motivating reforms[edit]

Several countries have launched reforms to improve their rankings in the DB.[citation needed] These efforts are motivated to a great scope by the fact that the World Bank Group publishes the data, and hence huge coverage by the media and the private sector is usually granted every year. Also DB highlights every year the successful reforms carried out by every country.

The World Bank Group has advised over 80 countries[when?] on reforms to regulations measured in the DB, providing technical assistance and guidance. Reform advice and DB report production are organizationally separate to avoid conflicts of interest.[citation needed]

Doing business 2013[edit]

Doing Business 2013 covers regulations measured from June 2011 through May 2012. The report marks the 10th edition of the Doing Business series. Over the past decade, these reports have recorded nearly 2,000 regulatory reforms implemented by 180 economies.

  • Poland was the global top improver in the past year. It enhanced the ease of doing business through four institutional or regulatory reforms, making it easier to register property, pay taxes, enforce contracts, and resolve insolvency.
  • Besides Poland, nine other economies are recognized as having the most improved ease of doing business across several areas of regulation as measured by the report: Sri Lanka, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Burundi, Costa Rica, Mongolia, Greece, Serbia, and Kazakhstan.
  • Worldwide, 108 economies implemented 201 regulatory reforms in 2011/12 making it easier to do business as measured by Doing Business. Reform efforts globally have focused on making it easier to start a new business, increasing the efficiency of tax administration and facilitating trade across international borders. Of the 201 regulatory reforms recorded in the past year, 44% focused on these 3 policy areas alone.
  • Singapore topped the global ranking on the ease of doing business for the seventh consecutive year, followed by Hong Kong SAR; New Zealand; the United States; and Denmark. Georgia was a new entrant to the top 10.

Doing business 2014[edit]

Doing Business 2014 covers regulations measured from June 2012 through May 2013 in 189 economies. The report marks the 11th edition of the Doing Business series.

  • Singapore is the first economy of the global ranking followed by Hong Kong SAR, New Zealand, the United States, Denmark, Malaysia, South Korea, Georgia, Norway, and the United Kingdom.
  • For the first time data about Libya, Myanmar, San Marino, and South Sudan were collected.
  • 114 economies adopted 238 regulatory reforms in 2012/13 (the reforms increased of 18% compared to the previous year).
  • 9 of the 20 economies that reduced the distance with the regulatory frontier the most (since 2009s) are located in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Doing business 2015[edit]

Doing Business 2015 covers regulations measured from June 2013 through June 2014 in 189 economies. The report marks the 12th edition of the Doing Business series.[9]

  • For the first time this year, Doing Business collected data for 2 cities in 11 economies with more than 100 million inhabitants. The economies are: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, and the United States. The added city enables a subnational comparison and benchmarking against other large cities. Differences between cities are more common in indicators measuring the steps, time and cost to complete a standardized transaction where local agencies play a larger role, finds the report.

Criticism[edit]

The Doing Business methodology regarding labor regulations was criticized by the International Trade Union Confederation because it favored flexible employment regulations.[10] In early reports, the easier it was to dismiss a worker for economic reasons in a country, the more its rankings improved. The Employing Workers index was revised in Doing Business 2008 to be in full compliance with the 188 International Labour Organization conventions. It has subsequently been removed from the rankings. The ITUC debuted the Global Rights Index in 2014 as a response to the Doing Business report.[11]

In 2008 the World Bank Group's Independent Evaluation Group, a semi-independent watchdog within the World Bank Group, published an evaluation of the Doing Business index.[12] The report, Doing Business: An Independent Evaluation, contained both praise and criticism of Doing Business. The report recommended that Doing Business be clearer about what is and is not measured, disclose changes to published data, recruit more informants, and simplify the Paying Taxes indicator.

In April 2009 the World Bank issued a note with revisions to the Employing Workers index.[13] The note explained that scoring for the Employing Workers indicator would be updated in Doing Business 2010 to give favorable scores for complying with relevant ILO conventions. The Employing Workers indicator was also removed as a guidepost for Country Policy and Institutional Assessments, which help determine resources provided to IDA countries.

A study commissioned by the Norwegian government alleges methodological weaknesses, an uncertainty in the ability of the indicators to capture the underlying business climate, and a general worry that many countries may find it easier to change their ranking in Doing Business than to change the underlying business environment.[5]

In June 2013, an independent panel appointed by the President of the World Bank and headed by Trevor Manuel of South Africa, issued a review expressing concern about the potential for the report and index to be misinterpreted, the narrowness of the indicators and information base, the data collection methodology, and the lack of peer review. It recommended that the report be retained, but that the aggregate rankings be removed and that a peer-review process be implemented (among other things). Regarding the topics of Paying Taxes and Employing Workers, it noted that "The latter has already been excluded from the report's rankings. While there is a persuasive case for paying attention to these aspects of doing business, the Bank will need to carefully consider the correct way to assess the regulation and legal environment of these areas if these indicators are to be retained." [1]

The Doing Business criteria for measuring the time needed to complete a procedure were based on some simplified assumptions: "It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is 1 day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (that is, simultaneous procedures start on consecutive days)". These assumptions generated some criticisms especially by countries that were able to complete one or more procedures simultaneously and could therefore be penalized in the final rank. World Bank claimed that the same criteria are applied to all economies and therefore would not produce biased results. In 2014 the possible biases in applying the DB time indicator were mathematically demonstrated in a scientific article[14] appeared on the Rivista italiana di economia demografia e statistica (Italian Review of Economics, Demography and Statistics - RIEDS). World Bank partially reviewed the criteria inserting a new assumption for telematics procedures: "each telematics procedure accounts for 0.5 day instead of one day (and telematics procedures can also take place simultaneously)".

Ranking[edit]

The most recent rankings come from the "Doing Business 2017" report. Ranking of economies was introduced in the "Doing Business 2006" report.[15]

New Zealand has topped the Ease of Doing Business rankings in 2017.

Singapore has topped the Ease of Doing Business rankings in 2016.[16] Based on Singapore's experience, IDA International is collaborating with public agencies in several countries in the areas such as ICT strategy, national infocomm planning and solutions implementation that can help increase the ease of doing business.

Jurisdiction 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006
 New Zealand 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1
 Singapore 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
 Denmark 3 3 4 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 7 8
 Hong Kong 4 5 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 7
 South Korea 5 4 5 7 8 8 16 19 23 30 23 27
 Norway 6 9 6 9 6 6 8 10 10 11 9 5
 United Kingdom 7 6 8 10 7 7 4 5 6 6 6 9
 United States 8 7 7 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 3 3
 Sweden 9 8 11 14 13 14 14 18 17 14 13 14
 Macedonia 10 12 30 25 23 22 38 32 71 75 92 81
 Taiwan 11 11 19 16 16 25 33 46 61 50 47 35
 Estonia 12 16 17 22 21 24 17 24 22 17 17 16
 Finland 13 10 9 12 11 11 13 16 14 13 14 13
 Latvia 14 22 23 24 25 21 24 27 29 22 24 26
 Australia 15 13 10 11 10 15 10 9 9 9 8 6
 Georgia 16 24 15 8 9 16 12 11 15 18 37 100
 Germany 17 15 14 21 20 19 22 25 25 20 21 19
 Ireland 18 17 13 15 15 10 9 7 7 8 10 11
 Austria 19 21 21 30 29 32 32 28 27 25 30 32
 Iceland 20 19 12 13 14 9 15 14 11 10 12 12
 Lithuania 21 20 24 17 27 27 23 26 28 26 16 15
 Canada 22 14 16 19 17 13 7 8 8 7 4 4
 Malaysia 23 18 18 6 12 18 21 23 20 24 25 21
 Poland 24 25 32 45 55 62 70 72 76 74 75 54
 Portugal 25 23 25 31 30 30 31 48 48 37 40 42
 United Arab Emirates 26 31 22 23 26 33 40 33 46 68 77 69
 Czech Republic 27 36 44 75 65 64 63 74 75 56 52 41
 Netherlands 28 28 27 28 31 31 30 30 26 21 22 24
 France 29 27 31 38 34 29 26 31 31 31 35 44
 Slovenia 30 29* 51 33 35 37 42 53 54 55 61 63
  Switzerland 31 26 20 29 28 26 27 21 21 16 15 17
 Spain 32 33 33 52 44 44 49 62 49 38 39 30
 Slovakia 33 29* 37 49 46 48 41 42 36 32 36 37
 Japan 34 34 29 27 24 20 18 15 12 12 11 10
 Kazakhstan 35 41 77 50 49 47 59 63 70 71 63 86
 Romania 36 37 48 73 72 72 56 55 47 48 49 78
 Belarus 37 44 57 63 58 69 68 58 85 110 129 106
 Armenia 38 35 45 37 32 55 48 43 44 39 34 46
 Bulgaria 39 38* 38 58 66 59 51 44 45 46 54 62
 Russia 40 51 62 92 112 120 123 120 120 106 96 79
 Hungary 41 42 54 54 54 51 46 47 41 45 66 52
 Belgium 42 43 42 36 33 28 25 22 19 19 20 18
 Croatia 43 40 65 89 84 80 84 103 106 97 124 118
 Moldova 44 52 63 78 83 81 90 94 103 92 103 83
 Cyprus 45 47 64 39 36 40 37 40 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Thailand 46 49 26 18 18 17 19 12 13 15 18 20
 Mexico 47 38* 39 53 48 53 35 51 56 44 43 73
 Serbia 48 59 91 93 86 92 89 88 94 86 68 92**
 Mauritius 49 32 28 20 19 23 20 17 24 27 32 23
 Italy 50 45 56 65 73 87 80 78 65 53 82 70
 Montenegro 51 46 36 44 51 56 66 71 90 81 70 92**
 Israel 52 53 40 35 38 34 29 29 30 29 26 29
 Colombia 53 54 34 43 45 42 39 37 53 66 79 66
 Peru 54 50 35 42 43 41 36 56 62 58 65 71
 Puerto Rico 55 57 47 40 41 43 47 35 35 28 19 22
 Rwanda 56 62 46 32 52 45 58 67 139 150 158 139
 Chile 57 48 41 34 37 39 43 49 40 33 28 25
 Albania 58 97* 68 90 85 82 82 82 86 136 120 117
 Luxembourg 59 61 59 60 56 50 45 64 50 42 N/A N/A
 Kosovo 60 66 75 86 98 117 119 113 N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Greece 61 60 61 72 78 100 109 109 96 100 109 80
 Costa Rica 62 58 83 102 110 121 125 121 117 115 105 89
 Bahrain 63 65 53 46 42 38 28 20 18 N/A N/A N/A
 Mongolia 64 56 72 76 76 86 73 60 58 52 45 61
 Azerbaijan 65 63 80 70 67 66 54 38 33 96 99 98
 Oman 66 70 66 47 47 49 57 65 57 49 55 51
 Jamaica 67 64 58 94 90 88 81 75 63 63 50 43
 Morocco 68 75 71 87 97 94 114 128 128 129 115 102
 Turkey 69 55 55 69 71 71 65 73 59 57 91 93
 Panama 70 69 52 55 61 61 72 77 81 65 81 57
 Botswana 71 72 74 56 59 54 52 45 38 51 48 40
 Brunei 72 84* 101 59 79 83 112 96 88 78 N/A N/A
 Bhutan 73 71 125 141 148 142 142 126 124 119 138 104
 South Africa 74 73 43 41 39 35 34 34 32 35 29 28
 Kyrgyzstan 75 67 102 68 70 70 44 41 68 94 90 84
 Malta 76 80 94 103 102 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Tunisia 77 74 60 51 50 46 55 69 73 88 80 58
 China 78 84* 90 96 91 91 79 89 83 83 93 91
 San Marino 79 76 93 81 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Ukraine 80 83 96 112 137 152 145 142 145 139 128 124
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 81 79 107 131 126 125 110 116 119 105 95 87
 Vietnam 82 90 78 99 99 98 78 93 92 91 104 99
 Qatar 83 68 50 48 40 36 50 39 37 N/A N/A N/A
 Vanuatu 84 94 76 74 80 76 60 59 60 62 58 49
 Tonga 85 78 69 57 62 58 71 52 43 47 51 36
 Saint Lucia 86 77 100 64 53 52 53 36 34 34 27 N/A
 Uzbekistan 87 87 141 146 154 166 150 150 138 138 147 138
 Guatemala 88 81 73 79 93 97 101 110 112 114 118 109
 Samoa 89 96 67 61 57 60 61 57 64 61 41 39
 Uruguay 90 92 82 88 89 90 124 114 109 98 64 85
 Indonesia 91 109 114 120 128 129 121 122 129 123 135 115
 Kenya 92 108 136 129 121 109 98 95 82 72 83 68
 Seychelles 93 95 85 80 74 103 95 111 104 90 84 N/A
 Saudi Arabia 94 82 49 26 22 12 11 13 16 23 38 38
 El Salvador 95 86 109 118 113 112 86 84 72 69 71 76
 Trinidad and Tobago 96 88* 79 66 69 68 97 81 80 67 59 N/A
 Fiji 97 88* 81 62 60 77 62 54 39 36 31 34
 Zambia 98 97* 111 83 94 84 76 90 100 116 102 67
 Philippines 99 103 95 108 138 136 148 144 140 133 126 113
 Lesotho 100 114* 128* 136 136 143 138 130 123 124 114 97
 Dominica 101 91 97* 77 68 65 88 83 74 77 72 N/A
 Kuwait 102 101* 86 104 82 67 74 61 52 40 46 47
 Dominican Republic 103 93 84 117 116 108 91 86 97 99 117 103
 Solomon Islands 104 112 87 97 92 74 96 104 89 79 69 53
 Honduras 105 110 104* 127 125 128 131 141 133 121 111 112
 Paraguay 106 100 92 109 103 102 106 124 115 103 112 88
   Nepal 107 99 108 105 108 107 116 123 121 111 100 55
 Ghana 108 114* 70 67 64 63 67 92 87 87 94 82
 Namibia 109 101* 88 98 87 78 69 66 51 43 42 33
 Sri Lanka 110 107 99 85 81 89 102 105 102 101 89 75
 Swaziland 111 105 110 123 123 124 118 115 108 95 76 N/A
 Belize 112 120 118 106 105 93 99 80 78 59 56 N/A
 Antigua and Barbuda 113 104 89 71 63 57 64 50 42 41 33 N/A
 Ecuador 114 117 115 135 139 130 130 138 136 128 123 107
 Uganda 115 122 150 132 120 123 122 112 111 118 107 72
 Argentina 116 121 124 126 124 113 115 118 113 109 101 77
 Barbados 117 119 106 91 88 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Jordan 118 113 117 119 106 96 111 100 101 80 78 74
 Papua New Guinea 119 145 133 113 104 101 103 102 95 84 57 64
 Iran 120 118 130 152 145 144 129 137 142 135 119 108
 Bahamas 121 106 97* 84 77 85 77 68 55 N/A N/A N/A
 Egypt 122 131 112 128 109 110 94 106 114 126 165 141
 Brazil 123 116 120 116 130 126 127 129 125 122 121 119
 Guyana 124 137 123 115 114 114 100 101 105 104 136 105
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 125 111 103 82 75 75 75 70 66 54 85 N/A
 Lebanon 126 123 104* 111 115 104 113 108 99 85 86 95
 Nicaragua 127 125 119 124 119 118 117 117 107 93 67 59
 Tajikistan 128 132 166 143 141 147 139 152 159 153 133 N/A
 Cape Verde 129 126 122 121 122 119 132 146 143 132 125 N/A
 India 130 130 142 134 132 132 134 133 122 120 134 116
 Cambodia 131 127 135 137 133 138 147 145 135 145 143 133
 Tanzania 132 139 131 145 134 127 128 131 127 130 142 140
 Malawi 133 141 164 171 157 145 133 132 134 127 110 96
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 134 124 121 101 96 95 87 76 67 64 44 N/A
 Maldives 135 128 116 95 95 79 85 87 69 60 53 31
 Palau 136 136 113 100 111 116 120 97 91 82 62 N/A
 Mozambique 137 133 127 139 146 139 126 135 141 134 140 110
 Grenada 138 135 126 107 100 73 92 91 84 70 73 N/A
 Laos 139 134 148 159 163 165 171 167 165 164 159 147
 Palestine 140 129 143 138 135 131 135 139 131 117 127 125
 Mali 141 143* 146 155 151 146 153 156 166 158 155 146
 Côte d'Ivoire 142 142 147 167 177 167 169 168 161 155 141 145
 Marshall Islands 143 140 139 114 101 106 108 98 93 89 87 48
 Pakistan 144 138 128* 110 107 105 83 85 77 76 74 60
 Gambia 145 151 138 150 147 149 146 140 130 131 113 N/A
 Burkina Faso 146 143* 167 154 153 150 151 147 148 161 163 154
 Senegal 147 153 161 178 166 154 152 157 149 162 146 132
 Sierra Leone 148 147 140 142 140 141 143 148 156 160 168 136
 Bolivia 149 157 157 162 155 153 149 161 150 140 131 111
 Niger 150 160 168 176 176 173 173 174 172 169 160 150
 Micronesia 151 148 145 156 150 140 141 127 126 112 106 56
 Kiribati 152 149 134 122 117 115 93 79 79 73 60 45
 Comoros 153 154 159 158 158 157 159 162 155 146 144 N/A
 Togo 154 150 149 157 156 162 160 165 163 156 151 149
 Benin 155 158 151 174 175 175 170 172 169 151 137 129
 Algeria 156 163 154 153 152 148 136 136 132 125 116 128
 Burundi 157 152 152 140 159 169 181 176 177 174 166 143
 Suriname 158 156 162 161 164 158 161 155 146 142 122 N/A
 Ethiopia 159 146 132 125 127 111 104 107 116 102 97 101
 Mauritania 160 168 176 173 167 159 165 166 160 157 148 127
 Zimbabwe 161 155 171 170 173 171 157 159 158 152 153 126
 São Tomé and Príncipe 162 166 153 169 160 163 178 180 176 163 169 123
 Guinea 163 165 169 175 178 179 179 173 171 166 157 144
 Gabon 164 162 144 163 170 156 156 158 151 144 132 N/A
 Iraq 165 161 156 151 165 164 166 153 152 141 145 114
 Cameroon 166 172 158 168 161 161 168 171 164 154 152 130
 Madagascar 167 164 163 148 142 137 140 134 144 149 149 131
 Sudan 168 159 160 149 143 135 154 154 147 143 154 151
 Nigeria 169 169 170 147 131 133 137 125 118 108 108 94
 Myanmar 170 167 177 182 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Djibouti 171 171 155 160 171 170 158 163 153 146 161 N/A
 Guinea-Bissau 172 178 179 180 179 176 176 181 179 176 173 N/A
 Syria 173 175 175 165 144 134 144 143 137 137 130 121
 Liberia 174 179 174 144 149 151 155 149 157 170 N/A N/A
 Timor Leste 175 173 172 172 169 168 174 164 170 168 174 142
 Bangladesh 176 174 173 130 129 122 107 119 110 107 88 65
 Congo 177 176 178 185 183 181 177 179 178 175 171 148
 Equatorial Guinea 178 180 165 166 162 155 164 170 165 165 150 N/A
 Yemen 179 170 137 133 118 99 105 99 98 113 98 90
 Chad 180 183 185 189 184 183 183 178 175 173 172 152
 Haiti 181 182 180 177 174 174 162 151 154 148 139 134
 Angola 182 181 181 179 172 172 163 169 168 167 156 135
 Afghanistan 183 177 183 164 168 160 167 160 162 159 162 122
 Democratic Republic of Congo 184 184 184 183 181 178 175 182 181 178 175 155
 Central African Republic 185 185 187 188 185 182 182 183 180 177 167 153
 South Sudan 186 187 186 186 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Venezuela 187 186 182 181 180 177 172 177 174 172 164 120
 Libya 188 188 188 187 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
 Eritrea 189 189 189 184 182 180 180 175 173 171 170 137
 Somalia 190 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

* – same rank is for multiple jurisdictions
** – the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro

Note: Rankings at time of annual report publication. Rankings are subject to revision.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Doing Business - Measuring Business Regulations - World Bank Group". Doing Business. 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  2. ^ "Doing Business report series – World Bank Group". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  3. ^ Ease of doing business, Page 111.
  4. ^ "Doing Business and related research - World Bank Group". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2013-05-20. 
  5. ^ a b "Be careful when Doing Business" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2012-06-27. 
  6. ^ World Bank: "Doing Business 2010", World Bank Group, 2010, U.S.A.
  7. ^ Djankov, Simeon, et al., "The Regulation of Entry", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol.CXVII February 2002, Issue I
  8. ^ Snodgrass, Sonald, "Alternative Business Enabling Environment Rankings. A Review", USAID / Business Growth Initiative, USAID
  9. ^ "Doing Business 2015, World Bank. Published: October 29, 2014.". 
  10. ^ "ITUC-CSI-IGB – International Trade Union Confederation". Ituc-csi.org. 2006-12-14. Retrieved 2012-06-27. 
  11. ^ Tamara Gausi (21 May 2014). New Global Index Elevates Workers' Rights over "Doing Business". Equal Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014; see also: ITUC Global Rights Index: The world's worst countries for workers.
  12. ^ "Doing Business – Doing Business: An Independent Evaluation". Web.worldbank.org. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 
  13. ^ "EWI Revisions". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2012-06-27. 
  14. ^ "World Bank Doing Business Project and the statistical methods based on ranks: the paradox of the time indicator.". Rivista italiana di economia demografia e statistica, 2014, Volume LXVIII, Issue 1, ideas.repec.org. Retrieved 2014-07-13. 
  15. ^ http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/global-reports/doing-business-2017
  16. ^ "Singapore Tops World Bank Survey". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 

External links[edit]