EastMed pipeline

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EastMed
Map of the proposed EastMed pipeline
Map of the proposed EastMed pipeline
Location
Country Greece
 Cyprus
 Israel
General directionEast–West
General information
TypeNatural gas
PartnersDEPA
Edison
Expected2025-2027[1][2]
Technical information
Length1,900 km (1,200 mi)
Maximum discharge10 billion cubic metres per annum (350×10^9 cu ft/a)

The Eastern Mediterranean pipeline or simply EastMed is a planned offshore/onshore natural gas pipeline, directly connecting East Mediterranean energy resources to mainland Greece via Cyprus and Crete.[3] The project, currently in design, will transport natural gas from the off-shore gas reserves in the Levantine Basin into Greece, and in conjunction with the Poseidon and IGB pipelines into Italy and other European regions.[4] The pipeline will have a length of approximately 1,900 km, reach depths of 3km, and have a capacity of 10 billion cubic meters per year.[5][6] Construction of the pipeline is expected to cost approximately €6 billion (US$6.86 billion).[7] The pipeline is being developed by IGI Poseidon S.A., a 50-50% joint venture between the Greek gas utility DEPA and the Italian gas utility Edison.[5]

On 2 January 2020, the EastMed Pipeline accord was signed in Athens by the leaders of Greece, Cyprus, and Israel.[5][6][8] On 19 July 2020, the Israeli government officially approved the accord, allowing the signatory countries to move forward with plans to complete the pipeline by 2025.[7]

Timeline[edit]

In 2013, the construction of the EastMed pipeline was designated under European Commission Regulation 347/2013 as a Project of Common Interest and during the 2015-2018 period the Commission contributed more than €34.5 million (US$38.9 million) to complete technical, economic and environmental studies for the project.[9][10][11]

The Energy Triangle of Greece, Cyprus, and Israel signed an intergovernmental agreement for the EastMed gas pipeline in Tel Aviv on 20 March 2019 in the presence of United States Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, in a sign of support from Washington for the project.[12] American interest on the pipeline is explained by Washington's demand that its European partners maintain a diversification policy of their energy imports.[13] The pipeline will diversify European gas supplies and lessen dependence on Russian Natural Gas.[14][15][16]

In April 2019, the European Commission labeled the EastMed pipeline as a Project of Common Interest, having contributed €34.5 million (US$38.9 million) to complete technical studies for the project.[11] On 7 May 2019, Italian prime minister Giuseppe Conte stated, at an event near Rome, that Italy will oppose the construction of Poseidon pipeline; the last section of EastMed connecting Greece and Italy via the Adriatic Sea, putting the entire project under consideration.[17][18][19] However, on 1 January 2020, it was reported that the Italian Minister of Economic Development Stefano Patuanelli had sent to his Greek counterpart a letter of support for the EastMed pipeline, thus reinstating the backing of Italy for the project.[20][21]

On 2 January 2020, the accord to construct the pipeline was signed in Athens by the leaders of Greece, Cyprus, and Israel.[5][6] Cypriot President Nikos Anastasiadis and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu characterised the accord as "historic".[6] The accord includes provisions for ensuring the security of the pipeline and a common tax regime.[5][22][23] The Israeli government approved the accord on 19 July 2020, allowing the project to move forward.[7] Following a final investment decision between the countries in 2021 January but got delayed to 2022. The construction of the pipeline is scheduled for completion by 2025 but later got delayed to 2027.[24]

Route[edit]

The pipeline will connect the Leviathan (Israel) and Aphrodite (Cyprus) gas fields in the Eastern Mediterranean to Europe. The pipeline will begin in the Levantine Basin and make landfall in Cyprus, where a compressor station will be located.[25] From Cyprus, the pipeline will continue west for approximately 700 km, reaching depths of 3 km, and make landfall in eastern Crete.[25] A compressor station on Crete will enable the supply of natural gas to the island. From Crete, the pipeline will continue northwest and make landfall in the eastern Peloponnese, near the village of Agios Fokas.[25] The pipeline will cross the Peloponnese in a NW direction, cross the Gulf of Patras, and continue along western mainland Greece, ending in the Thesprotia region.[25] From there, the proposed Poseidon pipeline will connect to Italy.

Turkey has stated that they are strongly opposed to the pipeline project, claiming to have been intentionally excluded. The final signing of the project came in a period with Turkish exploration in the area and shortly after the signing of the EEZ agreement between Turkey and Libya.[26][27]

EastMed Gas Forum[edit]

In January 2019, seven energy ministers in the region penned a deal to set up the East Mediterranean Gas Forum. Total S.A., Eni and Novatek and Exxon have signed exploration and production agreements with the relevant governments.[28] Turkey is referred to as being the exception to regional tranquility.[29] The current state members of the group are: Egypt, Cyprus, Israel, and Greece. Representatives of Palestine and Jordan have attended the meetings of the East Mediterranean Gas Forum.[30] In January 2020, France and the United States asked to join the Forum, as a member and permanent observer respectively.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/business/.premium-israeli-minister-seeks-to-delay-east-med-gas-forum-citing-climate-concerns-1.9387311
  2. ^ https://apnews.com/article/26f68436ff2944ff97f6574dea0a6c1f
  3. ^ "Eastmed-A direct link to new sources for Europe". IGI-Poseidon.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. ^ "Eastmed pipeline". Edison.it. Retrieved 14 March 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ a b c d e "Bloomberg".
  6. ^ a b c d "Proto Thema". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b c "Israel approves pipeline deal to sell gas to Europe". Reuters. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Greece, Israel, Cyprus, move to build East Med gas pipeline". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 5 January 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Αγωγός EastMed: Πώς φτάσαμε στην ιστορική ενεργειακή συμφωνία". www.news247.gr (in Greek). Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  10. ^ Regulation (EU) No 347/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 April 2013 on guidelines for trans-European energy infrastructure and repealing Decision No 1364/2006/EC and amending Regulations (EC) No 713/2009, (EC) No 714/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 Text with EEA relevance, 25 April 2013, retrieved 5 January 2020
  11. ^ a b Robinson, Tim; Jeakins, Geordie (12 April 2019). "Squaring the Triangle: Why Turkey and the EastMed need each other". War on the Rocks. Retrieved 17 April 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. ^ "US hot on deal bringing energy to EU, bracing Turkey". NewEurope.eu. Retrieved 14 March 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. ^ Juan Pachon. "Menendez Bill to Reshape U.S. Strategy In The Eastern Mediterranean Approved By Foreign Relations Committee". Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Retrieved 26 June 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. ^ Dr. Tzogopoulos, George (10 April 2019). "A New EastMed Friendship, with US Support". Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Retrieved 17 April 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. ^ Dr. Hay Eytan Cohen Yanarocak. "Turkey at the Eastern Mediterranean Crossroads". The Jerusalem Institute for Strategy & Security. Retrieved 22 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  16. ^ B. Lana Guggenheim. "Offshore Energy is both a Boon and a Bane for Cyprus". South EU Summit. Retrieved 22 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. ^ "Italy opposes Poseidon gas pipeline landfall". Reuters. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  18. ^ "Macron sends stern warning to Ankara over Eastern Med". Kathimeriny News. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 8 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  19. ^ "Macron warns Turkey France will show 'no weakness' on Cyprus gas search". Ahval News. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  20. ^ "Italy fully backs EastMed | Kathimerini". www.ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 1 January 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  21. ^ "Italian support for EastMed pipeline, ahead of trilateral signing of project; specs and advantages". www.amna.gr. Retrieved 1 January 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  22. ^ "Turkish military drone begins patrols off Cyprus". www.irishtimes.com. Retrieved 29 December 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  23. ^ "French carrier in Cyprus EEZ". www.defence-point.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  24. ^ Hadjicostis, Menelaos (5 December 2017). "Israel expects gas to flow from east Mediterranean to Europe". AP News. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  25. ^ a b c d "Proto Thema".
  26. ^ "EastMed pipeline project to fend off Turkish hegemony bid | Jareer Elass". The Arab Weekly. 12 January 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  27. ^ "Turkey slams controversial EastMed pipeline deal signed in Athens". TRT World. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 22 July 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  28. ^ "Congress Quietly Adopts Exxon Mobil-Backed Law Promoting New Gas Pipeline, Arms to Cyprus". The Intercept. Retrieved 20 February 2020. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  29. ^ "EastMed gas: Paving the way for a new geopolitical era?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2 July 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  30. ^ Benny, John (12 November 2019). "A new energy hub emerges among unlikely partners in the Mediterranean". Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  31. ^ "France asks to join Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum". Reuters. 16 January 2020.

External links[edit]