East Germanic tribes

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The expansion of the Germanic tribes 750 BC – AD 1 (after the Penguin Atlas of World History 1988):
   Settlements before 750 BC
   New settlements by 500 BC
   New settlements by 250 BC
   New settlements by AD 1

The Germanic tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who may have moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between the years 600 and 300 BC. Later they went to the south. Unlike the Northern and Western tribes, they did not successfully preserve their ethnicity and were primarily assimilated into West Germanic tribes[citation needed] and Romans.

According to some theories, the east Germanic tribes, related to the North Germanic tribes, had migrated from Scandinavia into the region east of the Elbe River (Vandals, Burgundians, Goths, Rugians and others).[1]

Groups[edit]

Groups identified as East Germanic tribes include:

Traditionally the Lombards were classified as East Germanic, however, the Lombardic language is now considered by many specialists to be close to Old High German, especially its Upper German dialects, which would make a classification as West rather than East Germanic more sensible.

Territories inhabited by East Germanic tribes, between 100 BC and AD 300.

Language[edit]

The East Germanic languages are contrasted with North and West Germanic. However, the East Germanic languages shared many characteristics with North Germanic, perhaps because of the later migration date.

All the East Germanic languages are extinct as living languages. However, there have been recent attempts by Germanic tribal polytheists to reconstruct a form of neo-Gothic as a common community language.[citation needed] This is primarily based on the academic publications of a small number of scholars who have studied what remains of the written records of the Gothic dialects within Italia, the Iberian peninsula, and old Anatolia.

Genetics[edit]

Tracing the Y-DNA genetics of East Germanic Vandals and Goths by eupedia from the modern population of Sardinia speculated that they made up roughly the following frequencies: 35% of R1a, 29% of I2a2a, 24% of R1b, 6% of I2a1b and 6% of I1.[2] R1a individuals were 11x Z282 (among which 5xZ280, 1x M458>L1029 and 5x M458>L260) As for other subclades of R1b, 4x DF27>Z196>Z209 (including 2x Z216+), 2x L21>DF13>L513/DF1 and 2xU106>Z381 (including 1x Z301>L47>Z9). Among the I2a2a (M223) individuals there were 6x L701>L699 (also found in Sicily), 1x CTS616* and 2x L1228 (a newly identified subclade splitting just after M223). The analysis was explained with the following conclusions: The probable the reason for the elevated (Proto-)Slavic R1a and the presence of the Eastern European I2-M423 is that the Vandals stayed in Poland before migrating to the Roman Empire. Over a third of Vandalic male lineages were therefore of Proto-Slavic origin...Both the Goths and the Lombards originated in southern Sweden. Their migration path differed considerably though. The Goths descended through modern Poland as far as the Black Sea, where they surely intermingled with the local populations, then moved into the Balkans in the middle of the 3rd century, where they remained until the 5th century. Considering the high percentage of R1a identified in Vandalic settlements in Sardinia, it wouldn't be unreasonable to think that the over half of the Gothic lineages had become Proto-Slavic (R1a and I2a1b) by the time they reached the Balkans. It was common practice at the time for Eastern European tribes to converge and retain the name of the dominant tribe. Around the same period the Huns had also been a compound of several ethnicities brought together under Hunnic leadership.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ The Penguin atlas of world history / Hermann Kinder and Werner Hilgemann ; translated by Ernest A. Menze ; with maps designed by Harald and Ruth Bukor. Harmondsworth : Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051054-0, 1988, Volume 1. p.109.
  2. ^ Hay, Maciamo. "Genetic origins of the Italian people". Eupedia.