Central Vanuatu languages

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Central Vanuatu
Geographic
distribution
Vanuatu
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Glottologcent2269[1]

The Central Vanuatu languages form a linkage of Southern Oceanic languages spoken in central Vanuatu.

Languages[edit]

Clark (2009)[edit]

Clark (2009) provides the following classification of the Central Vanuatu languages, divided into geographic areas.[2] Outlier (aberrant) languages identified by Clark (2009) are in italics. Clark's Central Vanuatu branch is wider in scope, including not only the Shepherd–Efate languages, but also the Malakula and Ambrym–Paama–Epi languages.

According to Thieberger, Efatese is an artificial mixture of the languages of Efate.

François (2015)[edit]

The following list of 19 Central Vanuatu languages (excluding the Malakula languages) is from François (2015:18-21).

No. Language Other names Speakers Ethnologue ISO 639-3 Region
107 North Ambrym 5250 mmg mmg Ambrym
108 Orkon Fanbak 30 Ambrym
109 Southeast Ambrym 3700 tvk tvk Ambrym
110 Daakie Port Vato 1300 ptv ptv Ambrym
111 Daakaka South Ambrym, Baiap 1200 bpa bpa Ambrym
112 Dalkalaen 1000 Ambrym
113 Raljago West Ambrym, Lonwolwol <10 crc crc Ambrym
114 Paama Paamese 6000 paa paa Paama
115 Lamen Lamenu, Varmali 850 lmu lmu Epi, Lamen
116 Lewo Varsu 2200 lww lww Epi
117 Bierebo Bonkovia-Yevali 900 bnk bnk Epi
118 Baki Burumba, Paki 350 bki bki Epi
119 Mkir Maii 180 mmm mmm Epi
120 Bieria Bieri, Vovo, Wowo 25 brj brj Epi
121 Namakura Makura, Namakir 3750 nmk nmk Efate, Shepherd Islands (Tongoa, Tongariki)
123 Nakanamanga 9500 llp llp Efate, Shepherd Islands (Nguna, Tongoa)
124 Lelepa Havannah Harbour 400 lpa lpa Efate, Lelepa
125 Eton 500 etn etn Efate
126 South Efate Erakor 6000 erk erk Efate

Additionally, the extinct Sowa language was formerly spoken in central Vanuatu.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Vanuatu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Clark, Ross (2009). Leo Tuai: A comparative lexical study of North and Central Vanuatu languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.