East of the Sun and West of the Moon
|East of the Sun and West of the Moon|
|Name||East of the Sun and West of the Moon|
|Also known as||Østenfor sol og vestenfor måne|
|Aarne–Thompson grouping||ATU 425A (The Search for the Lost Husband)|
|Published in||Norske folkeeventyr, by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe|
|Related||Cupid and Psyche; Beauty and the Beast|
"East of the Sun and West of the Moon" was collected by Peter Christen Asbjørnsen and Jørgen Moe. It is Aarne–Thompson type 425A, the search for the lost husband; other tales of this type include "Black Bull of Norroway", "The King of Love", "The Brown Bear of Norway", "The Daughter of the Skies", "The Enchanted Pig", "The Tale of the Hoodie", "Master Semolina", "The Sprig of Rosemary", "The Enchanted Snake", and "White-Bear-King-Valemon". The Swedish version is called "Prince Hat under the Ground". It was likely an offspring from the tale of "Cupid and Psyche" in The Golden Ass, which gave rise to similar animal bridegroom cycles such as "Beauty and the Beast". (see also, Amor and Psyche)
The White Bear approaches a poor peasant and asks if he will give him his prettiest and youngest daughter; in return, the bear will make the man rich. The girl is reluctant, so the peasant asks the bear to return, and in the meantime, persuades her. The White Bear takes her off to a rich and enchanted castle. At night, he takes off his bear form in order to come to her bed as a man, although the lack of light means that she never sees him.
When she grows homesick, the bear agrees that she might go home as long as she agrees that she will never speak with her mother alone, but only when other people are about. At home, they welcome her, and her mother makes persistent attempts to speak with her alone, finally succeeding and persuading her to tell the whole tale. Hearing it, her mother insists that the White Bear must really be a troll, gives her some candles, and tells her to light them at night, to see what is sharing her bed.
The youngest daughter obeys, and finds he is a highly attractive prince, but she spills three drops of the melted tallow on him, waking him. He tells her that if she held out a year, he would have been free, but now he must go to his wicked stepmother, who turned him into his form and lives in a castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon, and marry her hideous daughter, a troll princess.
In the morning, the youngest daughter finds that the palace has vanished. She sets out in search of him. Coming to a great mountain, she finds an old woman playing with a golden apple. The youngest daughter asks if she knows the way to the castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon. The old woman cannot tell her, but lends the youngest daughter a horse to reach a neighbor who might know, and gives her the apple. The neighbor is sitting outside another mountain, with a golden carding comb. She, also, does not know the way to the castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon, but lends the youngest daughter a horse to reach a neighbor who might know, and gives her the carding-comb. The third neighbor has a golden spinning wheel. She, also, does not know the way to the castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon, but lends the youngest daughter a horse to reach the East Wind and gives her the spinning wheel.
The East Wind has never been to the castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon, but his brother the West Wind might have, being stronger. He takes her to the West Wind. The West Wind does the same, bringing her to the South Wind; the South Wind does the same, bringing her to the North Wind. The North Wind reports that he once blew an aspen leaf there, and was exhausted after, but he will take her if she really wants to go. The youngest daughter does wish to go, and so he takes her there.
The next morning, the youngest daughter takes out the golden apple. The troll princess who was to marry the prince sees it and wants to buy it. The girl agrees, if she can spend the night with the prince. The troll princess agrees but gives the prince a sleeping drink, so that the youngest daughter cannot wake him. The same thing happens the next night, after the youngest daughter pays the troll princess with the gold carding-combs. During the girl's attempts to wake the prince, her weeping and calling to him is overheard by some imprisoned townspeople in the castle, who tell the prince of it. On the third night, in return for the golden spinning wheel, the troll princess brings the drink, but the prince does not drink it, and so is awake for the youngest daughter's visit.
The prince tells her how she can save him: He will declare that he will marry anyone who can wash the tallow drops from his shirt since trolls, such as his stepmother and her daughter, the troll princess, cannot do it. So instead, he will call in the youngest daughter, and she will be able to do it, so she will marry him. The plan works, and the trolls, in a rage, burst. The prince and his bride free the prisoners captive in the castle, take the gold and silver within, and leave the castle east of the Sun and west of the Moon.
In folktales classified as tale type ATU 425A, "The Search for the Lost Husband" or "The Animal as Bridegroom", the maiden breaks a taboo or burns the husband's animal skin and, to atone, she must wear down a numbered pair of metal shoes. On her way to her husband, she asks for the help of the Sun, the Moon and the Wind. According to Hans-Jörg Uther, the main feature of tale type ATU 425A is "bribing the false bride for three nights with the husband".[a]
Retellings and translations into English
- Eastward of the Sun, and Westward of the Moon, 1849, by Anthony R. Montalba, in Fairy Tales From all Nations. London: Chapman and Hall, 1849.
- The Mysterious Prince, 1908, by Wilbur Herschel Williams, in Fairy Tales From Folk Lore. New York: Moffat, Yard & Company, 1908.
- East o' the Sun & West o' the Moon, 1910, translated by Sir George Webbe Dasent and illustrated by the brothers Reginald L. Knowles and Horace J. Knowles
- East o' the Sun & West o' the Moon, translated by G. W. Dasent (1910), illustrated by P. J. Lynch
- East of the Sun & West of the Moon, 1914, translated by G. W. Dasent (1910), illustrated by Kay Nielsen
- "East of the Sun and West of the Moon", The Dancing Bears, 1954, by W. S. Merwin
- East of the Sun and West of the Moon retold by Kathleen and Michael Hague and illustrated by Michael Hague (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980) ISBN 0-15-224703-3
- East of the Sun & West of the Moon, 1980, written and illustrated by Mercer Mayer
- East of the Sun, West of the Moon, by D. J. MacHale, illustrated by Vivienne Flesher (Rabbit Ears Productions)
- East of the Sun & West of the Moon, 1994, play by Tina Howe
- East of the Sun, West of the Moon. Adapted by Anthony Ravenhall for the stage: Cleveland Theatre Company (CTC) in 1994. Directed by Anthony Ravenhall, toured Christmas 1994/5. Also toured 1996/97 Northumberland Theatre Company (NTC).
- East of the Sun, a short play by Darcy Parker Bruce, included in "The Best American Short Plays 2015-2016" edited by William Demastes and John Patrick Bray
- Once Upon a Winter's Night, 2001, by Dennis L. McKiernan
- East, 2003, novel by Edith Pattou
- Sun and Moon, Ice and Snow, 2009, by Jessica Day George
- Ice, 2009, novel by Sarah Beth Durst
- Enchanted: East of the sun, West of the moon, by Nancy Madore
- East of the Sun, West of the Moon, 2013, written and illustrated by Jackie Morris
- A Court of Thorns and Roses, 2015, by Sarah J. Maas
- Echo North, 2019, novel by Joanna Ruth Meyer
- Beautiful, 2019, audiobook by Juliet Marillier
- In the early 1980s, Don Bluth Productions began work on an animated feature film entitled East of the Sun and West of the Moon. Ultimately, the film was never made due to a loss of financial backing, even though the film was heavily into production at the time of its cancellation.
- Max von Sydow narrates the Rabbit Ears Productions' version of "East of the Sun and West of the Moon" to musical accompaniment by Lyle Mays.
- The Storyteller features an episode called, "The True Bride", which was directly based on a German folktale of the same name, but references this story in its ending. The heroine's love is bewitched by a female troll into forgetting her, but the prince is told the truth by the troll's prisoners. In the episode "Hans My Hedgehog" the husband also turns from a beast into a human.
- The themes of "East of the Sun and West of the Moon" appear in the 1991 film The Polar Bear King, also known as Kvitebjørn Kong Valemon. The story of the film is almost an exact parallel to the fairy tale.
- The Polar Bear King https://vimeo.com/169482387
Illustrations by Kay Nielsen (1914)
- Cupid and Psyche
- Eglė the Queen of Serpents
- The Feather of Finist the Falcon
- J. R. R. Tolkien's use of this phrase
- The Singing, Springing Lark
- The Three Daughters of King O'Hara
- The Three Princesses of Whiteland
- The Two Kings' Children
- Tulisa, the Wood-Cutter's Daughter (Indian folktale)
- A similar assessment was made by scholar Andreas John: "The episode of 'buying three nights' in order to recover a spouse is more commonly developed in tales about female heroines who search for their husbands (AT 425, 430, and 432) ..."
- Heidi Anne Heiner, East of the Sun and West of the Moon: Related Tales
- Leavy, Barbara Fass. "The Animal Groom." In Search of the Swan Maiden. New York University Press, 1995. 101-155.
- Hood, Gwyneth. "Husbands and Gods as Shadowbrutes: Beauty and the Beast from Apuleius to CS Lewis." Mythlore 15.2 (56 (1988): 33-60.
- Neumann, Erich. Amor and Psyche: The psychic development of the feminine. Vol. 24. Routledge, 2013.
- Andrew Lang, The Blue Fairy Book, "East of the Sun and West of the Moon"
- Thompson, Stith (1977). The Folktale. University of California Press. pp. 97-98. ISBN 0-520-03537-2
- Ursache, Otilia. "Chipul tăinuit în basmele populare europene". In: Philologica Jassyensia, XI (1). 2015. pp. 269, 271-273. ISSN 2247-8353
- Hurbánková, Šárka. (2018). "G. B. Basile and Apuleius: First literary tales. morphological analysis of three fairytales". In: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 23: 81 (footnote nr. 37). 10.5817/GLB2018-2-6.
- Johns, Andreas. Baba Yaga: The Ambiguous Mother and Witch of the Russian Folktale. New York: Peter Lang. 2010 . p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8204-6769-6
- TES 27/12/1996
- John Grant, p. 35, Masters of Animation, ISBN 0-8230-3041-5
- John Culhane, "Special Effects Are Revolutionizing Film"
- "Newswatch: Bluth animation film goes bankrupt", The Comics Journal #98 (May 1985), p. 19.
- anatisfairywheel (28 November 1991). "Kvitebjørn Kong Valemon (1991)". IMDb.
- Heiner, Heidi Anne (2020-08-13). "SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Modern Interpretations of East of the Sun and West of the Moon". surlalunefairytales.com. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to East of the Sun West of the Moon (Asbjørnsen).|
- SurLaLune Fairy Tales, annotated version of East of the Sun and West of the Moon
- East of the Sun and West of the Moon in full length
- Asbjørnsen, Peter Christen; Moe, Jørgen (1899). "41 Østenfor Sol og vestenfor Manne". Norske folke-eventyr. Volume 2. Kristiania: Aschehoug.
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- East of the Sun and West of the Moon public domain audiobook at LibriVox