Borough of Eastbourne
The beach at Eastbourne
Borough of Eastbourne shown within East Sussex
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||South East England|
|Non-metropolitan county||East Sussex|
|• MP||Stephen Lloyd MP (Independent) (Liberal Democrat)|
|• Mayor||Steve Wallis|
|• Borough Council||David Tutt, Leader|
|• County Council||Keith Glazier, Leader (Conservative)|
|• Total||17.05 sq mi (44.16 km2)|
|Area rank||273rd (of 317)|
|• Rank||231st (of 317)|
|• Density||6,060/sq mi (2,338/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (BST)|
|ONS code||21UC (ONS)|
|OS grid reference|
|Website||Eastbourne Borough Council at www|
Eastbourne (// (listen)) is a town, seaside resort and borough in the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex on the south coast of England, 19 miles (31 km) east of Brighton. Eastbourne is immediately to the east of Beachy Head, the highest chalk sea cliff in Great Britain and part of the larger Eastbourne Downland Estate.
With a seafront consisting largely of Victorian hotels, a pier and a Napoleonic era fort and military museum, Eastbourne was developed at the direction of the Duke of Devonshire from 1859 from four separate hamlets. It has a growing population, a broad economic base and is home to companies in a wide range of industries.
Though Eastbourne is a relatively new town, there is evidence of human occupation in the area from the Stone Age. The town grew as a fashionable tourist resort largely thanks to prominent landowner, William Cavendish, later to become the Duke of Devonshire. Cavendish appointed architect Henry Currey to design a street plan for the town, but not before sending him to Europe to draw inspiration. The resulting mix of architecture is typically Victorian and remains a key feature of Eastbourne.
As a seaside resort Eastbourne derives a large and increasing income from tourism, with revenue from traditional seaside attractions augmented by conferences, public events and cultural sightseeing. The other main industries in Eastbourne include trade and retail, healthcare, education, construction, manufacturing, professional scientific and the technical sector.
Eastbourne's population is growing; between 2001 and 2011 it increased from 89,800 to 99,412. The 2011 census shows that the average age of residents has decreased as the town has attracted students, families and those commuting to London and Brighton. As of July 2019, the population of Eastbourne stood at 107,000.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Governance
- 4 Demography
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Parks and gardens
- 8 Sport
- 9 Landmarks
- 10 Education
- 11 Health and emergency services
- 12 Religious life
- 13 Transport
- 14 Notable people
- 15 References
- 16 External links
There are Roman remains buried beneath the town, such as a Roman bath and section of pavement between Eastbourne Pier and the Redoubt Fortress. There is also a Roman villa near the entrance to the Pier and the present Queens Hotel.
In 2014, skeletal remains of a woman who lived around 425 AD were discovered in the vicinity of Beachy Head on the Eastbourne Downland Estate. The remains were found to be of a 30-year-old woman who grew up in East Sussex, but had genetic heritage from sub-Saharan Africa, giving her black skin and an African skeletal structure. Her ancestors came from below the Saharan region, at a time when the Roman Empire extended only as far as North Africa.
An Anglo-Saxon charter, circa 963 AD, describes a landing stage and stream at Burne.
The original name came from the 'Burne' or stream which ran through today's Old Town area of Eastbourne. All that can be seen of the Burne, or Bourne, is the small pond in Motcombe Gardens. The bubbling source is guarded by a statue of Neptune. Motcombe Gardens are overlooked by St. Mary's Church, a Norman church which allegedly lies on the site of a Saxon 'moot', or meeting place. This gives Motcombe its name.
In 2014 local metal-detectorist Darrin Simpson found a coin minted during the reign of Æthelberht II of East Anglia (died 794), in a field near the town. It is believed that the coin may have led to Æthelberht's beheading by Offa of Mercia, as it had been struck as a sign of independence. Describing the coin, expert Christopher Webb, said, "This new discovery is an important and unexpected addition to the numismatic history of 8th century England." 
Following the Norman conquest, the Hundred of what is now Eastbourne, was held by Robert, Count of Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. The Domesday Book lists 28 ploughlands, a church, a watermill, fisheries and salt pans.
The Book referred to the area as 'Borne'. 'East' was added to 'Borne' in the 13th century, renaming the town.
A charter for a weekly market was granted to Bartholomew de Badlesmere in 1315–16; this increased his status as Lord of the Manor and improved local industry. During the Middle Ages the town was visited by King Henry I and in 1324 by Edward II. Evidence of Eastbourne's medieval past can seen in the 12th century Church of St Mary, and the manor house called Bourne Place.
In the mid-16th century Bourne Place was home to the Burton family, who acquired much of the land on which the present town stands. This manor house is currently owned by the Duke of Devonshire and was extensively remodelled in the early Georgian era when it was renamed Compton Place. It is one of the two Grade I listed buildings in the town.
In 1752, a dissertation by Doctor Richard Russell extolled the medicinal benefits of the seaside. His views were of considerable benefit to the south coast and, in due course, Eastbourne became known as "the Empress of Watering Places".
Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort came about following a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780 (Princes Edward and Octavius and Princesses Elizabeth and Sophia).
In 1793, following a survey of coastal defences in the southeast, approval was given for the positioning of infantry and artillery to defend the bay between Beachy Head and Hastings from attack by the French. Fourteen Martello Towers were constructed along the western shore of Pevensey Bay, continuing as far as Tower 73, the Wish Tower at Eastbourne. Several of these towers survive: the Wish Tower is an important feature of the town's seafront and was the subject of a painting by James Sant RA, and part of Tower 68 forms the basement of a house on St. Antony's Hill. Between 1805 and 1807, the construction took place of a fortress known as the Eastbourne Redoubt, which was built as a barracks and storage depot, and armed with 10 cannons.
A connection with India comes in the shape of the 18th-century Lushington monument, also at St Mary's, which commemorates a survivor of the Black Hole of Calcutta atrocity which led to the British conquest of Bengal.
Eastbourne remained an area of small rural settlements until the 19th century.
Four villages or hamlets occupied the site of the modern town: Bourne (or, to distinguish it from others of the same name, East Bourne), is now known as Old Town, and this surrounded the bourne (stream) which rises in the present Motcombe Park; Meads, where the Downs meet the coast; South Bourne (near the town hall); and the fishing settlement known simply as Sea Houses, which was situated to the east of the present pier.
By the mid-19th century most of the area had fallen into the hands of two landowners: John Davies Gilbert (the Davies-Gilbert family still own much of the land in Eastbourne and East Dean) and William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington.
The Gilbert family's holdings date to the late 17th and early 18th centuries when barrister Nicholas Gilbert married an Eversfield and Gildredge heiress. (The Gildredges owned much of Eastbourne by 1554. The Gilberts eventually made the Gildredge Manor House their own. Today the Gildredge name lives on in the eponymous park.)
An early plan, for a town named Burlington, was abandoned, but on 14 May 1849 the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway arrived to scenes of great jubilation. With the arrival of the railway, the town's growth accelerated.
Cavendish, now the 7th Duke of Devonshire, recruited Henry Currey in 1859 to lay out a plan for what was essentially an entire new town – a resort built "for gentlemen by gentlemen". The town grew rapidly from a population of less than 4,000 in 1851 to nearly 35,000 by 1891. In 1883, it was incorporated as a municipal borough; a purpose-built town hall was opened in 1886. This period of growth and elegant development continued for several decades. A royal visit by George V and Queen Mary in March 1935 is commemorated by a plaque on chalet number 2 at Holywell.
During the First World War, Summerdown Camp, a convalescent facility, opened in 1915 near the South Downs to treat soldiers who were injured during trench warfare or seriously ill. It was the largest of this type in the UK during this war, treating 150,000; 80% were able to return to fight. The facility was dismantled in 1920. An exhibition about the history of the camp was held in Eastbourne for several months in 2015.
In 1926, the Eastbourne Corporation Act enabled the creation of the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The Second World War saw a change in fortunes. Initially, children were evacuated to Eastbourne on the assumption that they would be safe from German bombs, but soon they had to be evacuated again because after the fall of France in June 1940 it was anticipated that the town would lie in an invasion zone. Part of Operation Sea Lion, the German invasion plan, envisaged landings at Eastbourne. Many people sought safety away from the coast and shut up their houses. Restrictions on visitors forced the closure of most hotels, and private boarding schools moved away. Many of these empty buildings were later taken over by the services. The Royal Navy set up an underwater weapons school, and the Royal Air Force operated radar stations at Beachy Head and on the marshes near Pevensey. Thousands of Canadian soldiers were billeted in and around Eastbourne from July 1941 to the run-up to D-Day. The town suffered badly during the war, with many Victorian and Edwardian buildings damaged or destroyed by air raids. Indeed, by the end of the conflict it was designated by the Home Office to have been 'the most raided town in the South East region'. The situation was especially bad between May 1942 and June 1943 with hit–and–run raids from fighter–bombers based in northern France. Ultimately 187 civilian lives were lost in the borough through enemy action.
In the summer of 1956, the town came to national and worldwide attention, when Dr John Bodkin Adams, a general practitioner serving the town's wealthier patients, was arrested for the murder of an elderly widow. Rumours had been circulating since 1935 regarding the frequency of his being named in patients' wills (132 times between 1946 and 1956) and the gifts he was given (including two Rolls Royces). Figures of up to 400 murders were reported in British and foreign newspapers, but after a controversial trial at the Old Bailey which gripped the nation for 17 days in March 1957, Adams was found not guilty. He was struck off for four years but resumed his practice in Eastbourne in 1961. According to Scotland Yard's archives, he is thought to have killed up to 163 patients in the Eastbourne area.
After the war, development continued, including the growth of Old Town up the hillside (Green Street Farm Estate) and the housing estates of Hampden Park, Willingdon Trees and Langney. During the latter half of the 20th century, there were controversies over the demolition of Pococks, a 15th-century manor house on what is now the Rodmill Housing Estate, and the granting of planning permission for a 19-storey block at the western end of the seafront. The latter project (South Cliff Tower) was realised in 1965 despite a storm of protest led by the newly formed Eastbourne and District Preservation Committee, which later became Eastbourne Civic Society, and was renamed the Eastbourne Society in 1999. Local conservationists also failed to prevent the construction of the glass-plated TGWU conference and holiday centre, but were successful in purchasing Polegate Windmill, thus saving it from demolition and redevelopment. Most of the expansion took place on the northern and eastern margins of the town, gradually swallowing surrounding villages. However, the richer western part was constrained by the Downs and has remained largely unchanged. In 1981, a large section of the town centre was replaced by the indoor shops of the Arndale Centre.
In the 1990s, both growth and controversy accelerated rapidly as a new plan was launched to develop the area known as the Crumbles, a shingle bank on the coast to the east of the town centre. This area, now known as Sovereign Harbour, containing a marina, shops and several thousand houses, along with luxury flats, was formerly home to many rare plants. There has been continued growth in other parts of the town, and the central marshland has become farmland and nature reserves.
In 2016–19 extensive remodelling work was undertaken to the prominent Arndale Centre, which takes up most of the town centre, and was originally built by Legal & General Assurance in the 1980s.
Local History Society
Eastbourne Local History Society was founded in 1970. It is a charitable, not-for-profit organisation in the United Kingdom whose objective is the pursuit and encouragement of an active interest in the study of the history of Eastbourne and its immediate environs and the dissemination of the outcome of such studies.
As the major landowner, the Cavendish family has had strong connections with Eastbourne since the 18th century. The current President of the Society is William Cavendish, Earl of Burlington.
Containing over 1,500 articles about the history of Eastbourne, the Society's indexed journal, The Eastbourne Local Historian, is the major historical resource for the town and has been published quarterly since its inception in 1970. Over the years, the Society has published various books about the history of Eastbourne, seven of which are currently in print.
The South Downs dominate Eastbourne and the Eastbourne Downland Estate can be seen from most of the town. These were originally chalk deposits laid down under the sea during the Late Cretaceous, and were later lifted by the same tectonic plate movements that formed the European Alps, during the middle Tertiary period. The chalk can be clearly seen along the eroded coastline to the west of the town, in the area known as Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters, where continuous erosion keeps the cliff edge vertical and white. The chalk contains many fossils such as ammonites and nautilus. The town area is built on geologically recent alluvial drift, the result of the silting up of a bay. This changes to Weald clay around the Langney estate.
A part of the South Downs, Willingdon Down is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest. This is of archaeological interest due to a Neolithic camp and burial grounds. The area is also a nationally uncommon tract of chalk grassland rich in species. Another SSSI which partially falls with the Eastbourne district is Seaford to Beachy Head. This site, of biological and geological interest, covers the coastline between Eastbourne and Seaford, plus the Seven Sisters country park and the Cuckmere valley. Several nature trails lead across the Downs to areas such as the nearby villages of East Dean and Birling Gap, and landmarks like the Seven Sisters, Belle Tout Lighthouse and Beachy Head.
Eastbourne's greater area comprises the town of Polegate, and the civil parishes of Willingdon and Jevington, Stone Cross, Pevensey, Westham and Pevensey Bay village. All are part of the Wealden District. Within Eastbourne's limits are:
- Langney: Langney Rise, Shinewater, Kingsmere, Langney Village, the Marina, Langney Point
- Hampden Park: Hampden Park Village, Willingdon Trees, Winkney Farm, Ratton
- Inner areas: Rodmill, Ocklynge, Seaside, Bridgemere, Roselands, Downside
- Town centre: Town centre, Little Chelsea, Meads, Holywell, Old Town, Upperton
- Sovereign Harbour: North Harbour, South Harbour
There was a community known as Norway, Eastbourne in the triangle now bounded by Wartling Road, Seaside and Lottbridge Drove. The name being a corruption of North Way, as this was the route to the north. The area is now a housing estate and the only evidence there was a Norway are a Norway Road and the local church whose sign reads "St Andrew's Church, Norway".
The former fishing hamlet of Holywell (local pronunciation 'holly well') was situated by the cliff on a ledge some 400 yards to the southwest of the public garden known as the Holywell Retreat. It was approached from what is now Holywell Road via the lane between the present Helen Gardens and St Bede's School which leads to the chalk pinnacle formerly known locally as 'Gibraltar' or the 'Sugar Loaf'. The ground around the pinnacle was the site of lime kilns also worked by the fishermen. The fishing hamlet at Holywell was taken over by the local water board in 1896 to exploit the springs in the cliffs. The water board's successors still own the site, and there is a pumping station but little evidence of the hamlet itself, as by now even most of the foundations of the cottages have gone over the cliff.
As with the rest of the British Isles and South Coast, Eastbourne experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The local climate is notable for its high sunshine levels, at least relative to much of the rest of England – Eastbourne holds the record for the highest recorded amount of sunshine in a month, 383.9 hours in July 1911. Temperature extremes recorded at Eastbourne since 1960 range from 31.6 °C (88.9 °F) during July 1976, down to −9.7 °C (14.5 °F) In January 1987. Eastbourne's coastal location also means it tends to be milder than most areas, particularly during night. A whole six months of the year have never fallen below 0 °C (32 °F), and in July the temperature has never fallen below 8.3 °C (46.9 °F). All temperature figures relate to the period 1960 onwards. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
|Climate data for Eastbourne 7 m asl, 1981–2010, Extremes 1960–|
|Record high °C (°F)||14.8
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||3.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−9.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||81.0
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||12.4||9.8||9.6||8.4||8.4||7.0||7.4||7.4||8.9||11.9||11.8||12.1||115.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||70.5||89.7||127.7||198.1||232.8||239.8||253.3||236.7||172.0||124.5||83.7||59.2||1,887.9|
|Source #1: Met Office|
|Source #2: Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute/KNMI|
Eastbourne Borough Council
East Sussex County Council
East Sussex County Council has responsibility for local education, libraries, social services, civil registration, trading standards and transport. Out of the 49 seats, 9 are returned by Eastbourne voters.
House of Commons
The Parliament Constituency of Eastbourne has always covered a greater area than the borough's nine wards, but due to population growth in the town, it has lost territory over time. At present the constituency includes all of the borough as well as the suburb of Willingdon.
For 18 years, from 1992 to 2010, the MP for Eastbourne was the Conservative Nigel Waterson.
At the 2017 general election, Lloyd regained the seat for the Liberal Democrats, with a majority of 1,609. Ansell increased her votes by nearly 5,000, while Lloyd received an increase of 7,000.
At European level, Eastbourne is represented by the South-East region, which holds ten seats in the European Parliament. The 2009 election returned 4 Conservatives, 2 Liberal Democrats, 2 UK Independence, 1 Labour and 1 Green.
The overall population of Eastbourne is growing (between 2001–2008 the population grew from 89,800 to 94,800),. Eastbourne is the second largest district or borough in East Sussex with an official resident population of 101,133 in 2014.
The average age of residents has dropped in recent years as younger people move into the town and young family households have started to balance retirement communities. In 2014, 54% of residents were between 20 and 64, while 24% were over 65 years old, and there was an average age of 43. In 2013, the Office for National Statistics named an area in Meads as the first place in the UK to have an average resident age exceeding 70, with an average age of 71.1, compared with a national average age of 39.7.
29% of households do not have cars or vans.
Ethnically, the town was said to be 93.7% white in 2007. Eastbourne has residents from a diverse range of international backgrounds, including notable groups of people from recent Polish, Portuguese, Chinese, Turkish, Italian and Greek origin.
The 2001 UK Census indicated that the largest non-white ethnic group at the time was Chinese. Studies conducted by the local council in 2008 reflected growth in new residents from Eastern Europe, particularly Poland.
Unemployment in Eastbourne was below the national average in 2013 figures, at 4.1% compared to 4.4% for England and Wales. The percentage of economically active people increased between 2001–2011. There has also been an upward trend in recent years, in the number of people with higher education qualifications.
With a population of 100,000 people, Eastbourne has been a fast-growing town in the past few years, relative to the rest of the UK. Development around Eastbourne's Sovereign Harbour, Britain's largest composite marina, has created more than 3,000 new homes and an innovation centre for small businesses.
In 2008, Eastbourne was judged to have low productivity, in a national assessment by the National Audit Office. Productivity, measured by gross value added per employee, was recorded as £31,390 per year. This compared unfavourably with the South East overall, where GVA was £40,460 per employee per year. A possible explanation for this is that a high proportion of workers are in sectors which have relatively low productivity and wages.
In recent years, five areas within Eastbourne have regularly featured in the most economically deprived 10% in all of England. Measured as Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs), two areas within Devonshire ward, two areas within Hampden Park, and one area within Langney, are all among the most deprived LSOAs in the country. Three quarters of LSOAs in the town (45 LSOAs or 76%) had a worse ranking for deprivation in 2010 than in 2007.
Technology and creative sectors
In 2016, UK innovation charity NESTA named Eastbourne as a "creative cluster", with 969 creative firms representing 9.1% of total businesses in the town and providing employment for 2,703 people.
The seafront at Eastbourne consists almost entirely of Victorian hotels. Along with its pier and bandstand, this serves to preserve the front in a somewhat timeless manner. The Duke of Devonshire, retains the rights[clarification needed] to the seafront buildings and does not allow them to be developed into shops.
A stretch of 4 miles (6.4 km) of shingle beach stretches from Sovereign Harbour in the east to Beachy Head in the west. In a 1998 survey, 56% of visitors said that the beach and seafront was one of Eastbourne best features, although 10% listed the pebbled beach as a dislike.
Other recreation facilities include two swimming pools, three fitness centres and other smaller sports clubs including scuba diving.
A children's adventure park is sited at the eastern end of the seafront. There are various other establishments scattered around the town such as crazy golf, go–karting and Laser Quest. The pier is an obvious place to visit and is sometimes used to hold events, such as the international birdman competition held annually, although this was cancelled in 2005 due to a lack of competitors. An annual raft competition used to take place where competitors, usually local businesses, circumnavigate the pier in a raft made by themselves, while being attacked by a water-cannon.
Reports claim a £365m revenue from visitors in 2010, with an estimated 7,160 jobs supported by tourism.
The town is home to the UK's largest book wholesalers, who have a 350,000 sq ft warehouse facility there. Gardners Books are one of the town's largest employers, with a majority of staff involved in packing and shipping books.|
A majority of Eastbourne's total employment is offered by small private businesses, though Eastbourne District General Hospital is a significant public sector employer.
In 2010, it was assessed that Eastbourne had a public sector employment rate of 25.4% of overall jobs. This was noted as below average, compared with the UK as a whole.
Towner Art Gallery
The Towner Art Gallery is Eastbourne's principal arts gallery and arts education hub. After being located for many years in Eastbourne Manor House, within Gildredge Park, it relocated next to the Congress Theatre in 2009. The gallery holds one of the most important collections of public art in southern England.
Eastbourne has three council-owned theatres: the Grade II* listed Congress Theatre, the Grade II listed Devonshire Park Theatre and the Grade II listed Winter Garden. The Grade II listed Royal Hippodrome Theatre used to be council-owned, but is now run by an independent charitable trust.
The Devonshire Park Theatre is a fine example of a Victorian theatre with ornate interior decorations, and plays host to touring dramas and comedies and an annual local pantomime. The Royal Hippodrome has the longest running summer show in Britain. The London Philharmonic Orchestra makes regular appearances and has an annual season at the Congress Theatre.
Other theatre venues in the town include the volunteer-run Underground Theatre, in the basement of the town's Central Library, and the Lamb Theatre, based at the Lamb Inn in Old Town, which was launched in August 2009 but reinstated an older tradition at the pub.
Eastbourne has two cinemas: the Curzon Cinema and Cineworld. The Curzon Cinema is a small, family-run, independent cinema in Langney Road, in the town centre. Cineworld is a large Multiplex cinema with six screens, located in the Crumbles Retail Park, near Sovereign Harbour.
In 2013, the owners of the Curzon Cinema declared themselves "shocked" at the threats to their venue from a newly announced eight-screen multiplex, to be built in a renovated Arndale Centre nearby.
There was once a second similar bandstand (also built in 1935) in the 'music gardens' near the Redoubt Fortress. The bandstand was removed to make way for the Pavilion Tearooms but the colonnades built around it are still there (behind the tea rooms). Before 1935 each of these sites had a smaller "birdcage" bandstand; the one in the music gardens having been moved from a rather precarious position opposite the Albion Hotel. The kiosk in the music gardens was originally one of the toll kiosks at the entrance to the pier.
Grove Road is the location of two independent record shops and a venue called Printer's Playhouse (which hosts performances of live music and new plays).
Local radio station More Radio Eastbourne, formerly Sovereign FM broadcasts to Eastbourne from nearby Hailsham. There are two other regional radio stations, Heart Sussex, (previously Southern FM) which broadcasts across Sussex from Portslade and BBC Sussex which broadcasts from Brighton.
Depictions in popular culture
The seafront and the iconic cliff at Beachy Head has been used for many scenes in feature films, and the local council set up a film liaison unit to encourage and facilitate the shooting of film sequences in and around the town. The 2006 Academy Award-nominated film Notes on a Scandal includes scenes filmed at Beachy Head, Cavendish Hotel and 117 Royal Parade. Beachy Head and the Seven Sisters were used as backdrops for scenes from the Quidditch World Cup in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Scenes from Half a Sixpence (1969) were filmed on the pier and near to the bandstand. The seafront area was also used for the film Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging directed by Gurinder Chadha. The Langham Hotel was a filming location for Made in Dagenham, which also featured the seafront and pier. A sequence of a rainy day at the seaside for the Doel family has as its backdrop the Wish Tower, the bandstand, the Cavendish Hotel and the pier in the 1987 British/American drama film 84 Charing Cross Road directed by David Jones.
Television too has used Eastbourne as a backdrop. The series Little Britain had the character Emily Howard strolling along the promenade. Other brief appearances were made in the television series Agatha Christie's Marple, The Two Ronnies, French and Saunders and Foyle's War. A sequence of sketches that appear in each episode of Bang, Bang, It's Reeves and Mortimer, was shot in the old Jo Pip's / Cunninghams theatre venue on Seaside Road, which has since been developed into flats. The 1993 BBC drama series Westbeach was filmed on location in Eastbourne and surrounding areas.
Parks and gardens
Eastbourne has numerous parks and gardens, although there are several smaller open spaces including Upperton Gardens, the Carpet Gardens and the Western Lawns. The first public park in Eastbourne was Hampden Park, originally owned by Lord Willingdon and opened on 12 August 1902. Facilities include: football pitches, rugby club, indoor bowls, a large lake (formerly a Decoy pond), lakeside cafe, children's recreation area, tennis courts, BMX and skate facility, disc golf course (target) and woodland. The largest and newest park is Shinewater Park, located on the west side of Langney and opened in 2002. There is a large fishing lake, basketball, football pitches, a BMX and skate park and children's playground.
Gildredge Park is a large open park located between the town centre and Old Town; it is very popular with families and has a children's playground, cafe, tennis courts, disc golf course (target) and bowls lawns. The smaller, adjoining, Manor Gardens combines both lawns and shady areas as well as a rose garden. Until 2005, Manor Gardens was the home of the Towner Gallery. This gallery incorporated a permanent exhibition of local art and historical items, plus temporary art exhibitions of regional and national significance. It was relocated to a new, £8.6 million purpose-built facility adjacent to the Congress Theatre, Devonshire Park which opened on 4 April 2009.
Princes Park obtained its name during a visit by the Duke of Windsor as Prince of Wales in 1931. Located at the eastern end of the seafront, it has a children's playground with paddling pool, cafe, bowls and a large lake, noted for its swans. The lake is used by a nearby water-sports centre, which offers kayak and windsurfing training. Princes Park lake is also home to Eastbourne Model Powerboat Club and Eastbourne Model Yacht Club. Close by are tennis and basketball courts and a football pitch. At the north of the park is Eastbourne United F.C.. On 21 July 2018, the park hosted the town's second LGBTQ+ Pride event which was attended by over 4,000 people.
Devonshire Park, home to the pre-Wimbledon ladies tennis championships, is located just off the seafront in the towns cultural district. Other parks include: Helen Gardens and the Italian Gardens at the western end of the seafront, Sovereign Park between the main seafront and the marina and Motcombe Gardens in Old Town.
One feature that has always been heavily promoted is Eastbourne's floral displays, most notably the Carpet Gardens along the coastal road near the pier. These displays, and the town as a whole, frequently win awards – such as the 'Coastal Resort B' category in the 2003 Britain in Bloom competition.
Eastbourne's Devonshire Park is the venue for the Eastbourne International, a tennis tournament held in the town since 1974 and serving as a warm-up to Wimbledon. Previously a women only tournament, in 2009 the Lawn Tennis Association merged it with the men only event the Nottingham Open.
Eastbourne has four senior football clubs: Eastbourne Borough F.C. play in the Conference South. Eastbourne Town F.C., Eastbourne United Association F.C. and Langney Wanderers F.C. play in the Southern Combination League Premier. Langney Wanderers F.C. won promotion to the Southern Combination League Division One. in 2018
Eastbourne Eagles are a speedway club located at Arlington Stadium, just outside the town. Between 1997–2014 they competed in the Elite League, the highest level of speedway in the UK. They were champions in 2000. They now compete in the National League. Arlington stadium also sees stock-car racing on Wednesday evenings in the summer months.
Eastbourne hosted a triathlon in 2016 and 2017, which attracted professional triathletes such as Ben Allen, Jacqui Slack, Lawrence Fanous and 2012 Biathle world champion Richard Stannard in addition to the hundreds of amateurs taking part. The event takes in the town's major landmarks, including the promenade and local South Downs National Park.
Other local sports clubs include cricket, hockey, rugby, lacrosse and golf. Among Eastbourne's golf courses are the Royal Eastbourne, Eastbourne Downs, Willingdon and the Eastbourne Golfing Park. There is an annual extreme sports festival held at the eastern end of the seafront. Eastbourne Sovereign Sailing Club, on the seafront towards the eastern end, organises dinghy sailing for its members and visitors from Easter to Boxing Day and usually holds a National Championship Series for a popular UK class in the summer months.
Beachy Head and the Downs
The Eastbourne Downland provides a spectacular backdrop to the town. The 4,000 acres of farmland and downland are owned by the town of Eastbourne, following the 1926 Eastbourne Corporation Act, which aimed to protect their unspoilt beauty "in perpetuity".
The Eastbourne Downs include Beachy Head cliff, to the west of the town, a famous beauty spot and an infamous suicide spot. Statistics are not officially published to reduce suicidal mimicry, but unofficial statistics show it to be the third most common suicide spot.
The lighthouse at the foot of the cliff came into operation in October 1902. Although originally manned by two keepers, it has been remotely monitored by Trinity House via a landline since June 1983. Prior to its construction, shipping had been warned by the Belle Tout Lighthouse on the cliff top some 1,640 yards (1,500 m) to the west. Belle Tout Lighthouse was operational from 1834 to 1902, and closed because its light was not visible in mist and low cloud. It became a private residence, but was severely damaged in the Second World War by Canadian artillery. In 1956, it was rebuilt as a house and remains a dwelling to this day. In March 1999, the structure was moved 55 feet (17 m) back from the cliff edge to save it from plunging into the sea.The structure may need to be moved again to safeguard it from cliff erosion.
Eastbourne Pier was built between 1866 and 1872 at the junction of Grand and Marine Parades. The pier interrupts what would otherwise have been a ribbon development of buildings – to the west, high-class hotels, with modest family hotels and boarding houses to the east. The Eastbourne Pier Company was registered in April 1865 with a capital of £15,000 and on 18 April 1866 work began. It was opened by Lord Edward Cavendish on 13 June 1870, although it was not actually completed until two years later. On New Year's Day 1877 the landward half was swept away in a storm. It was rebuilt at a higher level, creating a drop towards the end of the pier. The pier is effectively built on stilts that rest in cups on the sea-bed allowing the whole structure to move during rough weather. It is roughly 300 metres (1000 ft) long. A domed 400-seater pavilion was constructed at a cost of £250 at the seaward end in 1888. A 1,000-seater theatre, bar, camera obscura and office suite replaced this in 1899/1901. At the same time, two saloons were built midway along the pier. Access to the camera obscura was destroyed by an arson attack in 1970, but was restored in 2003 with a new stairway built.
Eastbourne Pier fire
On 30 July 2014, a fire broke out in the middle building of the pier. BBC News reported that 80 firefighters attended the scene. One third of the pier was badly damaged.
On 19 August 2014, a worker from Cumbria died after falling through the decking of the damaged pier.
Central government paid Eastbourne Borough Council £2m in one-off funding, to compensate for lost income to the town from the temporary loss of the attraction. The Council spent this on a variety of projects and events in the hope of boosting the local economy.
Eastbourne Redoubt on Royal Parade is one of three examples of a type of fortress built to withstand potential invasion from Napoleon's forces in the early 19th century. It houses collections from the Royal Sussex Regiment, the Queen's Royal Irish Hussars and the Sussex Combined Services Collection; including four Victoria Crosses and General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim's Steyr Automobile 1500A Afrika Korps Staff Car.
Eastbourne's reputation for health, enhanced by bracing air and sea breezes contributed to the establishment of many independent schools in the 19th century and in 1871, the year which saw the arrival of Queenwood Ladies College, the town was just beginning a period of growth and prosperity. By 1896, Gowland's Eastbourne Directory listed 76 private schools for boys and girls. However, economic difficulties during the inter-war years saw a gradual decline in the number of independent schools.
In 1930, the headmistress of Clovelly-Kepplestone, a well-established boarding school for girls, referred to "heavy financial losses experienced by schools in the past few years". In 1930, this school was forced to merge its junior and senior departments; in 1931, one of its buildings was sold off, and in 1934 the school closed altogether. Finally, indicative of the changes that would later befall many of the larger buildings in the town, the school was demolished to make way for a block of flats, which was completed in 1939.
The Eastbourne (Blue Book) Directory for 1938 lists 39 independent schools in the town. With the fall of France in June 1940, and the risk of invasion, most left – the majority never to return. By 2007, the number had reduced to just four: St. Andrew's Prep School, Eastbourne College, St. Bede's Preparatory School and Roedean Moira House, a school for girls aged up to 18.
Eastbourne has 6 state secondary schools, 17 state primary schools, 1 primary special school and 2 secondary special schools. Parts of the University of Brighton are based in the Meads area of the town. There are several language colleges and schools, with students coming mainly from Europe.
East Sussex College is a large further education college with a campus in Eastbourne. This state-funded college provides a range of GCSE, GCE A Level, BTEC and vocational programmes for students aged 16–19 years of age, plus a full range of adult FE programmes. It gained its current structure in 2003 from a merger of Park College (the old Eastbourne Sixth Form college), Lewes Tertiary College and Eastbourne College of Arts and Technology (ECAT). It then operated under the name of Sussex Downs College for several years before being renamed and restructured again.
Health and emergency services
The town is served by Eastbourne District General Hospital, part of East Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust. As of 2014, the maternity unit of the hospital has been permanently transferred to the Conquest Hospital, Hastings after years of campaigning to save the unit. An earlier hospital, St Mary's, opened on Vicarage Road in 1877 as the infirmary to the local workhouse; it was demolished in 1990. Eastbourne Fire Station is in Whitley Road, and the town's police station is in Grove Road. Eastbourne has an RNLI lifeboat station. A new boat named Diamond Jubilee was launched in 2012 by the Earl and Countess of Wessex.
Eastbourne Blind Society was founded in 1923 to support eight war-blinded veterans. In 1963 a centre in Longstone Road was opened and today the society has almost 800 members.
As well as the medieval parish church of St Mary in Old Town, another remarkable church building in Eastbourne is the redbrick St Saviour's and St Peter's. Originally consecrated under the former name in 1872, it was designed by George Edmund Street but merged with St Peter's in 1971 when the latter was made redundant and demolished. The Catholic Church of Our Lady of Ransom is a generously proportioned building with a tall Gothic interior. One of the windows commemorates the exiled Polish-Lithuanian nobleman, Prince Lev Sapieha, who lived in the town, and there is much other artwork in the building. The recently formed Personal Ordinariate of Anglicans reconciled to the Catholic Church meets at St Agnes, another Victorian Gothic building.
The tall flint tower of St Michael's at Ocklynge is one of Eastbourne's landmarks. The church was consecrated in 1902 and built on the site of the mission hall where the nonsense writer Lewis Carroll (the clergyman CL Dodgson) is known to have preached during his holidays in the town. All Souls, in Italian style, is a finely proportioned building with an Evangelical church tradition. Holy Trinity also has a strong history of Evangelism, particularly during the early 20th century when Canon Stephen Warner was the vicar for 28 years. There is a Greek Orthodox Church converted from a 19th-century Calvinistic chapel. The Strict Baptist Chapel in Grove Road is an interesting building, despite its rather grim street frontage. The United Reformed Church in Upperton Road has tall rogue Gothic windows set in red brick walls. Several other denominations have similarly interesting church buildings, including some of 20th century design, such as the Baptist Church in Eldon Road. The copyrights of many well-known hymns used in the English-speaking world are handled by Kingway's Thankyou Music of Eastbourne. There is a tradition of Judaism in Eastbourne, and a Jewish rest home. The Islamic community uses a small mosque that was formerly the Seeboard social club.
Eastbourne is connected by road to London by the A22, and to Brighton and Hove and Hastings by the nearby A27. The car is the most used form of transport in the town, with only 6% of journeys taken by bus; the local council transport plan aims to reduce the amount of car usage. Bus services within Eastbourne have been provided by Stagecoach Group under the name Stagecoach in Eastbourne since November 2008, when the company acquired Eastbourne Buses, a service run by the local council, and subsequently the independent company Cavendish Motor Services. Eastbourne Buses had been formed in 1903 by the County Borough of Eastbourne, who were the first local authority in the world authorised to run motor buses. As well as local journeys within the town, Stagecoach also runs routes to Polegate, Hailsham, Tunbridge Wells, Uckfield and East Grinstead at various frequencies, while the two routes to Hastings via Bexhill are run by Stagecoach South East from Hastings. The other main operator into Eastbourne is Brighton & Hove, owned by the Go-Ahead Group, which runs frequent services seven days a week from Brighton via Seaford and Newhaven. Limited numbers of additional buses are run by the Cuckmere Buses, and a regular National Express coach service operates daily from London's Victoria Coach Station.
The main railway station is situated in the town centre and is served by Southern. The present station (the town's third), designed by F. D. Bannister, dates from 1886. It was originally on what was termed the Eastbourne Branch from Polegate. There was a rarely used triangular junction between Polegate and the now-closed Stone Cross which allowed trains to bypass the Branch; the track has now been lifted. Also on the erstwhile Branch is Hampden Park railway station to the north of the town. Regular services along the coast have invariably served Eastbourne. All trains, because of the layout, have to pass through Hampden Park once in each direction. This has the effect of making the Hampden Park level crossing very busy. Indeed, it is thought to be the busiest in the country. Regular services are to London Victoria, Gatwick Airport, Hastings and Ashford International and a commuter service to Brighton. Trains leave from London Victoria to Eastbourne with a journey time of 1hr 36mins. A miniature tramway once ran a mile across "the Crumbles" (then undeveloped) from near Princes Park/Wartling Road towards Langney Point. It opened in 1954 but ceased operation in 1970, relocating to Seaton in Devon after the owners had fallen out with the council; it is now the Seaton Tramway.
Eastbourne can claim some notable visitors, residents and scholars:
Former students at the closed St Cyprian's School include George Orwell, Alaric Jacob, E. H. W. Meyerstein and Alan Hyman. The biographer and historian Philip Ziegler was also a pupil, as was the music historian Dyneley Hussey and politician, historian and diarist Alan Clark.
David Bowie performed in Eastbourne several times. He included a mention of Eastbourne in his 1967 single, The Laughing Gnome: "Well I gave him roasted toadstools and a glass of dandelion wine, Then I put him on a train to Eastbourne, Carried his bag and gave him a fag ..."
NASA aerospace engineer Bruce Woodgate, who attended Eastbourne Grammar School, was the principal investigator and designer of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, which was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope in 1997.
In 1993, following a suggestion to Eastbourne Borough Council by Eastbourne Civic Society (now Eastbourne Society), a joint project was set up to erect blue plaques on buildings associated with famous people. The principles for selection are broadly those already established by English Heritage for such plaques in London. The first was erected in November 1994 in Milnthorpe Road at the former home of Sir Ernest Shackleton, the Antarctic explorer.
Dramatic artists and comedians
Theresa May, a former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, was born in the town.
Henry Allingham, briefly the world's oldest man when he died in 2009, aged 113, was a resident.
Military figures who had been students at St Cyprian's include: General Sir Lashmer Whistler; Major General Henry Foot VC; the submarine commander Rupert Lonsdale. Other ex-students at St Cyprian's include: the amateur jockey Anthony Mildmay; Seymour de Lotbiniere, one-time Director of Outside Broadcasts at the BBC; Jagaddipendra Narayan, a reigning Maharaja of Cooch Behar while at the school.
- "The Leader and Deputy Leader – Senior Council members". East Sussex County Council.
- "Eastbourne's story". Eastbourne Borough Council. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- "East Sussex in Figures, Economy profile for Eastbourne, Business by industrial sector in 2012". 2011 Census, Office for National Statistics. East Sussex County Council.
- "Age structure, local authorities in England and Wales, Table KS02 Age structure". Table KS102EW 2011. Census, Office for National Statistics.
- Historic England. "Shinewater Bronze Age settlement (1400780)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
- "EASTBOURNE TIMELINE" (PDF). Eastbourne.gov.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Wright, J C (1902), Bygone Eastbourne, Eastbourne: Spottiswoode
- "Centuries old woman's face revealed". Bbc.co.uk. 1 February 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Beachy Head Lady was young sub-Saharan Roman with good teeth, say archaeologists". Culture24.org.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "History of Eastbourne". Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- "'Unique' Anglo-Saxon coin could give royal murder clue". BBC News. 20 May 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "Anglo-Saxon coin goes for £78,000 at London auction". Eastbourne Herald. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Whitefield-Smith, N. (2004), Eastbourne – A history & celebration, Frith Book Company Ltd, ISBN 978-1-904938-24-8
- Stevens 1987
- "St Mary the Virgin, Old Town". Eastbourne Parish Church. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
- The book of Eastbourne, Eastbourne: Produced for the 99th annual meeting of the British Medical Association, 1931
- "Listed Buildings". Eastbourne Townscape Guide. Eastbourne Borough Council. July 2004. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- Stevens 1987, p. 14
- Plaque at foot of cross
- Surtees, Dr John (2002), Eastbourne, A History, Chichester: Phillimore, ISBN 978-1-86077-226-9
- Royer (attrib.), James. (1787), East-bourne and its Environs
- "The Wish Tower, Eastbourne". Flickr.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Milton, Rosemary; Callaghan, Richard (2005), The Redoubt Fortress and Martello Towers of Eastbourne 1804–2004, Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society, ISBN 978-0-9547647-0-8
- "Gildredge, an ancient house and estate", says Sussex historian Mark Antony Lower, "gave name to a family of considerable antiquity, who subsequently had their chief residence at Eastbourne, and gave their name to the manor of Eastbourne-Gildredge."
- "Archive of the Davies-Gilbert Family of Eastbourne, East Sussex, East Sussex Record Office, the National Archives". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Arthur Mee, editor, King's England: Sussex 1930s edition
- Spears, Harold; Stevens, Lawrence; Crook, Richard; Hodsoll, Vera (1981). Eight Town Walks in Eastbourne. Eastbourne: Eastbourne Civic Society.
- Tarver, Nick (7 April 2015). "WW1 camp re-equipped soldiers for war". Bbc.com.
- Ockenden, Michael (2006), Canucks by the Sea, Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society, ISBN 978-0-9547647-1-5
- Stevens 1987, p. 28
- Ramsey, Winston G. (1987). Winston G. Ramsey & Gordon Ramsey (eds.). The Blitz – Then and Now. 1. After the Battle. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-900913-45-7.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Allom, VM (1966). "18". Ex Oriente Salus – A Centenary History of Eastbourne College. Eastbourne: Eastbourne College. p. 122.
- Mason, Francis K (1969). "4". Battle over Britain. London: McWhirter Twins. p. 95.
- Burgess, Pat; Saunders, Andy (1995). Bombers over Sussex. Midhurst: Middleton Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-873793-51-0.
- Humphrey, George (1989), Wartime Eastbourne, Eastbourne: Beckett Features, ISBN 978-1-871986-00-6
- "Eastbourne Country Borough, with list of casualties". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Cullen, Pamela V. (2006), A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams, London: Elliott & Thompson, ISBN 978-1-904027-19-5
- Hallworth, Rodney and Mark Williams, Where there's a will... The sensational life of Dr John Bodkin Adams, Capstan Press, Jersey, 1983. ISBN 0-946797-00-5
- Officially removed from the list of doctors authorised to practise medicine (treat patients) by the General Medical Council
- Clack, Mavis (January 2007). "About us". The Eastbourne Society. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- Eastbourne Town Centre Regeneration, Eastbourne Borough Council, archived from the original on 11 February 2009, retrieved 24 June 2007
- Eastbourne Local History Society, retrieved 11 February 2010
- Local history societies in Sussex, The Local History Press Ltd, retrieved 11 February 2010
- Local Resources, Eastbourne Borough Council, retrieved 11 February 2010
- "County: East Sussex Site Name: Willingdon Down" (PDF). English Nature. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "County: East Sussex, Site Name: Seaford to Beachy Head" (PDF). English Nature. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Milton, John T. (1995), Origins of Eastbourne's Street Names (pamphlet ed.), Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society, ISBN 978-0-9504560-6-5
- Perry, Keith (28 June 2000). "Five teenagers hurt as car plunges over 150ft cliff". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Lime kilns". Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter. No. 31. March 1979.
- Eastbourne, an Illustrated Miscellany, Salisbury, Shropshire: Frith Book Company, 2004, ISBN 978-1-904938-79-8
- "Holywell". Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter. No. 91. March 1979.
- UK Weather Records, UK Met Office, archived from the original on 3 April 2012, retrieved 27 November 2008
- "1976 temperature". KNMI.
- "1987 temperature". KNMI.
- "Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.com.
- "Met Office: Climate averages 1981–2010". Met Office. July 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- "Anomaly maps". Eca.knmi.nl. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
- Local Elections, Eastbourne Borough Council, retrieved 25 January 2007
- How Local Elections Work, Eastbourne Borough Council, retrieved 25 January 2007
- "Election Results 2015". Eastbourne Borough Council. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- Colin Cunningham (1981). Victorian and Edwardian town halls. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-7100-0723-0. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- East Sussex County Councillors, Eastbourne Borough Council, retrieved 25 January 2007
- "Find your nearest councillor". Eastsussex.gov.uk. East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "YouElect UK Elections 2010". Youelect.org.uk. 2011. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- "Local elections: Eastbourne". BBC News. 4 May 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Eastbourne result, General Election 2010, BBC Online Network, 7 May 2010
- "Eastbourne Parliamentary constituency". BBC News Election 2015. BBC. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- "European Parliamentary election 2009". 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
Results for South East
- "Town population's age profile drops – Local News". Eastbourne Herald. 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Locate". locateeastsussex.org.uk.
- "District has 'highest average age'". Bbc.co.uk. 19 October 2013.
- "Area Summary for Eastbourne Borough – East Sussex Public Health – March 2016" (PDF). East Sussex County Council.
- "Neighbourhood Statistics – Eastbourne", 2007 Estimate, National Statistics, retrieved 14 October 2010
- "Race Equality Scheme 2009–2012". Eastbourne Borough Council. p. 8. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- "Eastbourne Area Profile, Economy". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "East Sussex in Figures". East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "East Sussex in Figures". Eastbourne Economy Profile. East Sussex County Council. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Eastbourne and District Chamber of Commerce Ltd". Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- Annual Business Inquiry, UK National Audit Office (2008)
- East Sussex Local Transport Plan 2011–2026, East Sussex County Council (2011)
- Indices of Multiple Deprivation (East Sussex in Figures), UK Department for Communities & Local Government, 2010
- "Eastbourne Herald". Eastbourneherald.co.uk. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Eastbourne's Story". Eastbourne Borough Council. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Tourism Study: Visitor Profile & Economic Impact, Report commissioned by Eastbourne Borough Council, 1998
- "No 'birds' means Birdman scrapped". BBC News. 28 July 2005. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
- "The Economic Impact of Tourism Eastbourne 2010" (PDF). Tourism South East. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- "Gardners – Gardners Books". Gardners.com.
- Rogers, Simon (21 November 2011). "The public sector employment map of the UK: the full data". the Guardian.
- Historic England. "Congress Theatre (1323698)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
- Eastbourne Borough Council – Theatres, archived from the original on 27 May 2013, retrieved 7 November 2015
- About the Under Ground Theatre, Eastbourne Arts Centre, retrieved 18 July 2011
- "Oldest town inn begins new life as theatre". Eastbourne Herald. Retrieved 16 October 2009.
- "Curzon owner 'shocked' by plans for multiplex cinema". Eastbourneherald.co.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Sovereign Radio, Eastbourne, Media-UK, retrieved 26 April 2008
- "Film Liaison". Eastbourne Borough Council. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "Cliff top may be Quidditch pitch". BBC News. 11 August 2004. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Film wizards shoot Harry Potter scenes". Eastbourne Herald. 20 September 2004. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- "Eastbourne is on the silver screen again". Eastbourne Herald. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- 84 Charing Cross Road, Columbia Pictures, EAN 5035822111134
- "Eastbourne Ladies – Kevin Coyne Song – BBC Music". BBC. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Music – Review of Kevin Coyne – Marjory Razorblade". BBC. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
- "Shinewater Park". Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "Welcome to Eastbourne Model Powerboat Club Web Site". Eastbourne Model Powerboat Club. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- "Eastbourne and District Model Yacht Club". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
- Jane Ali-Knight; Martin Robertson; Alan Fyall (2008). International Perspectives of Festivals and Events. Elsevier. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-08-045100-8. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Men and Women's Tennis Merged Events". Eastbourne Borough Council. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "The Official Football Conference League Website – Tables". Footballconference.co.uk. 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
- "Southern Combination Football League". Scfl.org.uk. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Speedway GB League Tables 2000". 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- "Eastbourne Eagles". Eastbourneeagles.co. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Spedeworth Motorsports – Eastbourne". Spedeworth.co.uk. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Eastbourne CC". Eastbourne.play-cricket.com. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Eastbourne Hockey Club". Eastbournehc.co.uk. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Eastbourne Rugby Club". Pitchero.com. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Brighton Uni Lacrosse". Brightonunilacrosse.moonfruit.com. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Eastbourne Extreme". Visiteastbourne.com. 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- "Eastbourne Sovereign Sailing Club". 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Gunnell, D. (1994). "Reporting Suicide – The effect of media coverage on patterns of self harm". British Medical Journal. 308 (6941): 1446–47. doi:10.1136/bmj.308.6941.1446.
- Hunt, Tom (2006). Cliffs of Despair: A Journey to the Edge. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50715-1.
- Surtees, Dr John (1997), Beachy Head, Seaford: SB Publications, ISBN 978-1-85770-118-0
- "The 28ft move that took a day", The Argus, 18 March 1999
- Crook, Richard (Spring 2010). "Eastbourne Pier – Past, present and future". The Eastbourne Society Observer. No. 182. p. 10.
- Surtees, Dr John (2002). Eastbourne – a history. Chichester: Phillimore. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-86077-226-9.
- "English Seaside Piers – Eastbourne Pier". English Heritage Trail. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
- "Fire rips through Eastbourne Pier destroying roof". BBC News. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Eastbourne pier fire worker dies". Eastbourne Herald. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Mason, Rowena (1 August 2014). "Eastbourne pier to get £2m restoration as government invests in UK coast". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Other Redoubts in the South East, Eastbourne Museums, retrieved 27 June 2007
- Petrie Carew, Dorothea (1967), Many Years Many Girls, Dublin: The Author
- "Independent Schools". Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter. No. 79.
- "The First Years (30th anniversary publication)". Eastbourne Civic Society – the First Years. 1991.
- "Sussex Downs College – Welcome to Sussex Downs College". Sussexdowns.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Toth, Rob (13 April 2017). "Eastbourne District General Hospital". Esh.nhs.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "It's over! One man's vote kills campaign". Eastbourne Herald. 1 August 2014.
The Health Overview and Scrutiny Committee chairman Coun Mike Ensor cast his deciding vote after the committee voted 6-6 on a vote to determine that the single site for East Sussex maternity would be at Hastings, thus closing the Eastbourne Maternity Unit.
- "The Workhouse". Workhouses.org.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Boroughs & Community Fire Stations". Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Eastbourne Police Station". Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- "Royal couple name new lifeboat". Bbc.co.uk. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Eastbourne Blind Society". Eastbourneblindsociety.org.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Stevens 1987, p. 20
- Joan Kennedy, Our Lady of Ransom, in Gratitude and Hope, Our Lady of Ransom Catholic Church, Eastbourne, 2001.
- The Coat of Arms magazine, N.S. Volume XI, No. 172, Winter 1995, p. 174
- "St Agnes, Eastbourne" (PDF). English Heritage Review of Churches in Diocese. English Heritage. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- "St Michael and All Angels, Eastbourne". Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "All Souls Church Eastbourne". East Sussex Community Information Service. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "Eastbourne – All Souls, Susans Road". Sussex Parish Churches. 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "The Greek Orthodox Church of St. Panteleimon & St. Theodore – Eastbourne". Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain. 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- Robinson; Pike (1897). Pike's Eastbourne Directory, 1897/98. Duke Street, Brighton: Robinson, Son and Pike. p. 106.
- N. Pevsner, Buildings of England series: Sussex
- "Kingsway Communications". Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- "Guide To Judaism". Something Jewish. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- "Eastbourne Hebrew Congregation". Jewish Gen. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
- "Eastbourne Mosque revamp plan". Eastbourne Herald. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
- Local Transport Plan 2006–2011, East Sussex County Council, March 2006
- "Eastbourne Buses was sold for £4million". TR Beckett Newspapers. 27 November 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2008.
- Spencer, Dave (1993), Eastbourne Bus Story, Midhurst: Middleton Press, ISBN 978-1-873793-17-6
- Handbook of Stations ... on the Railways of Great Britain and Ireland British Transport Commission (Railway Clearing House) 1956
- "Level crossing warnings at Hampden Park". Eastbourne Herald. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
- National Rail Enquiries, Association of Train Operating Companies, retrieved 1 July 2007
- Harley, Robert J (1996), Seaton and Eastbourne Tramways, West Sussex: Middleton Press, ISBN 978-1-873793-76-3
- "Lewis Carroll Blue Plaque – Blue Plaque – East Sussex". Eastbourne. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- Cooper, R.M. (1998). The Literary Guide & Companion to Southern England. Ohio University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8214-1225-1. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
- "Eastbourne Memories – A Victorian Perspective". sussexhistory.co.uk. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- Hastings, David (27 May 2007), "An arch-seductress graduates to sequel", The Sunday Telegraph, London
- "Anna Keary". Oxforddnb.com. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Kerrigan, Michael (1998), Who lies where (A guide to famous graves), London, England: Fourth Estate Ltd, ISBN 978-1-85702-258-2
- Ben Rogers A.J. Ayer: A Life 2002 Grove Press ISBN 0-8021-3869-1
- Simeone, N. 'Debussy and expression', in Trezise, S. (ed.) (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Debussy. p.108. Cambridge University Press, UK. ISBN 9780521654784
- Pianist Russ Conway dies, BBC News, 16 November 2000, retrieved 16 July 2007
- Toploader, Much Music, archived from the original on 7 October 2007, retrieved 1 July 2007
- Easyworld, BBC Hampshire, retrieved 1 July 2007
- "The Divided – Demo (EP)". Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Annemarie Field (28 December 2006). "EIGHTIES BAND'S ALBUM REVIVAL". Eastbourne Today. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
- Gorringe, Tim. "Eastbourne singer/songwriter Robin Romei on writing his new single out Nov 25". Ethemagazine.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- "Thomas Henry Huxley green plaque". Openplaques.org.
This house 'Hodeslea' was built by Thomas Henry Huxley. F.R.S. 1890 he lived here 1895
- "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921 – Frederick Soddy Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Tributes paid to man who changed the face of space". Eastbourne Herald. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- Tanglao, Leezel (1 May 2014). "Inventor of the camera used on Hubble telescope has died". CBS News. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Lawrence Oates". Eastbourne Society Newsletter. No. 163.
- "George Mallory". Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter. No. 145.
- "Eastbourne Flying Club". Eastbourne Local History Society Newsletter. No. 143.
- "Blue plaque puts explorer on local map". Evening Argus. 22 November 1994.
- Powers, Alan (15 July 2012). Eric Ravilious: Imagined Realities. Philip Wilson Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-78130-001-5.
- Pickering, David. "Scales, Prunella". The Museum of Broadcast Communications. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- "Eddie Izzard". Eddieizzard.com. Retrieved 25 February 2009.
- Coveney, Michael (7 June 2016). "Annie Castledine obituary". Theguardian.com.
- "Directory of Eastbourne". Kelly's Directory. London: Kelly's Directories Ltd. 1957. p. 181.
- Crowley, Aleister, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, p. 93, retrieved 30 June 2007
- Brickhill, Paul (1954), Reach for the Sky: The Story of Douglas Bader DSO, DFC., London: Odhams Press Ltd, ISBN 978-0-00-211701-2
- St Cyprian's Chronicle 1914–1930 (at Eastbourne Reference Library)
- Works cited
- Stevens, Lawrence (1987). A Short History of Eastbourne. Eastbourne: Eastbourne Local History Society. ISBN 978-0-9504560-7-2.