Eastern Command (United Kingdom)

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Eastern Command
Eastern Command (United Kingdom) Badge.jpg
Active 1793–1972
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Type Command
Garrison/HQ Colchester (1866–1905)
London (1905–1939)
Luton Hoo (1939–1945)
Hounslow (1945–1954)
Wilton Park (1954–1972)

Eastern Command was a Command of the British Army.

Nineteenth century[edit]

Colchester Garrison, command headquarters from 1866 to 1905
50 Pall Mall (second building on the left), command headquarters during the early 20th century
Luton Hoo, command headquarters from 1939 to 1945
Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow, command headquarters from 1945 to 1954
Wilton Park, command headquarters from 1954 to 1972

Great Britain was divided into military districts on the outbreak of war with France in 1793.[1] In the first half of the 19th century the command included the counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire and Hertfordshire.[2] It was based in Colchester.[3]

Disbanded after the Napoleonic Wars, the Eastern District Command was re-created in 1866[4][5] and was based at Flagstaff House in Colchester.[6] In January 1876 a ‘Mobilization Scheme for the forces in Great Britain and Ireland’ was published, with the ‘Active Army’ divided into eight army corps based on the District Commands. 1st Corps was to be formed within Eastern Command, based in Colchester. This scheme disappeared in 1881, when the districts were retitled ‘District Commands.[7]

Twentieth century[edit]

The 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on six regional commands. As outlined in a paper published in 1903, IV Corps was to be formed in a reconstituted Eastern Command, with HQ at London.[8] Lieutenant General Lord Grenfell was appointed acting General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOCinC) of IV Corps in April 1903.[9]

First World War[edit]

Army Order No 324, issued on 21 August 1914, authorised the formation of a 'New Army' of six Divisions, manned by volunteers who had responded to Earl Kitchener's appeal (hence the First New Army was known as 'K1'). Each division was to be under the administration of one of the Home Commands, and Eastern Command formed what became the 12th (Eastern) Division.[10] It was followed by 18th (Eastern) Division of K2 in September 1914.[11] During the First World War, Eastern Command was based at 50 Pall Mall, London.[12]

Second World War[edit]

By 1939 its headquarters was located at Horseguards in London.[13] At that time Regular Troops reporting to the Command included 4th Infantry Division.[13] During the Second World War, the Command relocated to Luton Hoo in Bedfordshire.[14] During the war, the 76th Infantry (Reserve) Division was assigned to the command as its training formation.[15]

Post War[edit]

After the War the command moved to Hounslow Barracks in Hounslow.[16] When the Territorial Army was reformed in 1947, 54th (East Anglian) was not reconstituted as a field division, but 161st Infantry Brigade was reformed as an independent infantry brigade in Eastern Command.[17] The command moved to Wilton Park in Beaconsfield in 1954.[18] It was merged into HQ UK Land Forces (HQ UKLF) in 1972.[19]

General Officers Commanding-in-Chief[edit]

GOCs and GOCinCs have included:[20][21][22]
General Officer Commanding Eastern District


General Officer Commanding Eastern Command

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Burnham and Ron McGuigan, The British Army Against Napoleon: Facts, Lists and Trivia, 1805–1815 (2010) p. 7.
  2. ^ Trollope, Anthony (2014). "An Autobiography: and Other Writings". Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0199675289. 
  3. ^ "The Gentleman's Magazine, and Historical Chronicle, Volume 97, Part 2". 1827. Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  4. ^ Pevsner, p 282
  5. ^ "'Barracks', in A History of the County of Essex: Volume 9, the Borough of Colchester, ed. Janet Cooper and C R Elrington". London. 1994. p. 251-255. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  6. ^ "Roman circus foundations uncovered at Flagstaff House". The Colchester Archaeologist. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  7. ^ Army List 1876–1881.
  8. ^ Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27545. p. 2527. 21 April 1903. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  10. ^ "12th Division". The long, long trail. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  11. ^ "18th Division". The long, long trail. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  12. ^ Jeffery, p. 198
  13. ^ a b Patriot Files
  14. ^ Discover Bedfordshire Archived June 10, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Forty 2013, Reserve Divisions.
  16. ^ TA Heathcote, The British Field Marshals 1736–1997, Pen & Sword Books, Published 1999, ISBN 0-85052-696-5, Page 120
  17. ^ Watson, TA 1947.
  18. ^ Subterranea Britannica
  19. ^ "Army Command Structure (United Kingdom)". Hansard. 17 December 1970. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  20. ^ Whitaker's Almanacks 1905 – 1972
  21. ^ Eastern Command at Regiments.org
  22. ^ "Army Commands" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  23. ^ "William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  24. ^ Wickwire (1980), pp. 252–253
  25. ^ "Craig, James Henry". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 19 December 2015. 
  26. ^ Philippart, John (1816). "The Royal Military Calendar". 
  27. ^ "Lord Chatham’s aides-de-camp at Walcheren, 1809". Retrieved 20 December 2015. 
  28. ^ David R. Fisher and Stephen Farrell, BYNG, Sir John (1772–1860), of 6 Portman Square, Mdx. and Bellaghy, co. Londonderry in The History of Parliament: the House of Commons 1820–1832, ed. D.R. Fisher, 2009

Sources[edit]

  • Forty, George (2013) [1998]. Companion to the British Army 1939–1945 (ePub ed.). New York: Spellmount. ISBN 978-0-7509-5139-5. 
  • Jeffery, Keith (2006). Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson: A Political Soldier. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-820358-2. 
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus (1965). Essex (Pevsner Architectural Guides: Buildings of England). Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300096019. 
  • Wickwire, Franklin and Mary (1980). Cornwallis: The Imperial Years. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1387-7.