Eastern Liao

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Eastern Liao

東遼
1213–1269
CapitalZhongjing
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 1213–1220
Yelü Liuge
• 1226–1238
Yelü Xuedu
• 1238–1259
Yelü Shouguonu
• 1259–1269
Yelü Gunai
History 
• Yelü Liuge revolts against the Jin dynasty
1212
• Yelü Liuge becomes king
1213
• Later Liao splits from Eastern Liao
1216
• Disestablished
1269
CurrencyChinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins etc.
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Mongol Empire
Today part ofChina

Eastern Liao (simplified Chinese: 东辽; traditional Chinese: 東遼; pinyin: Dōng Liáo) was a kingdom established by the Khitan Yelü clan in what is now Northeast China. Its capital was situated in modern-day Kaiyuan, Liaoning.

Establishment[edit]

Yelü Liuge, a descendant of the Liao dynasty imperial clan, rebelled against the rule of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1212. Within several months, Yelü Liuge was able to build up a sizeable following. The Jin emperor Xuanzong appointed Wanyan Husha and Puxian Wannu to crush the rebellion, but Yelü Liuge subsequently defeated the Jin forces in modern Changtu, Liaoning with Mongol support.[1]

In 1213, Yelü Liuge proclaimed himself king, adopted the dynastic name of "Liao" (Chinese: ) and era name of "Yuantong" (Chinese: 元統). To distinguish this regime from other similarly named realms in Chinese history, historians refer to this kingdom in retrospect as "Eastern Liao" (Chinese: 東遼).[2]

In 1214, the Jin dynasty once again attacked Eastern Liao under the command of Puxian Wannu. After defeating the Jin forces the second time, Yelü Liuge established his capital at modern-day Kaiyuan, Liaoning and renamed it to "Zhongjing" (lit. "Middle Capital"; Chinese: 中京).

Relations with Later Liao[edit]

In 1215, Yelü Liuge occupied the eastern capital of the Jin dynasty (modern Liaoyang, Liaoning). Soon after, Eastern Liao officials began to urge Yelü Liuge to assume the title of "emperor". Yelü Liuge declined and subsequently allied himself with Genghis Khan who had by this time united the Mongol tribes.

In 1216, Yelü Sibu (the younger brother of Yelü Liuge) rebelled against the pro-Mongol faction led by Yelü Liuge. Yelü Sibu proclaimed himself the emperor of a new regime, Later Liao (Chinese: 後遼), in modern Haicheng, Liaoning.[3]

In 1218, Yelü Liuge attacked Later Liao with the support of the Mongol Empire and Goryeo. In the spring of 1219, the Later Liao ruler Yelü Hanshe committed suicide after suffering military defeat by Eastern Liao, marking the collapse of the Later Liao regime.[3]

Monarchs[edit]

Personal name Era name Reign Reference
Yelü Liuge (耶律留哥) Yuantong (元統) 1213–1220 [2]
Empress Yaoli (姚里氏)1 1220–1226
Yelü Xuedu (耶律薛阇) 1226–1238
Yelü Shouguonu (耶律收國奴) 1238–1259
Yelü Gunai (耶律古乃) 1259–1269
1 Regent

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hu, Bo (2004). 蒙古族古代军事史.
  2. ^ a b Pei, Yuanbo (2011). 契丹钱树鉴赏与投资.
  3. ^ a b Pei, Yuanbo (2011). 契丹钱树鉴赏与投资.