Eastern Pwo language
|Native to||Burma, Thailand|
|Ethnicity||Pwo Karen people|
|Burmese script (various alphabets)|
Leke script, Thai script
Eastern Pwo or Phlou, (Burmese: အရှေ့ပိုးကရင်) is a Karen language spoken by over a million people in Burma and by about 50,000 in Thailand, where it has been called Southern Pwo. It is not intelligible with other varieties of Pwo.
A script called Leke was developed between 1830 and 1860 and is used by members of the millenarian Leke sect of Buddhism. Otherwise a variety of Burmese alphabets are used, and refugees in Thailand have created a Thai alphabet which is in limited use.
- Kayin State and Tanintharyi Region: long contiguous area near the Thai border
- Bago Region: Bago and Toungoo townships
The following displays the phonological features of two of the eastern Pwo Karen dialects, Pa'an and Tavoy:
- Post-alveolar affricates /tɕ, tɕʰ/, are realized as fricatives [s, sʰ], among some formal dialects.
- /t̪/ when pronounced slowly is phonetically realized as a dental affricate [t̪θ].
- Voiced plosives /b, d/ are pronounced as implosives [ɓ, ɗ] only in the Pa'an dialect.
- /h/ does not exist in the Tavoy dialect.
- /j/ may tend to be slightly fricativized [ʝ] when preceding front vowels.
- /r/ may also be realized as a tap [ɾ].
- /ɪ/ does not occur after a /w/ sound.
- /ɪ, ʊ, ɛ, ɔ/ are merged with /i, u, e, o/ in the Tavoy dialect.
Four tones are present in Eastern Pwo:
- Pa’an (Inland Eastern Pwo Karen, Moulmein)
- Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen)
- Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen)
The Eastern Pwo Karen language is heavily derived from the Mon script and the Burmese script.
|Number||Eastern Pwo Karen|
|21||၂၁||ဏီ့ဆီ့လ်ု||ne chi luh|
|22||၂၂||ဏီ့ဆီ့ဏီ့||ne chi ne|
|101||၁၀၁||လ်ုဖငၲႉလ်ု||luh pong luh|
The Eastern Pwo Karen numeric symbols currently does not exist in the Burmese Unicode block.
- The number zero, ploh plih (ပၠဝ်ပၠေ), means "of no value".
- The number zero is not used in day-to-day life and mostly exists in writing only. People are taught to use the Burmese numeric system instead, including zero.
- Chi (ဆီ့) denotes 10, any number from 1 to 9 before chi can be interpreted as "of ten(s)", so 20 would be ne chi. Pong (ဖငၲ) denotes 100, any number from 1 to 9 before pong can be interpreted as "hundred(s)", so 200 would be ne pong. Similarly, the same rule applies to thousand, muh (မိုငၲ့); ten-thousand, lah (လါ); and hundred-thousand, thay (သိငၲႉ).
- Numbers after the hundred-thousands (millions and above) are prefixed with thay (သိငၲႉ), hundred thousand. For example, one million would be thay luh chi (သိငၲႉလ်ုဆီ့), "hundred thousand of tens"; two million would be thay ne chi (သိငၲႉဏီ့ဆီ့), hundred thousand of two tens; ten million would be thay luh pong (သိငၲႉလ်ုဖငၲ), "hundred thousand of hundreds"; one billion would be thay luh lah (သိငၲႉလ်ုလါ), "hundred thousand of ten thousands".
Due to the close approximation to Thailand, the Eastern Pwo Karen adopts Thai's decimal word, chut, (Karen: ကျူဒၲ, ကျူ(ဒၲ); Thai: จุด; English: and, dot). For example, 1.01 is luh chut ploh plih luh (လ်ု ပၠဝ်ပၠေလ်ု).
Fractions are formed by saying puh (ပုံႉ) after the numerator and the denominator. For example, one-third (1/3) would be luh puh thuh puh (လ်ုပုံသိုငၲ့ပုံ) and three over one, three-"oneths" (3/1) would be thuh puh luh puh (သိုငၲ့ပုံလ်ုပုံ).
- Eastern Pwo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pwo Eastern Karen". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Kato, Atsuhiko (1995). The phonological systems of three Pwo Karen dialects. Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 18. pp. 63–103.CS1 maint: location (link)
|Eastern Pwo language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|