Eastern Romance languages

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Eastern Romance
Geographic
distribution
Balkans and part of Eastern Europe, western Basilicata (Italy)
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Subdivisions
Glottologeast2714[1]

The Eastern Romance languages[2] are a group of Romance languages. Today, the group consists of the Balkan Romance (also known as Daco-Romance[2]) subgroup which comprises the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), Aromanian language (Macedo-Romanian) and two other related minor languages, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian; and the Castelmezzano dialect, in southern Italy.[3][4][5]

Some classifications also include the extinct Dalmatian language (otherwise included in the Italo-Dalmatian group) as part of the Balkan Romance subgroup,[6][7][8] considering Dalmatian a bridge between Italian and Romanian.[9][10]

Samples of Eastern Romance languages[edit]

Note: the lexicon used below is not universally recognized

Istro-Romanian[11][12][13] Aromanian[14][15] Megleno-Romanian[16] Romanian Italian Spanish French Latin English
pićor cicior picior picior gamba (pierna) jambe petiolus/gamba leg
kľeptu cheptu kľeptu piept petto pecho poitrine pectus chest
bire ghine bini bine bene bien bien bene well, good
bľerå azghirari zber zbiera ruggire rugir rugir bēlāre/rugīre to roar
fiľu hilj iľu fiu figlio hijo fils filius son
fiľa hilje iľe fiică figlia hija fille fīlia daughter
ficåt hicat ficat fegato hígado foie fīcātum liver
fi hire ire fi essere ser être fuī/esse/sum to be
fľer heru ieru fier ferro hierro fer ferrum iron
vițelu yitsãl vițål vițel vitello (ternero) veau vitellus calf
(g)ľerm iermu ghiarmi vierme verme verme (gusano) ver vermis worm
viu yiu ghiu viu vivo vivo vivant vīvus/vīvēns alive
vipt yiptu vipt cibo (vitto) comida (victo) victuaille (archaic) victus food, grain, victuals
mľe(lu) njel m'iel miel agnello (cordero), añel (archaic) agneau agnellus lamb
mľåre njare m'ari miere miele miel miel mel honey

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Eastern Romance". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ a b Schulte 2009, p. 230.
  3. ^ Hammarström 2019, [1].
  4. ^ Agard 1984, p. 250.
  5. ^ Hall 1950, p. 16.
  6. ^ Swiggers 2011, p. 272.
  7. ^ Sampson 1999, p. 298.
  8. ^ Hall 1950, p. 24.
  9. ^ Posner 1996, p. 195.
  10. ^ Harris 1997, p. 22.
  11. ^ Lexicul Istroromân Moștenit din Latină
  12. ^ Istroromâna în viziunea lui Traian Cantemir
  13. ^ Istro-romanians: The Legacy of a Culture
  14. ^ Dialectul Aromân
  15. ^ Atlasul Lingvistic al Dialectului Aromân
  16. ^ Dialectul Meglenoromân

Sources[edit]

  • Agard, Frederick Browning (1984). A Course in Romance Linguistics Volume 2: A Diachronic View. Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-074-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hall, Robert A., Jr. (1950). "The Reconstruction of Proto-Romance". Language. Linguistic Society of America. 26 (1): 6–27. doi:10.2307/410406.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Harris, Martin (1997). "The Romance Languages". In Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (eds.). The Romance Languages. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1–25. ISBN 978-0-415-16417-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin (2019). "Catalogue of languages and families". Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Posner, Rebecca (1996). The Romance Languages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-52-128139-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Sampson, Rodney (1999). Nasal Vowel Evolution in Romance. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-823848-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Schulte, Kim (2009). "Loanwords in Romanian". In Haspelmath, Martin; Tadmor, Uri (eds.). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 230–259. ISBN 978-3-11-021843-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Swiggers, Pierre (2011). "Mapping the Romance Languages of Europe". In Lameli, Alfred; Kehrein, Roland; Rabanus, Stefan (eds.). Language Mapping: Part I. Part II: Maps. De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 269–301. ISBN 978-3-11-021916-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)