Ebony and Ivory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Ebony and Ivory"
Ebony and Ivory.jpg
Single by Paul McCartney featuring Stevie Wonder
from the album Tug of War
Released29 March 1982
LabelParlophone/EMI (UK)
Columbia (US)
Songwriter(s)Paul McCartney
Producer(s)George Martin
Paul McCartney singles chronology
"Temporary Secretary"
"Ebony and Ivory"
"Take It Away"
Stevie Wonder singles chronology
"Do I Do"
"Ebony and Ivory"
"Ribbon in the Sky"

"Ebony and Ivory" is a song that was released in 1982 as a single by Paul McCartney featuring Stevie Wonder. It was issued on 29 March that year as the lead single from McCartney's third solo album, Tug of War (1982). Written by McCartney, the song aligns the black and white keys of a piano keyboard with the theme of racial harmony. The single reached number one on both the UK and the US charts and was among the top-selling singles of 1982 in the US. During the apartheid era, the South African Broadcasting Corporation banned the song after Wonder dedicated his 1984 Academy Award for Best Original Song to Nelson Mandela.

McCartney and Wonder began recording "Ebony and Ivory" in Montserrat in early 1981. The single marked the first time that McCartney had released a duet with another major artist and anticipated his 1980s collaborations with Michael Jackson. While a major commercial hit, the song has received derision from music critics who view its message as overly simplistic and sentimental. The track also appears on McCartney's All the Best! compilation (1987) and on the two-disc version of Wonder's The Definitive Collection (2002). In 2013, Billboard ranked it as the 69th biggest hit of all-time on the Billboard Hot 100 charts.[1]


McCartney wrote "Ebony and Ivory" at his farm in Scotland.[2] The song uses the ebony (black) and ivory (white) keys on a piano as a metaphor for integration and racial harmony. The title was inspired by McCartney hearing Spike Milligan say, "Black notes, white notes, and you need to play the two to make harmony, folks!"[3] The figure of speech is much older. It was popularised by James Aggrey in the 1920s, inspiring the title of the pan-African journal The Keys, but was in use from at least the 1840s.[4]

While writing the song, McCartney envisaged singing it with a black male singer.[2] He and Wonder recorded it together at George Martin's AIR Studios in Montserrat[5] during sessions lasting from 27 February to 2 March 1981. McCartney then carried out overdubs on the track at AIR in London.[6] Due to conflicting work schedules, McCartney and Wonder filmed their parts for the song's music video separately (as explained by McCartney in his commentary for The McCartney Years 3-DVD boxed set).

A video for the solo version was also made, which showed McCartney playing piano with a bright spotlight, and black men in prison, including one of them being uplifted by the song, dancing and listening to it in prison as well as in the studio. This version was directed by Barry Myers on 11 February 1982. That same day, McCartney filmed a promotional interview for the Tug of War album.[2]

The B-side of the single, "Rainclouds", was written by McCartney and Denny Laine, though on early pressings of the single the song was credited only to McCartney.[7] According to authors Chip Madinger and Mark Easter, "Rainclouds" is "perhaps most notorious" as the track that McCartney worked on during 9 December 1980, straight after hearing that John Lennon had been fatally shot in New York.[8] When leaving AIR Studios in central London that evening, he said in response to a TV reporter's question about the murder: "drag, isn't it?"[6] The footage was included in news broadcasts around the world and McCartney's apparent casualness, though masking his profound shock, earned condemnation from the press.[9][10]

Release and chart performance[edit]

The "Ebony and Ivory" single was released on 29 March 1982 in both the UK and the United States.[11] It marked the first time in McCartney's solo career that he had sung a duet with another major star. In this, McCartney and Wonder fitted a trend as duetting artists became commonplace throughout the 1980s, particularly in mainstream British pop.[12]

The single spent seven weeks at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US[13] and it was the fourth-biggest hit there of 1982.[14] Its commercial success was aided by the music video, with MTV having been launched the year before.[13] The song was also number one in the UK.[13][15]

In the US, the single's run atop the chart was the longest of any of McCartney's post-Beatles works, and the second longest career-wise (behind the Beatles' "Hey Jude"). For Wonder, it was his longest-running chart-topper and made him the first solo artist to achieve a number-one single in the US over three consecutive decades.[16] It marked the first time that any single released by any member of the Beatles placed on the Billboard R&B chart. It was McCartney's record 28th song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100.[17]

In 2008, "Ebony and Ivory" was ranked at number 59 on Billboard's Hot 100 songs of all-time.[18] It was ranked 69th on a similar list published by the magazine in 2013.[1]

Critical reception and legacy[edit]

Record World said it has "a pretty pop melody and sing-along chorus hook."[19]

Some critics have derided the song as "saccharine".[20][21] According to Madinger and Easter, the most common reaction 20 years later was that it marked "the beginning of the end of [McCartney's] artistic credibility". They add that while the song appealed to listeners who would never usually have bought a McCartney record, it "wore out its welcome quickly" and came to be seen as him attempting to stay musically relevant in middle age, particularly as he soon went on to record duets with Michael Jackson.[2]

In 2007, BBC 6 Music listeners voted "Ebony and Ivory" the worst duet in history.[22] Two years later, Blender magazine named it as the tenth worst song of all time.[23] Writing in 2010, biographer Howard Sounes said that while many people consider the song to be "annoyingly simplistic", it contains "the ineluctable power of McCartney's best tunes" and was a "massive hit".[24]

The song and video were spoofed in a 1982 Saturday Night Live sketch, with Eddie Murphy portraying Wonder and Joe Piscopo, as Frank Sinatra, assuming McCartney's role. In the sketch, Sinatra criticises the "ebony and ivory" metaphor for racial equality (which was deemed by many critics to be overly simplistic, to the point of being insulting) as being "too artsy for the public – capiche?" After a brief exchange, the duo perform the song with more direct, and offensive, lyrics ("You are black, and I am white / Life's an Eskimo Pie, let's take a bite!").[25]

Part of a phrase from the song's lyrics provided the title for Keyboard, Oh Lord! Why Don't We?, a 2005 album by the Norwegian stoner rock band Thulsa Doom. The song and video were parodied in a commercial for the 2008 season of the USA Network show Psych.[26]

The South Park season 25 episode "The Big Fix" features a parody of the song called "Black Puppy, White Puppy". Dan Caffrey of The A.V. Club suggests that McCartney may have denied a request from producers Trey Parker and Matt Stone for the song's inclusion in the episode, thus necessitating the parody.[27]

"Ebony and Ivory" was banned in South Africa by the South African Broadcasting Corporation during the apartheid era, making it the only song McCartney released in his solo career to receive such a ban. The official reason for the ban was because Wonder accepted his 1984 Academy Award for Best Original Song "in the name of Nelson Mandela".[28][29]

Track listings[edit]

  • 7" single (R 6054)
  1. "Ebony and Ivory" – 3:41
  2. "Rainclouds" – 3:47
  • 12" single (12R 6054)
  1. "Ebony and Ivory" – 3:41
  2. "Rainclouds" – 3:47
  3. "Ebony and Ivory" (Solo Version) – 3:41


"Ebony and Ivory"




Region Certification Certified units/sales
New Zealand (RMNZ)[72] Gold 10,000*
United Kingdom (BPI)[73] Gold 500,000^
United States (RIAA)[74] Gold 1,000,000^

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Bronson, Fred (2 August 2012). "Hot 100 55th Anniversary: The All-Time Top 100 Songs". Billboard. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. p. 266. ISBN 0-615-11724-4.
  3. ^ Martin, George (editor): Making Music, page 62. Pan Books, 1983. ISBN 0-330-26945-3
  4. ^ 'Master and mistress, and neighbors, and negroes assemble, and black and white are seen strung along the great table, like the keys of a piano, and, like the aforesaid instrument, the black keys make fully as much noise as the white; all mingle for a while in the utmost harmony and good feeling ...' Rev C F Sturgis, 'Duties of Christian Masters to their Slaves' (1849) quoted in Breedon, James O (editor), Advice among Masters: The Ideal in Slave Management in the Old South (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980), page 262.
  5. ^ Sounes, Howard (2010). Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney. London: HarperCollins. pp. 372–73. ISBN 978-0-00-723705-0.
  6. ^ a b Madinger & Easter 2000, p. 263.
  7. ^ "Ebony and Ivory". JPGR. 2000. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  8. ^ Madinger & Easter 2000, pp. 263, 267.
  9. ^ Sounes 2010, p. 369.
  10. ^ Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. pp. 455–56. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4.
  11. ^ Madinger & Easter 2000, pp. 590, 594.
  12. ^ Clayson, Alan (2003). Paul McCartney. London: Sanctuary. pp. 205–06. ISBN 1-86074-482-6.
  13. ^ a b c Sounes 2010, p. 380.
  14. ^ Billboard Year-End Hot 100 Singles – 1982
  15. ^ "Official Charts: Paul McCartney". The Official UK Charts Company. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
  16. ^ Whitburn, Joel, "Top Pop Singles: 1955–2006", 2007.
  17. ^ "American Top 40 replay". Green Bay, Wisconsin. 22 May 1982. {{cite episode}}: Missing or empty |series= (help)
  18. ^ "The Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Songs (60–51)". Billboard. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  19. ^ "Hits of the Week" (PDF). Record World. 10 April 1982. p. 1. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  20. ^ Jackson, Andrew Grant (2012). Still the Greatest: The Essential Songs of the Beatles' Solo Careers. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810882225. Retrieved 3 March 2017 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ Alleyne, Richard (25 January 2012). "Sir Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder back in the studio together for the first time 30 years". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  22. ^ "Ebony and Ivory voted worst duet". BBC News. 6 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
  23. ^ "Run for Your Life! It's the 50 Worst Songs Ever!". Blender. Archived from the original on 31 December 2009.
  24. ^ Sounes 2010, p. 373.
  25. ^ "SNL Transcripts Tonight: Ebony & Ivory". SNL Transcripts Tonight. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  26. ^ PSYCH Sing-Along "Ebony & Ivory" on YouTube
  27. ^ "South Park heads back to Middle-earth to lampoon performative allyship". AV Club. 9 February 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  28. ^ "Stevie Wonder Music Banned in South Africa". The New York Times. 27 March 1985. Retrieved 26 May 2008.
  29. ^ "Mandela: South Africa's Star Attractor". The Washington Post. 25 July 1998. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  30. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  31. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
  32. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50.
  33. ^ Lwin, Nanda (2000). Top 40 Hits: The Essential Chart Guide.
  34. ^ "Top RPM Singles: Issue 6531." RPM. Library and Archives Canada.
  35. ^ "Top RPM Adult Contemporary: Issue 6533." RPM. Library and Archives Canada.
  36. ^ "Danish Chart Archive - Singles 1979 - ____ (B.T./IFPI DK)". www.ukmix.org. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  37. ^ "The Europarade - 1980 to 1982". UKMIX Forums. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  38. ^ Timo (13 August 2015). "Sisältää hitin: Levyt ja esittäjät Suomen musiikkilistoilla vuodesta 1960: Artistit MAU - MEM". Sisältää hitin. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  39. ^ "InfoDisc : Les Tubes de chaque artiste commençant par M". Infodisc.fr. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  40. ^ "Topp 10 vinsælustu lögin". DV (in Icelandic). 28 May 1982. p. 11. ISSN 1021-8254. Retrieved 11 December 2020 – via Timarit.is.
  41. ^ "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Ebony and Ivory". Irish Singles Chart.
  42. ^ "Israel Singles Charts 1987-1995". www.ukmix.org. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  43. ^ "Paul McCartney Japanese Singles Chart listings". Original Confidence. Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2008.
  44. ^ "Japan #1 IMPORT DISKS". Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  45. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – Paul McCartney - additional vocals by Stevie Wonder" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40.
  46. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory" (in Dutch). Single Top 100.
  47. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory". Top 40 Singles.
  48. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory". VG-lista.
  49. ^ "South African Rock Lists Website SA Charts 1969 – 1989 Acts (M)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  50. ^ Sólo éxitos: año a año : 1959–2002. Salaverri, Fernando. Iberautor Promociones Culturales. 2005. ISBN 9788480486392. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
  51. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory". Singles Top 100.
  52. ^ "Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory". Swiss Singles Chart.
  53. ^ "Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company.
  54. ^ "Paul McCartney Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard.
  55. ^ "Paul McCartney Chart History (Adult Contemporary)". Billboard.
  56. ^ "Cash Box Top 100 Singles – Week ending May 15, 1982". Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  57. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Paul McCartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony and Ivory". GfK Entertainment charts.
  58. ^ Kimberley, Christopher. Zimbabwe Singles Chart Book: 1965-1996.
  59. ^ "National Top 100 Singles for 1982". Kent Music Report. 3 January 1983. Retrieved 22 January 2023 – via Imgur.
  60. ^ "Forum – ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts – Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts – 1980s". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  61. ^ "Jahreshitparade Singles 1982". austriancharts.at. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  62. ^ "Jaaroverzichten 1982". Ultratop. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  63. ^ "Item Display – RPM – Library and Archives Canada". Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  64. ^ "Top 100-Jaaroverzicht van 1982". Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  65. ^ "Jaaroverzichten – Single 1982". dutchcharts.nl. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  66. ^ "The Official New Zealand Music Chart". Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  67. ^ Swiss Year-End Charts, 1982
  68. ^ Rees, Dafydd; Lazell, Barry; Jones, Alan (1983). "The Top 100 UK Singles". Chart File Volume 2. London: Virgin Books. pp. 80–81. ISBN 0-907080-73-1.
  69. ^ "Top 100 Hits of 1982/Top 100 Songs of 1982". Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  70. ^ "Cash Box YE Pop Singles – 1982". Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  71. ^ "Top 100 Single-Jahrescharts". GfK Entertainment (in German). offiziellecharts.de. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  72. ^ "New Zealand single certifications – Paul McCartney – Ebony and Ivory". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  73. ^ "British single certifications – Paul Mc Cartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony". British Phonographic Industry.
  74. ^ "American single certifications – Paul Mc Cartney & Stevie Wonder – Ebony". Recording Industry Association of America.