Ebrahim Raisi

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Ebrahim Raisi
Ebrahim Raisi in Zanjan-13.jpg
Raisi at Zanjan on May 2017
Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi
Assumed office
7 March 2016
Appointed by Ali Khamenei
Deputy Morteza Bakhtiari
Preceded by Abbas Vaez-Tabasi
Member of the Assembly of Experts
Assumed office
20 February 2007
Preceded by Esmaeil Ferdosipour
Constituency South Khorasan Province
Majority 325,139 (80.0%)[1]
28th Attorney-General of Iran
In office
23 August 2014 – 6 March 2016
Appointed by Sadeq Larijani
Preceded by Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Succeeded by Mohammad Jafar Montazeri
First Vice Chief Justice of Iran
In office
2004 – 23 August 2014
Chief Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
Sadeq Larijani
Preceded by Mohammad-Hadi Marvi[2]
Succeeded by Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
2nd Chairman of General Inspection Office
In office
1994–2004
Appointed by Mohammad Yazdi
Preceded by Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad
Succeeded by Mohammad Niazi
Personal details
Born Seyyed Ebrahim Raisol-Sadati
(1960-12-14) 14 December 1960 (age 57)
Mashhad, Iran
Nationality Iranian
Political party Combatant Clergy Association[3]
Other political
affiliations
Islamic Republican Party (until 1987)[3]
Spouse(s) Jamileh Alamolhoda[4]
Children 2 daughters[5]
Relatives Ahmad Alamolhoda (father-in-law)
Alma mater Shahid Motahari University[3]
Qom Seminary[3]
Signature
Website Official website

Seyyed Ebrahim Raisol-Sadati (Persian: سید ابراهیم رئیس‌الساداتی‎; born 14 December 1960[6][7]), commonly known as Ebrahim Raisi (Persian: ابراهیم رئیسی‎, About this sound pronunciation ), is an Iranian cleric and the current custodian and chairman of Astan Quds Razavi (a wealthy and powerful foundation or bonyad).[8] He served in several positions in Iran's Judicial system, such as Attorney General from 2014 to 2016, and Deputy Chief Justice from 2004 to 2014. He was also Prosecutor and Deputy Prosecutor of Tehran in the 1980s and 1990s. He is also a member of Assembly of Experts from South Khorasan Province, being elected for the first time in 2006 election. He is the son-in-law of Mashhad Friday prayer leader and Grand Imam of Imam Reza shrine, Ahmad Alamolhoda.

On 6 April 2017, Raisi announced his official nomination for the upcoming presidential election.[9] He registered on 14 April and was ranked first in the voting of Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces's presidential candidate.[10] He lost the election to the Incumbent President Hassan Rouhani after receiving 15,786,449 votes (38.3%).

Early life[edit]

Ebrahim Raisi born on 14 December 1960 in Noghan district of Mashhad. He lost his father, Seyed Haji when he was 5.[3] He entered Qom Seminary at the age of 15. According to his own website, he holds a master's degree in the field of "International Private Law"[3] from an undisclosed institution and was also graduated with a Ph.D. in "jurisprudence and fundamentals of Islamic law" from Shahid Motahari University.[3]

Clerical credentials[edit]

According to Alex Vatanka of the Middle East Institute, Raisi's "exact religious qualification" is a "sore point". "For a while" prior to investigation by the Iranian media, he "referred to himself" as “ayatollah” on his personal website. However, according to Vatanka, the media "publicized his lack of formal religious education" and credentials, after which Raisi ceased claiming to hold the aforementioned rank. He now "refers to himself as hojat-ol-eslam", a clerical position lower in status and privilege.[11]

Judicial career[edit]

Early years[edit]

In 1981, he was appointed the prosecutor of Karaj. Later on, he was also appointed as Prosecutor of Hamadan and served both position together. He was simultaneously active in two cities more than 300 km away from each other.[12] After four months, he was appointed as Prosecutor of Hamadan Province.[3]

Tehran deputy prosecutor[edit]

He was appointed as Deputy prosecutor of Tehran in 1985 and moved to the capital.[13] After three years and in early 1988, he was placed in the attention of Ruhollah Khomeini and received special provisions (independent from judiciary) from him to address legal issues in some provinces like Lorestan, Semnan and Kermanshah.

1988 executions[edit]

Hussein-Ali Montazeri named Raisi as one of the four persons involved in the 1988 executions. Other persons were Morteza Eshraghi (Prosecutor of Tehran), Hossein-Ali Nayeri (Judge) and Mostafa Pourmohammadi (MOI representative in Evin). Names of first two persons are mentioned in Khomeini's order. Pourmohammadi has denied his role but Raisi has not commented publicly on the matter yet.[14][15]

Senior judicial positions[edit]

After Khomeini's death and election of Ali Khamenei as the new Supreme Leader, Raisi was appointed as Tehran prosecutor by newly appointed Chief-Justice Mohammad Yazdi. He held the office for five years from 1989 to 1994. In 1994, he was appointed as head of General Inspection Office.

From 2004 until 2014, Raisi served as First Deputy Chief Justice of Iran, being appointed by Chief Justice Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. He kept his position in Sadeq Larijani's first term as Chief Justice. He was later appointed as Attorney-General of Iran in 2014, a position that he held until 2016, when he resigned to become Chairman of Astan Quds Razavi.[16] He has also served as Special Clerical Court prosecutor.

Astan Quds Chairmanship[edit]

He became Chairman of Astan Quds Razavi on 7 March 2016 after the death of his predecessor Abbas Vaez-Tabasi.[17][18] He is the second person to serve this office from 1979. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei enumerated serving the pilgrims of the holy shrine, especially poor people and also serve nearby, especially the poor and dispossessed as two important responsibilities of Raisi in his appointment order.[19]

2017 presidential election[edit]

Raisi speaking at a presidential campaign rally in Tehran's Shahid Shiroudi Stadium

Raisi was named as one of the Popular Front of Islamic Revolution Forces (JAMNA)'s presidential candidates in February 2017.[20] His candidacy was also supported by the Front of Islamic Revolution Stability.[21][22] He officially announced his nomination in a statement published on 6 April, and called it his “religious and revolutionary responsibility to run”, citing the need for a “fundamental change in the executive management of the country” and a government that “fights poverty and corruption.”[23] He registered on 14 April 2017 at Ministry of Interior with saying it's time to perform citizenship rights, not only writing act.[24]

On 15 May 2017, conservative candidate Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf withdrew his candidacy in favor of Raisi.[25] It was speculated that Ghalibaf would be Raisi's first vice president if he elect.[26] They also joined in a campaign rally in Tehran with each other.

Raisi has been described as "a favorite and possible successor" to Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, by several sources,[27] [28][11] (at least before his electoral defeat).[29]

After election results were announced, Raisi received 15,786,449 out of 42,382,390 (38.30% of the votes). He lost to Incumbent President Rouhani and ranked second. He did not congratulate Rouhani on his re-election as the president,[30] and asked the Guardian Council to look into "violations of the law" before and during the elections, with 100 pages of attached documentation.[31]

Political positions[edit]

Ebrahim Raisi is a supporter of sex segregation. He said in a 2014 interview about a planned segregation in Tehran Municipality that "I think this is a good move because the majority of women do a better job in a totally relaxed atmosphere and fit are required."[32] He is also a supporter of Islamization of universities, revision of the Internet and censorship of Western culture.[33][34][35] Raisi sees economic sanctions as an opportunity.[36]

Economics[edit]

Raisi has said “I see the activation of a resistance economy as the only way to end poverty and deprivation in the country.”[37] He supports development of the agricultural sector over commercial retail, which “will eventually benefit foreign brands.”[38]

He has promised to triple the monthly state benefits, currently 450,000 rials per citizen, in order to tackle corruption and create six million jobs.[39]

Foreign policy[edit]

Answering reporters about his foreign policy, he said it “would be to establish ties with every country except Israel.”[40]

Electoral history[edit]

Year Election Votes % Rank Notes
2006 Assembly of Experts 200,906 68.6% 1st Won[1]
2016 Assembly of Experts Increase 325,139 Increase 80.0% 1st Won[41]
2017 President 15,835,794 38.28% 2nd Lost[42]

Personal life[edit]

Raisi is married to Jamileh Alamolhoda, daughter of Mashhad Friday Prayers Imam Ahmad Alamolhoda. She is an associate professor at Tehran's Shahid Beheshti University and is also president of the university's Institute of Fundamental Studies of Science and Technology.[43] The couple has two daughters.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "اعلام آرای مجلس خبرگان رهبری در خراسان جنوبی" (in Persian). Alef. 27 February 2016. 
  2. ^ "از نمایندگی امام در مسجد سلیمان تا معاون اولی قوهٔ قضائیه" (in Persian). Sadegh Newsletter. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "زندگی‌نامه حجت‌الاسلام و المسلمین سیدابراهیم رئیسی" (in Persian). Official Website of Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi. 
  4. ^ "با دختر علم الهدی و همسر رئیسی آشنا شوید/عکس". 22 April 2017. 
  5. ^ a b "مشخصات شناسنامه‌ای 6کاندیدای ریاست‌جمهوری". 21 April 2017. 
  6. ^ Birth certificate image
  7. ^ مرد 54 ساله ای که دادستان کل کشور شد، کیست؟/ ابراهیم رئیسی را بیشتر بشناسید
  8. ^ Ra'eesi became chairman of AQR
  9. ^ "Hardline cleric Raisi to take on Rouhani in Iran's presidential election". Reuters. 2017-04-09. Retrieved 2017-04-17. 
  10. ^ "Iran News Round Up", Critical Threats Project, 7 April 2017 
  11. ^ a b VATANKA, ALEX (12 April 2017). "The Supreme Leader's Apprentice Is Running for President". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-05-22. 
  12. ^ ""ابراهیم رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی منصوب شد"". 8 March 2016. 
  13. ^ "ابراهیم رئیسی کیست؟". 3 March 2017. 
  14. ^ ""ابراهیم رئیسی؛ از قضاوت تا تولیت"". 7 March 2017. 
  15. ^ Abrahamian, Ervand (4 May 2017). "An Interview with Scholar and Historian Ervand Abrahamian on the Islamic Republic's "Greatest Crime"". Center for Human Rights in Iran. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  16. ^ ""محسنی اژه‌ای معاون اول قوه قضائیه و رئیسی دادستان کل کشور شدند"". 2014. 
  17. ^ ""انتصاب حجت‌الاسلام رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی"". 7 March 2017. 
  18. ^ ""انتصاب ابراهیم رئیسی به تولیت آستان قدس رضوی"". 7 March 2017. 
  19. ^ "شروع انقلابی حجت الاسلام رئیسی در آستان قدس". 10 April 2016. 
  20. ^ Iran: Possible Conservative Presidential Candidate Emerges, Stratfor, 23 February 2017 
  21. ^ Iran’s conservatives scramble to find a presidential candidate, The Arab Weekly, 19 February 2017, retrieved 21 February 2017 
  22. ^ Rohollah Faghihi (21 February 2017), Meet the powerful Iranian cleric looking to unseat Rouhani, Al-Monitor, retrieved 21 February 2017 
  23. ^ Ruby Mellen (10 April 2017), Rouhani Gets a Hard-line Challenger for Iranian Presidency, Foreign Policy, retrieved 11 April 2017 
  24. ^ "Conservative cleric Ebrahim Raisi enters Iran's presidential race". 14 April 2017. 
  25. ^ "Iran: Tehran Mayor Qalibaf Withdraws, Backs Hardliner Raisi for President". 15 May 2017. 
  26. ^ "The reason Tehran's mayor dropped out of presidential race". 16 May 2017. 
  27. ^ Erdbrink, Thomas (2017-05-18). "Iran Has Its Own Hard-Line Populist, and He's on the Rise". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 
  28. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (9 January 2017). "Ebrahim Raisi: the Iranian cleric emerging as a frontrunner for supreme leader". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2017. 
  29. ^ VATANKA, ALEX (12 April 2017). "The Supreme Leader's Apprentice Is Running for President". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2017-05-22. A candidate Raisi who loses in the May elections would be far less likely to later take over as supreme leader. 
  30. ^ Arash Karami (21 May 2017). "In wake of Rouhani's win, conservative rivals vow to remain on scene". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  31. ^ Rohollah Faghihi (23 May 2017). "Iran's conservatives question election results". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  32. ^ "بانوان اولین مدافع تفکیک جنسیتی هستند". 2014. 
  33. ^ "رئیسی: دانشگاهها باید اسلامی شوند". 8 May 2017. 
  34. ^ "ابراهیم رییسی: باید به دنبال حذف ترویج فرهنگ غربی از متن جامعه باشیم". 10 May 2017. 
  35. ^ "اسلامی‌ نکردن دانشگاه‌ها کشور را با مشکل مواجه می‌کند/رشد اینترنت ما را وادار به بازنگری می‌کند". 11 May 2017. 
  36. ^ "رئیسی: تحریم یک فرصت است/باید خود را مقاوم کنیم". 12 May 2017. 
  37. ^ Golnaz Esfandiari (7 April 2017), "In Iran, Emerging Hard-Liner Stakes Future On Unseating Rohani", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, retrieved 22 April 2017 
  38. ^ Najmeh Bozorgmehr (14 April 2017), "Rouhani confirms he will seek second term in Iran elections", Financial Times, retrieved 22 April 2017 
  39. ^ Najmeh Bozorgmehr (26 April 2017), "Iran hardliners struggle to present united front ahead of poll", Financial Times, retrieved 27 April 2017 
  40. ^ What you need to know about presidential candidate Ebrahim Raisi, The Iran Project, 19 April 2017, retrieved 21 April 2017 
  41. ^ "نتایج نهائی انتخابات مجلس خبرگان رهبری در خراسان جنوبی" (in Persian). Khavarestan. 27 February 2016. 
  42. ^ "Final results of presidential election by province and county" (in Persian). Ministry of Interior. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  43. ^ "Conversation with Jamileh Alamolhoda, spouse of Ebrahim Raisi". 23 April 2017. 
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Abbas Vaez-Tabasi
Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi
2016–present
Incumbent
Legal offices
Preceded by
Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad
Chairman of General Inspection Office
1994–2004
Succeeded by
Mohammad Niazi
Preceded by
Mohammad Salimi
Special Prosecutor of Clergy
2012–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Attorney-General of Iran
2014–2016
Succeeded by
Mohammad Jafar Montazeri
Political offices
Preceded by
Hossein Mozaffar
Chairman of IRIB Supervisory Council
2012–2016
Succeeded by
Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i
Assembly seats
Preceded by
Esmaeil Ferdosipour
Member of the Assembly of Experts
from South Khorasan

2007–present
Incumbent