Echeveria

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Echeveria
Echeveria elegans - 1.jpg
Echeveria elegans
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Crassulaceae
Subtribe: Sedinae
Genus: Echeveria
DC.[1]
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Courantia Lem.
Oliveranthus Rose
Oliverella Rose
Urbinia Rose[1]

Echeveria is a large genus of flowering plants in the stonecrop family Crassulaceae, native to semi-desert areas of Central America, Mexico and northwestern South America.

Description[edit]

Plants may be evergreen or deciduous. Flowers on short stalks (cymes) arise from compact rosettes of succulent fleshy, often brightly coloured leaves.[2] Species are polycarpic, meaning that they may flower and set seed many times over the course of their lifetimes. Often numerous offsets are produced, and are commonly known as "hen and chicks", which can also refer to other genera, such as Sempervivum, that are significantly different from Echeveria. Many species of Echeveria serve important environmental roles, such as those of host plants for butterflies. For example, the butterfly Callophrys xami uses several species of Echeveria, such as Echevelia gibbiflora, for suitable host plants. Even more, these plants are integral to the oviposition process of C. xami and some other butterfly species as well.[3][4]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus was erected by A. P. de Candolle in 1828, and is named after the 18th century Mexican botanical artist Atanasio Echeverría y Godoy. As of June 2018, the genus consists of about 150 species, including genera such as Oliveranthus and Urbinia that have formerly been split off from Echeveria. Molecular phylogenetic studies have repeatedly shown the genus not to be monophyletic: species of Echeveria cluster with species of Cremnophila, Graptopetalum, Pachyphytum, and Thompsonella as well as species of Sedum sect. Pachysedum. The former Urbinia species do appear to form a monophyletic group within this grouping.[5][6] Although it is clear that Echeveria is not monophyletic, its limits are not clear, and further analyses are needed to determine whether and how the genus should be split.[6]

Species[edit]

One source accepts the following species:[7]

Echeveria acutifolia Lindley
Echeveria affinis Walther
Echeveria agavoides Lemaire
Echeveria alata Alexander
Echeveria amoena De Smet
Echeveria amphoralis Walther
Echeveria andicola Pino
Echeveria angustifolia Walther
Echeveria atropurpurea (Baker) Morren
Echeveria aurantiaca Reyes, Gonzáles-Zorzano & Brachet
Echeveria australis Rose
Echeveria bakeri Kimnach
Echeveria ballsii Walther
Echeveria bella Alexander
Echeveria bicolor (Humb. & Bonpl.) Walther
Echeveria bifida Schlechtendal
Echeveria brachetii Reyes & Gonzáles
Echeveria calderoniae Pérez-Calix
Echeveria calycosa Moran
Echeveria canaliculata Hooker f.
Echeveria cante Glass & Mendoza-Garcia
Echeveria carminea Alexander
Echeveria carnicolor E. Morren
Echeveria cerrograndensis Nieves-Hernández et al.
Echeveria chapalensis Moran & C.H.Uhl
Echeveria chazaroi Kimnach
Echeveria chiclensis (Ball) Berger
Echeveria chihuahuaensis von Poellnitz
Echeveria chilonensis (Kuntze) Walther
Echeveria coccinea (Cavanilles) DC
Echeveria colorata Walther
Echeveria compressicaulis Eggli & Taylor
Echeveria corallina Alexander
Echeveria coruana Garcia et al.
Echeveria craigiana Walther
Echeveria crenulata Rose
Echeveria cuencaensis von Poellnitz
Echeveria cuspidata Rose
Echeveria dactylifera Walther
Echeveria decumbens Kimnach
Echeveria derenbergii J.A.Purpus
Echeveria desmetiana De Smet
Echeveria diffractens Kimnach & A.B.Lau
Echeveria elegans Rose
Echeveria eurychlamys (Diels) Berger
Echeveria excelsa (Diels)Berger
Echeveria fimbriata C.H.Thompson
Echeveria fulgens Lemaire
Echeveria gibbiflora DC
Echeveria gigantea Rose & Purpus
Echeveria globuliflora Walther
Echeveria globulosa Moran
Echeveria goldmanii Rose
Echeveria gracilis (Rose) Moran
Echeveria grisea Walther
Echeveria guatemalensis Rose
Echeveria gudeliana Véliz & García-Mendoza
Echeveria guerrerensis Reyes, González-Zorzano & Brachet

Echeveria halbingeri Walther
Echeveria harmsii J.F.Macbride
Echeveria helmutiana Kimnach
Echeveria heterosepala Rose
Echeveria holwayi Rose
Echeveria humilis Rose
Echeveria hyalina E.Walther
Echeveria johnsonii Walther
Echeveria juarezensis Walther
Echeveria juliana Reyes, González-Zorzano & Kristen
Echeveria kimnachii Meyrán & Vega
Echeveria krahnii Kimnach
Echeveria laui Moran&Meyrán
Echeveria leucotricha Purpus
Echeveria lilacina Kimnach & Moran
Echeveria longiflora Walther
Echeveria longissima Walther
Echeveria lozanoi Rose
Echeveria lutea Rose
Echeveria lyonsii Kimnach
Echeveria macdougallii Walther
Echeveria macrantha Standley & Steyermark
Echeveria marianae García-Ruiz & Costea
Echeveria maxonii Rose
Echeveria megacalyx Walther
Echeveria minima J.Meyrán
Echeveria mondragoniana Reyes & Brachet
Echeveria montana Rose
Echeveria moranii Walther
Echeveria mucronata Schlechtendal
Echeveria multicaulis Rose
Echeveria munizii Padilla-Lepe & A. Vázquez
Echeveria nayaritensis Kimnach
Echeveria nebularum Moran & Kimnach
Echeveria nodulosa (Baker) Otto
Echeveria novogaliciana Reyes, Brachet & González-Zorzano
Echeveria nuda Lindley
Echeveria nuyooensis Reyes & Islas
Echeveria olivacea Moran
Echeveria oreophila Kimnach
Echeveria pallida Walther
Echeveria paniculata Gray
Echeveria papillosa Kimnach & C.H.Uhl
Echeveria patriotica García & Pérez-Calix
Echeveria penduliflora Walther
Echeveria pendulosa Kimnach & Uhl
Echeveria perezcalixii Jimeno-Sevilla & Carillo
Echeveria peruviana Meyrán
Echeveria pilosa J.A.Purpus
Echeveria pinetorum Rose
Echeveriap pistioides García et al.
Echeveria pittieri Rose
Echeveria platyphylla Rose
Echeveria pringlei (S.Watson) Rose
Echeveria procera Moran
Echeveria prolifica Moran & J.Meyrán

Echeveria prunina Kimnach & Moran
Echeveria pulidonis Walther
Echeveria pulvinata Rose
Echeveria purhepecha García
Echeveria purpusorum Berger
Echeveria quitensis (Humb. & Bonpl.) Lindley
Echeveria racemosa Schlechtendal & Chamisso
Echeveria rauschii van Keppel
Echeveria recurvata Carruthers
Echeveria rodolfi Martínez-Ávalos & Mora-Olivo
Echeveria rosea Lindley
Echeveria roseiflora Reyes & Gonzáles-zorzano
Echeveria rubromarginata Rose
Echeveria rulfiana Jimeno-Sevilla et al.
Echeveria runyonii Rose ex Walther
Echeveria schaffneri (S.Watson) Rose
Echeveria scheeri Lindley
Echeveria secunda Booth
Echeveria semivestita Moran
Echeveria sessiliflora Rose
Echeveria setosa Rose & Purpus
Echeveria shaviana Walther
Echeveria simulans Rose
Echeveria skinneri Walther
Echeveria spectabilis Alexander
Echeveria steyermarkii Standley
Echeveria strictiflora A.Gray
Echeveria subalpina Rose & Purpus
Echeveria subcorymbosa Kimnach & Moran
Echeveria subrigida (Robinson & Seaton) Rose
Echeveria subspicata (Baker) Berger
Echeveria tamaulipana Martinez-Ávalos, Mora & Terry
Echeveria tencho Moran & Uhl
Echeveria tenuis Rose
Echeveria teretifolia Sessé & Mociño ex DC
Echeveria tobarensis Berger
Echeveria tolimanensis Matuda
Echeveria tolucensis Rose
Echeveria trianthina Rose
Echeveria triquiana Reyes & Brachet
Echeveria turgida Rose
Echeveria uhlii Meyrán
Echeveria unguiculata Kimnach
Echeveria utcubambensis Hutchinson ex Kimnach
Echeveria uxorum Jimeno-Sevilla & Cházaro
Echeveria valvata Moran
Echeveria viridissima Walther
Echeveria walpoleana Rose
Echeveria waltheri Moran & Meyrán
Echeveria westii Walther
Echeveria whitei Rose
Echeveria wurdackii Hutchison ex Kimnach
Echeveria xichuensis Lopez & Reyes
Echeveria yalmanantlanensis A.Vázquez & Cházaro
Echeveria zorzaniana Reyes & Brachet

Cultivation[edit]

Echeveria glauca in a Connecticut greenhouse, kept at 77 °F (25 °C)

Many Echeveria species are popular as ornamental garden plants. They are drought-resistant, although they do better with regular deep watering and fertilizing. Most will tolerate shade and some frost, although hybrids tend to be less tolerant. Most lose their lower leaves in winter; as a result, after a few years, the plants lose their compact appearance and need to be re-rooted or propagated. In addition, if not removed, the shed leaves may decay, harboring fungus that can then infect the plant.

Echeveria laui - a species with round, glaucous leaves
E. gibbiflora
Echeveria nodulosa - painted echeveria

Propagation[edit]

They can be propagated easily by separating offsets, but also by leaf cuttings, and by seed if they are not hybrids.

Cultivars and Hybrids[edit]

Echeveria has been extensively bred and hybridized. The following is a selection of available plants.

  • ‘Arlie Wright’
  • ‘Black Prince’
  • ‘Blue Heron’
  • ‘Blue Surprise’ (E. × gilva)
  • ‘Dondo’
  • ‘Doris Taylor’
  • ‘Ebony’ (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • ‘Frank Reinelt’
  • ‘Hoveyi’
  • ‘Lipstick’ (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • ‘Oliver’ (E. pulvinata cultivar)
  • ‘Opalina’
  • ‘Painted Lady’
  • ‘Perle von Nürnberg’
  • ‘Paul Bunyan’
  • ‘Red’ (E. × gilva)
  • ‘Ruberia’
  • ‘Set-Oliver’
  • ‘Tippy’
  • ‘Victor Reiter’ (E. agavoides cultivar)
  • ‘Wavy Curls’
  • ‘Worfield Wonder’ (E. × derosa)

Award winning[edit]

Echeveria ‘Perle von Nürnberg’

The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit:-[8]

  • Echeveria agavoides[9]
  • Echeveria chihuahuaensis[10]
  • Echeveria derrenbergii[11]
  • Echeveria elegans[12]
  • Echeveria ‘Perle von Nürnberg’[13]
  • Echeveria runyonii ‘Topsy Turvy’[14]
  • Echeveria secunda var. glauca ‘Compton Carousel’[15]
  • Echeveria setosa[16]
  • Echeveria × bombycina[17]

Formerly in Echeveria[edit]

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Echeveria DC". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-06-13. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
  3. ^ Opler, Paul A. (1999). A Field Guide to Western Butterflies. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 218–219. ISBN 0395791510.
  4. ^ Ziegler, J. Benjamin; Escalante, Tarsicio (1964). "Observations on the Life History of Callophrys Xami (Lycaenidae)" (PDF). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 18 (2): 85–89.
  5. ^ Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo; Sosa, Victoria & Mort, Mark E. (2009), "Molecular phylogeny of the Acre clade (Crassulaceae): Dealing with the lack of definitions for Echeveria and Sedum", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 53 (1): 267–276, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.05.022
  6. ^ a b Vázquez-Cotero, Carlos; Sosa, Victoria & Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo (2017), Phylogenetic position of Echeveria heterosepala (Crassulaceae): a rare species with diagnostic characters of Pachyphytum, 95 (3), pp. 515–526, doi:10.17129/botsci.1190
  7. ^ http://www.crassulaceae.ch/de/artikel?akID=48
  8. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 34. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  9. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria agavoides". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  10. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria chihuahuaensis". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  11. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria derrenbergii". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  12. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria elegans". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  13. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria 'Perle von Nürnberg'". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  14. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria runyonii 'Topsy Turvy'". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  15. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria secunda var. glauca 'Compton Carousel'". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  16. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria setosa". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  17. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echeveria × bombycina". Retrieved 14 February 2018.

External links[edit]