In Greek mythology, Echidna (//; Greek: Ἔχιδνα, "She-Viper") was a monster, half-woman and half-snake, who lived alone in a cave. She was the mate of the fearsome monster Typhon and was the mother of monsters, including many of the most famous monsters of Greek myth.
Echidna's family tree varies by author. The oldest genealogy relating to Echidna, Hesiod's Theogony (c. 8th – 7th century BC), is unclear on several points. According to Hesiod, Echidna was born to a "she" who was probably meant by Hesiod to be the sea goddess Ceto, making Echidna's likely father the sea god Phorcys; however the "she" might instead refer to the Oceanid Callirhoe, which would make Medusa's offspring Chrysaor the father of Echidna. The mythographer Pherecydes of Leros (5th century BC) has Echidna as the daughter of Phorcys, without naming a mother.
Other authors give Echidna other parents. According to the geographer Pausanias (2nd century AD), Epimenides (7th or 6th century BC) had Echidna as the daughter of the Oceanid Styx (goddess of the river Styx) and one Peiras (otherwise unknown to Pausanias), while according to the mythographer Apollodorus (1st or 2nd century AD), Echidna was the daughter of Tartarus and Gaia. In one account, from the Orphic tradition, Echidna was the daughter of Phanes (the Orphic father of all gods).
Hesiod's Echidna was half beautiful maiden and half fearsome snake. Hesiod described "the goddess fierce Echidna" as a flesh eating "monster, irresistible", who was like neither "mortal men" nor "the undying gods", but was "half a nymph with glancing eyes and fair cheeks, and half again a huge snake, great and awful, with speckled skin", who "dies not nor grows old all her days." Hesiod's apparent association of the eating of raw flesh with Echidna's snake half suggests that he may have supposed that Echidna's snake half ended in a snake-head. Aristophanes (late 5th century BC), who makes her a denizen of the underworld, gives Echidna a hundred heads (presumably snake heads), matching the hundred snake heads Hesiod says her mate Typhon had.
In the Orphic account (mentioned above) Echidna is described as having the head of a beautiful woman with long hair, and a serpent’s body from the neck down. Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, describes Echidna as being "hideous", with "horrible poison".
According to Hesiod's Theogony, the "terrible" and "lawless" Typhon, "was joined in love to [Echidna], the maid with glancing eyes" and she bore "fierce offspring". First there was Orthrus, the two-headed dog who guarded the Cattle of Geryon, second Cerberus, the multiheaded dog who guarded the gates of Hades, and third the Lernaean Hydra, the many-headed serpent who, when one of its heads was cut off, grew two more. The Theogony mentions a second ambiguous “she” as the mother of the Chimera (a fire-breathing beast that was part lion, part goat, and had a snake-headed tail) which may refer to Echidna, though possibly the Hydra or even Ceto was meant instead. Hesiod next names two more descendants of Echidna, the Sphinx, a monster with the head of a woman and the body of a winged lion, and the Nemean lion, killed by Heracles as his first labor. According to Hesiod, these two were the offspring of Echidna's son Orthrus and another ambiguous "she", read variously as the Chimera, Echidna herself, or even Ceto. In any case, the lyric poet Lasus of Hermione (6th century BC), has Echidna and Typhon as the parents of the Sphinx, while the playwright Euripides (5th century BC), has Echidna as her mother, without mentioning a father. While mentioning Cerberus and "other monsters" as being the offspring of Echidna and Typhon, the mythographer Acusilaus (6th century BC) adds the Caucasian Eagle that ate the liver of Prometheus. Pherecydes also names Prometheus' eagle, and adds Ladon (though Pherecydes does not use this name), the dragon that guarded the golden apples in the Garden of the Hesperides (according to Hesiod, the offspring of Ceto and Phorcys).
Later authors mostly retain these offspring of Echidna and Typhon while adding others. Apollodorus, in addition to naming as their offspring Orthrus, the Chimera (citing Hesiod as his source), the Sphinx, the Caucasian Eagle, Ladon, and probably the Nemean lion (only Typhon is named), also adds the Crommyonian Sow, killed by the hero Theseus (unmentioned by Hesiod). Hyginus in his list of offspring of Echidna (all by Typhon), retains from the above: Cerberus, the Chimera, the Sphinx, the Hydra and Ladon, and adds "Gorgon" (by which Hyginus means the mother of Medusa, whereas Hesiod's three Gorgons, of which Medusa was one, were the daughters of Ceto and Phorcys), the Colchian Dragon that guarded the Golden Fleece and Scylla.
Nonnus makes Echidna the mother of an unnamed, venom spitting, "huge" son, with "snaky" feet, an ally of Cronus in his war with Zeus, who was killed by Ares. The Harpies, in Hesiod the daughters of Thaumas and the Oceanid Electra, in one source, are said to be the daughters of Typhon, and so perhaps were also considered to be the daughters of Echidna. Likewise, the sea serpents which attacked the Trojan priest Laocoön during the Trojan War, which are called by Quintus Smyrnaeus "fearful monsters of the deadly brood of Typhon", may also have been considered Echidna's offspring. Echidna is sometimes identified with the Viper who was the mother by Heracles, of Scythes, an eponymous king of the Scythians, along with his brothers Agathyrsus and Gelonus (see below).
List of principal offspring
The following table lists the principal offspring of Echidna as given by Hesiod, Apollodorus or Hyginus.
|Offspring||Hesiod, Th.||Apollodorus||Hyginus||Other sources|
|Orthrus||✓✓||309||✓✓||2.5.10||?? j||Quin. Smyr. 6.249–262|
|Cerberus||✓✓||310 ff.||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151||✓✓||Acus. fr. 13; Quin. Smyr. loc. cit.|
|✓?||Bac. Ode 5.62, Soph. Trach. 1097–1099, Call. fr. 515, Ovid Met. 4.500–501, 7.406–409|
|Lernaean Hydra||✓✓||313 ff.||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 30, 151|
|Chimera||?? a||319 ff.||✓✓ e||2.3.1||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151|
|Sphinx||? b||326 ff.||✓✓||3.5.8||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151||✓✓||Lasus fr. 706A|
|✓?||Eur. The Phoenician Women 1019–1025|
|Nemean Lion?||? b||326 ff.||?✓||2.5.1||g||Fab. 30|
|Caucasian Eagle||✓✓||2.5.11||h||Ast. 2.15.||✓✓||Acus. fr. 13; Pher. fr. 7|
|Ladon||c||333 ff.||✓✓||2.5.11||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151||✓✓||Pher. fr. 16b; Tzet. Chiliades 2.36.360|
|"Gorgon" (mother of Medusa)||d||270 ff.||d||1.2.6||✓✓ i||Fab. Pref., 151|
|Colchian Dragon||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151|
|Scylla||f||E7.20||✓✓||Fab. Pref., 151||Virgil, Ciris 67|
- ✓✓ = Echidna and Typhon given as parents
- ✓? = Only Echidna given as parent
- ?✓ = Only Typhon given as parent
- ?? = Echidna and Typhon possibly meant as parents
- ? = Echidna possibly meant as parent
- a It is unclear whom Hesiod meant as the mother of the Chimera: Echidna, the Hydra, or Ceto.
- b Hesiod gives Orthrus as the father of the Sphinx and the Nemean Lion, but it is unclear whom he meant as their mother: Echidna, the Chimera, or Ceto.
- c Hesiod (though he does not name it Ladon) gives the dragon's parents as Ceto and Phorcys.
- d Hesiod and Apollodorus have the three Gorgons, Stheno, Euryale and Medusa as the daughters of Ceto and Phorcys.
- e Apollodorus, cites Hesiod as his source for the Chimera being the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
- f Apollodorus has Crataeis as the mother of Scylla, with Trienus (Triton?) or Phorcus (a variant Phorcys) as father.
- g Hyginus says that Luna ("Moon") raised the Nemean Lion in a two-mouthed cave.
- h Hyginus gives three possible parentages for the Caucasian Eagle: Typhon and Echidna, Terra and Tartarus, or that it was fashioned by Vulcan and given life by Jove.
- i For Hyginus, Gorgon was the mother of Medusa.
- j Quintus Smyrnaeus has Echidna and Typhon as Cerberus' parents with Orthrus as his brother.
According to Hesiod, Echidna was born in a cave and apparently she lived alone (in that same cave, or perhaps another), as Hesiod describes it, "beneath the secret parts of the holy earth ... deep down under a hollow rock far from the deathless gods and mortal men", a place appointed by the gods, where she "keeps guard in Arima". (Though Hesiod here may possibly be referring to Echidna's mother Ceto's home cave instead). It was perhaps from this same cave, that Echidna used to "carry off passers-by".
Hesiod locates Echidna's cave in Arima (εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν). Presumably this is the same place where, in Homer's Iliad, Zeus lashes, with his thunderbolts, the land about Echidna's mate Typhon, described as the land of the Arimoi (εἰν Ἀρίμοις), "where men say is the couch [bed] of Typhoeus", Typhoeus being another name for Typhon. But neither Homer nor Hesiod say anything more about where this Arima might be. The question of whether an historical place was meant, and its possible location, has been since ancient times the subject of speculation and debate.
The geographer Strabo (c. 20 AD) discusses the question in some detail. Several locales, Cilicia, Syria, Lydia, and the Island of Pithecussae (modern Ischia), each associated with Typhon in various ways, are given by Strabo as possible locations for Hesiod's "Arima" (or Homer's "Arimoi").
The region in the vicinity of the ancient Cilician coastal city of Corycus (modern Kızkalesi, Turkey) is often associated with Typhon's birth. The poet Pindar (c. 470 BC), who has Typhon born in Cilicia, and nurtured in "the famous Cilician cave" an apparent allusion to the Corycian cave, also has Zeus slaying Typhon "among the Arimoi". The fourth-century BC historian Callisthenes, located the Arimoi and the Arima mountains in Cilicia, near the Calycadnus river, the Corycian cave and the Sarpedon promontory. The b scholia to Iliad 2.783, preserving a possible Orphic tradition, has Typhon born "under Arimon in Cilicia", and Nonnus mentions Typhon's "bloodstained cave of Arima" in Cilicia.
Just across the Gulf of Issus from Corycus, in ancient Syria, was Mount Kasios (modern Jebel Aqra in Turkey) and the Orontes River, said to be the site of the battle of Typhon and Zeus. According to Strabo, the historian Posidonius identified the Arimoi with the Aramaeans of Syria.
For some Arima was instead located in a volcanic plain, on the upper Gediz River, called the Catacecaumene ("Burnt Land"), situated between the ancient kingdoms of Lydia, Mysia and Phrygia, near Mount Tmolus (modern Bozdağ) and Sardis, the ancient capital of Lydia. According to Strabo, some placed the Arimoi, and the battle between Typhon and Zeus at Catacecaumene, while Xanthus of Lydia added that "a certain Arimus" ruled there. Strabo also tells us that for "some" Homer's "couch of Typhon" (and hence the Arimoi) was located "in a wooded place, in the fertile land of Hyde", with Hyde being another name for Sardis (or its acropolis), and that Demetrius of Scepsis thought that the Arimoi were most plausibly located "in the Catacecaumene country in Mysia". The third-century BC poet Lycophron, placed Echidna's lair in this region.
Another place, mentioned by Strabo, as being associated with Arima, is the volcanic island of Pithecussae, off the coast of ancient Cumae in Italy. According to Pherecydes of Leros, Typhon fled to Pithecussae during his battle with Zeus, and according to Pindar, Typhon lay buried beneath the island. Strabo reports the "myth" that when Typhon "turns his body the flames and the waters, and sometimes even small islands containing boiling water, spout forth." The connection to Arima, comes from the island's Greek name Pithecussae, which derives from the Greek word for monkey, and according to Strabo, residents of the island said that "arimoi" was also the Etruscan word for monkeys.
Quintus Smyrnaeus locates her cave "close on the borders of Eternal Night".
Although for Hesiod Echidna was immortal and ageless, according to Apollodorus Echidna continued to prey on the unfortunate "passers-by" until she was finally killed, while she slept, by Argus Panoptes, the hundred-eyed giant who served Hera.
The Scythian echidna
From the fifth century BC historian Herodotus, we learn of a creature who, though Herodotus does not name as Echidna, is called an echidna ("she-viper") and resembles the Hesiodic Echidna in several respects. She was half woman half snake, lived in a cave, and was known as a mother figure, in this case, as the progenitor of the Scythians (rather than of monsters).
According to Herodotus, Greeks living in Pontus, a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, told a story of an encounter between Heracles and this snaky creature. Heracles was driving the cattle of Geryones through what would later become Scythia, when one morning he awoke and discovered that his horses had disappeared. While searching for them, he "found in a cave a creature of double form that was half maiden and half serpent; above the buttocks she was a woman, below them a snake." She had the horses and promised to return them if Heracles would have sex with her. Heracles agreed and she had three sons by him: Agathyrsus, Gelonus and Scythes. She asked Heracles what she should do with his sons: "shall I keep them here (since I am queen of this country), or shall I send them away to you?" And Heracles gave her a bow and belt, and told her, that when the boys were grown, whichever would draw the bow and wear the belt, keep him and banish the others. The youngest son Scythes fulfilled the requirements and became the founder and eponym of the Scythians.
The Viper in the Acts of Philip
A possibly related creature to the Hesiodic Echidna is the "Viper" (Echidna) cast into an abyss, by Philip the Apostle, in the apocryphal Acts of Philip. Called a "she dragon" (drakaina) and "the mother of the serpents", this Echidna ruled over many other monstrous dragons and snakes, and lived in a gated temple, where she was worshipped by the people of that land. She, along with her temple and priests, was swallowed up by a hole in the ground that opened beneath her, as the result of Philip's curse.
Echidna was perhaps associated with the monster killed by Apollo at Delphi. Though that monster is usually said to be the male serpent Python, in the oldest account of this story, the Homeric Hymn to Apollo, the god kills a nameless she-serpent (drakaina), subsequently called Delphyne, who had been Typhon's foster-mother. Echidna and Delphyne share several similarities. Both were half-maid and half-snake, and both were a "plague" (πῆμα) to men. And both were intimately connected to Typhon, and associated with the Corycian cave.
No certain ancient depictions of Echidna survive. According to Pausanias, Echidna was depicted, along with Typhon, on the sixth century BC Doric-Ionic temple complex at Amyclae known as the throne of Apollo, designed by Bathycles of Magnesia. Pausanias identifies two standing figures on the left as Echidna and Typhon, with Tritons standing on the right, with no other details concerning these figures given.
- Echidna, a monotreme mammal of Australia and New Guinea named after the mythological monster.
- Nāgas, a race of water-dwelling beings of Hindu mythology who are also half-serpent.
- Nüwa, a goddess in ancient Chinese mythology best known for creating mankind and repairing the wall of heaven, often depicted as having the body of a snake, or the lower part of her body being that of a snake.
- Ogden 2013b, p. 13.
- Variant of ἔχις, also meaning "viper" from Proto-Indo-European *h1eǵhi- (see R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 489).
- Ogden 2013a, p. 81.
- For a discussion of Echidna's varying genealogy see Ogden 2013a, pp. 148–150.
- Hesiod, Theogony 270-300. Though Herbert Jennings Rose says simply that it is "not clear which parents are meant", Athanassakis, p. 44, says that Phorcys and Ceto are the "more likely candidates for parents of this hideous creature who proceeded to give birth to a series of monsters and scourges". The problem arises from the ambiguous referent of the pronoun "she" in line 295 of the Theogony. While some have read this "she" as referring to Callirhoe (e.g. Smith "Echidna"; Morford, p. 162), according to Clay, p. 159 n. 32, "the modern scholarly consensus" reads Ceto, see for example Gantz, p. 22; Caldwell, pp. 7, 46 295–303; Grimal, "Echidna" p. 143.
- Pherecydes, fr. 7 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 278); Hošek, p. 678.
- Epimenides apud Pausanias, 8.18.2; Fowler 2013, p. 9.
- Apollodorus, Library 2.1.2. According to the sixth century AD neoplatonist Olympiodorus, Typhon, Echidna, and Python were all the progeny of Tartarus and Gaia, with each being a cause of a specific kind of disorder, in Echidna's case, "a cause revenging and punishing rational souls; and hence the upper arts of her are those of a virgin, but the lower those of a serpent", see Taylor 1824, pp. 76–77 n. 63.
- Orphic Fragment 58 Kern = Athenagoras, Apology 20 (p. 397); van den Broek, p. 137 n. 20; Fowler 2013, p. 9.
- Hesiod, Theogony 295-305.
- Ogden 2013a, p. 81.
- Aristophanes, Frogs 473–474; Hošek. p. 678. Ogden 2013a, p. 81, calls Aristophanes' description "exuberant", which “need not relate to canon”, see also Ogden 2013b pp. 65–66. For the hundred-headed Typhon see Hesiod, Theogony 825; see also Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 351; Apollodorus, 1.6.3. Pindar, Pythian 1.16; 8.15–16, and Olympian 4.7, all give Typhon a hundred heads, but Pindar, fragment 93 apud Strabo, 13.4.6 (Race, pp. 328–329) gives Typhon fifty.
- Orphic Fragment 58 Kern = Athenagoras, Apology 20 (p. 397); van den Broek, p. 137 n. 20; Fowler 2013, p. 9.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18.273 ff. (II pp. 82–83).
- Hesiod, Theogony 306–314. Compare with Lycophron, Alexandra 1351 ff. (pp. 606–607), which refers to Echidna as Typhon's spouse (δάμαρ).
- Apollodorus, Library 2.5.10 also has Orthrus as the offspring of Echidna and Typhon. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 6.249–262 (pp. 272–273) has Cerberus as the offspring of Echidna and Typhon, and Orthrus as his brother.
- Acusilaus, fr. 13 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 11; Freeman, p. 15 fragment 6), Bacchylides, Ode 5.62, Sophocles, Women of Trachis 1097–1099, Callimachus, fragment 515 Pfeiffer (Trypanis, pp. 258–259), Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.500–501, 7.406–409, Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 151, and Quintus Smyrnaeus, loc. cit., also have Cerberus as the offspring of Echidna, though only Acusilaus, Hyginus, and Quintus Smyrnaeus mention Typhon as the father.
- Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 30 (only Typhon is mentioned), 151 also has the Hydra and as the offspring of Echidna and Typhon.
- Hesiod, Theogony, 319; the referent of "she" in line 319 is uncertain, see Gantz, p. 22; Clay, p. 159, with n. 34.
- The referent of "she" in line 326 of the Theogony is uncertain, see Clay, p. 159, with n. 34.
- Lasus of Hermione, fragment 706A (Campbell, pp. 310–311).
- Euripides, The Phoenician Women 1019–1020; Ogden 2013a, p. 149 n. 3.
- Acusilaus, fr. 13 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 11; Freeman, p. 15 fragment 6); Fowler 2013, p. 28; Gantz, p. 22; Ogden 2013a, pp. 149–150.
- Pherecydes, fr. 7 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 278); Fowler 2013, pp. 21, 27–28; Gantz, p. 22; Ogden 2013a, pp. 149–150.
- Pherecydes, fr. 16b Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 286); Hesiod, Theogony 333–336; Fowler 2013, p. 28; Ogden 2013a, p. 149 n. 3; Hošek, p. 678. The first to name the dragon Ladon is Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 4.1396 (pp. 388–389), which makes Ladon earthborn, see Fowler 2013, p. 28 n. 97. Tzetzes, Chiliades 2.36.360 (Kiessling, p. 54; English translation: Berkowitz, p. 33), also has Typhon as Ladon's father.
- Apollodorus, Library 2.5.10 (Orthrus), 2.3.1 (Chimera), 3.5.8 (Sphinx), 2.5.11 (Caucasian Eagle), 2.5.11 (Ladon), 2.5.1 (Nemean lion), Epitome 1.1 (Crommyonian Sow).
- Hyginus, Fabulae Preface, 151.
- Compare with Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica, 2.1208–1215 (pp. 184–185), where the dragon is the offspring of Gaia by Typhon (Hošek, p. 678).
- See also Virgil, Ciris 67; Lyne, pp. 130–131. Others give other parents for Scylla. Several authors name Crataeis as the mother of Scylla, see Homer, Odyssey 12.124–125; Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.749; Apollodorus, E7.20; Servius on Virgil Aeneid 3.420; and schol. on Plato, Republic 9.588c. Neither Homer nor Ovid mention a father, but Apollodorus says that the father was Trienus (or Triton?) or Phorcus, similarly the Plato scholiast, perhaps following Apollodorus, gives the father as Tyrrhenus or Phorcus, while Eustathius on Homer, Odyssey 12.85 gives the father as Triton. The Hesiodic Megalai Ehoiai (fr. 262 MW = Most 200) gives Hecate and Phorbas as the parents of Scylla, while Acusilaus, fr. 42 Fowler (Fowler 2013, p. 32) says that Scylla's parents were Hekate and Phorkys (so also schol. Odyssey 12.85). Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 4. 828–829 (pp. 350–351) says that "Hecate who is called Crataeis," and Phorcys were the parents of Scylla. Semos of Delos (FGrHist 396 F 22) says that Crataeis was the daughter of Hekate and Triton, and mother of Scylla by Deimos. Stesichorus, F220 PMG (Campbell, pp. 132–133) has Lamia as the mother of Scylla, possibly the Lamia who was the daughter of Poseidon. For discussions of the parentage of Scylla, see Fowler 2013, p. 32, Ogden 2013a, p. 134; Gantz, pp. 731–732; and Frazer's note to Apollodorus, E7.20.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 18.273 ff. (II pp. 82–83); Ogden 2013a, p. 150 n. 4; Hošek, p. 678.
- Hesiod, Theogony, 265–269; so also Apollodorus, 1.2.6, and Hyginus, Fabulae Preface (though Fabulae 14, gives their parents as Thaumas and Oxomene). In the Epimenides Theogony (3B7) they are the daughters of Oceanus and Gaia, while in Pherecydes of Syros (7B5) they are the daughters of Boreas (Gantz, p. 18).
- Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 4.428, 516.
- Hošek, p. 678; see Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 12.449–453 (pp. 518–519).
- Hesiod, Theogony 295-305; Gantz, p. 22; Ogden 2013a, p. 161.
- West 1966, p. 250 line 301 οι; Gantz, p. 22.
- Apollodorus, Library 2.1.2.
- Homer, Iliad 2.783; Fontenrose, p. 72; West 1966, p. 251 line 304 εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν; Lane Fox, p. 288; Ogden 2013a, p. 76; Fowler 2013, p. 28. West, notes that Typhon's "couch" appears to be "not just 'where he lies', but also where he keeps his spouse"; compare with Quintus Smyrnaeus, 8.97–98 (pp. 354–355).
- For an extensive discussion see Lane Fox, especially pp. 39, 107, 283–301; 317–318. See also West 1966, pp. 25Fturkey0–251 line 304 εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν; Ogden 2013a, p. 76; Fowler 2013, pp. 28–30.
- Strabo, 13.4.6.
- Pindar, Pythian 1.15–17; compare with Pindar, Pythian 8.15–16, which calls Typhon "Cilician", Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound 353–356, which calls Typhon "the earth-born dweller of the Cilician caves", and Apollodorus, 1.6.3, which has Typhon born in Cilicia, and deposit the incapacitated Zeus in Typhon's "Corycian cave". See also Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.140. (I pp. 12–13), 1.154. (I pp. 14–15), 1.258–260 (I pp. 20–23), 1.321 (I pp. 26–27), 2.35 (I pp. 46–47), 2.631 ff. (I pp. 90–91).
- Fontenrose, pp. 72–73; West 1966, p. 251 line 304 εἰν Ἀρίμοισιν (c).
- Pindar, fragment 93 apud Strabo, 13.4.6 (Race, pp. 328–329).
- Callisthenes FGrH 124 F33 = Strabo, 13.4.6; Ogden 2013a, p. 76; Ogden 2013b, p. 25; Lane Fox, p. 292. Lane Fox, pp. 292–298, connects Arima with the Hittite place names "Erimma" and "Arimmatta" which he associates with the Corycian cave.
- Kirk, Raven, and Schofield. pp. 59–60 no. 52; Ogden 2013b, pp. 36–38; Gantz, pp. 50–51, Ogden 2013a, p. 76 n. 46.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca 1.140. (I pp. 12–13).
- Strabo, 16.2.7; Apollodorus, 1.6.3; Ogden 2013a, p. 76.
- Strabo, 16.4.27. According to West 1966, p. 251, "This identification [Arimoi as Aramaeans] has been repeated in modern times." For example for Fontenrose, p. 71, the "Arimoi, it seems fairly certain, are the Aramaeans, and the country is either Syria or Cilicia, most likely the latter, since in later sources that is usually Typhon's land." See also West (1997), p. 301 n. 70. But Lane Fox, pp. 107, 291–298, rejects this identification, instead arguing for the derivation of "Arima" from the Hittite place names "Erimma" and "Arimmatta".
- Lane Fox, pp. 289–291, rejects Catacecaumene as the site of Homer's "Arimoi".
- Strabo, 12.8.19, compare with Diodorus Siculus 5.71.2–6, which says that Zeus slew Typhon in Phrygia.
- Strabo, 13.4.11.
- Strabo, 13.4.6. For Hyde see also Homer, Iliad 20.386.
- Lycophron, Alexandra 1351 ff. (pp. 606–607) associates Echidna's "dread bed" with a lake identified as Lake Gygaea or Koloe (modern Lake Marmara), see Robert, pp. 334 ff.; Lane Fox, pp. 290–291. For Lake Gygaea see Homer, Iliad 2.864–866; Herodotus, 1.93; Strabo, 13.4.5–6.
- Pherecydes, fr. 54 Fowler (Fowler 2001, p. 307); Fowler 2013, p. 29; Gantz, p. 50.
- So Strabo, 5.4.9, 13.4.6; Lane Fox, p. 299, Ogden 2013a, p. 76. Pindar, Pythian 1.15–20, has Typhon buried under a much vaster region than just Pithecussae, though he doesn't mention the island by name, stretching from Mount Etna in Sicily, to the "sea-girt cliffs above Cumae" (Lane Fox, p. 299, argues that the "cliffs" mentioned by Pindar refer to the island cliffs of Ischia). Compare with Pindar, Olympian 4.6–7, which also has Typhon under Etna.
- Strabo, 5.4.9.
- Strabo, 13.4.6; Lane Fox, pp. 298–301; Ogden 2013a, p. 76 n. 47; Fowler 2013, p. 29.
- Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica (or Fall of Troy) 6.260 ff. (pp. 272–273).
- Hesiod, Theogony 305.
- Apollodorus, Library 2.1.2. Gantz, pp. 201–202 finds "no trace" of such a tale in Archaic literature.
- Herodotus, 4.8–10; Gantz, p. 409; Ogden 2013b, pp. 16–17; Ogden 2013a, p. 81 with n. 71; Fontenrose, pp. 97–100. While the Scythian echidna is sometimes identified with the Hesiodic Echidna (e.g. Grimal, "Echidna", p. 143, "Scythes" pp. 414–415), Ogden 2013b describes the Scythian as "seemingly calqued upon" the Hesiodic (p. 13), and asserts that "there is no particular reason to infer" that the two are "fully identifiable" (p. 17). Compare with Diodorus Siculus, 2.43.3.
- For an English translation of the Acts of Philip, see Buvon; for an English translation of selected passages (relating to dragons) see also Ogden 2013b pp. 207–215. For the possible relationship between the "Viper" and the Hesiodic Echidna, see Ogden 2013a, pp. 81–82, 422–425; Ogden 2013b, p. 16, p. 216; Fontenrose, pp. 95–96.
- Acts of Philip, 8.17 (V); Bovon, p. 79; Ogden 2013b, p. 208.
- Acts of Philip, Martyrdom 19 (V); Bovon, p. 99; Ogden 2013b, pp. 213–214.
- Acts of Philip, Martyrdom 26–27 (V); Bovon, pp. 101–102; Ogden 2013b, pp. 214–215.
- Hymn to Apollo (3) 300–306, 349–369; Ogden 2013a, pp. 40 ff.; Gantz, p. 88; Fontenrose, pp. 14–15; p. 94. Apollodorus, 1.6.3, for example, calls her Delphyne.
- Fontenrose, pp. 94–97 argues that Echidna and Delphyne (along with Ceto and possibly Scylla) were different names for the same creature.
- Apollodorus, 1.6.3 calls Delphyne both a drakaina and a "half-bestial maiden"; see Ogden 2013a, p. 44; Fontenrose, p. 95.
- Hymn to Apollo (3) 304: πῆμα; Hesiod, Theogony 329: πῆμ᾽.
- According to Apollodorus, 1.6.3, Typhon set Delphyne as guard over Zeus' severed sinews in the Corycian cave; see Ogden, 2013a, p. 42; Fontenrose, p. 94.
- Hošek, p. 679; Ogden 2013a, pp. 80–81 n. 37. The identification of Echidna fighting Heracles on a restoration of a pediment from the Athenian Acropolis, (see for example Gardner, p. 159) is now rejected.
- Gardner, p. 78; Pausanias, 3.18.10.
- Aeschylus (?), Prometheus Bound in Aeschylus, with an English translation by Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph. D. in two volumes. Vol 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Harvard University Press. 1926. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Apollodorus, Apollodorus, The Library, with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.B.A., F.R.S. in 2 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Apollonius of Rhodes, Apollonius Rhodius: the Argonautica, translated by Robert Cooper Seaton, W. Heinemann, 1912. Internet Archive
- Aristophanes, Frogs, Matthew Dillon, Ed., Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University, 1995. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Athanassakis, Apostolos N, Hesiod: Theogony, Works and days, Shield, JHU Press, 2004. ISBN 978-0-8018-7984-5.
- Bacchylides, Odes, translated by Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1991. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Athenagoras, Apology, Rev. B. P. Pratten translator, in Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325, Vol. II Justin Martyr and Athenagoras, Edinburgh, T. and T. Clark, 38 George Street, 1870.
- Bovon, Fraçois, Christopher R. Matthews, The Acts of Philip: A New Translation, Baylor University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-1-60258-655-0.
- Caldwell, Richard, Hesiod's Theogony, Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company (June 1, 1987). ISBN 978-0-941051-00-2.
- Campbell, David A., Greek Lyric III: Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonides, and Others, Harvard University Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0674995253.
- Clay, Jenny Strauss, Hesiod's Cosmos, Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 978-0-521-82392-0.
- Diodorus Siculus, Diodorus Siculus: The Library of History. Translated by C. H. Oldfather. Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. 1989.
- Euripides, The Phoenician Women, translated by E. P. Coleridge in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. Volume 2. New York. Random House. 1938.
- Evelyn-White, Hugh, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Homeric Hymns. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914.
- Fontenrose, Joseph Eddy, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins, University of California Press, 1959. ISBN 9780520040915.
- Fowler, R. L. (2001), Early Greek Mythography: Volume 1: Text and Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0198147404.
- Fowler, R. L. (2013), Early Greek Mythography: Volume 2: Commentary, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 978-0198147411.
- Freeman, Kathleen, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Complete Translation of the Fragments in Diels, Fragmente Der Vorsokratiker, Harvard University Press, 1983. ISBN 9780674035010.
- Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
- Gardner, Ernest Arthur, A Handbook of Greek Sculpture, Macmillan and Co,. Limited, London, 1911.
- Grimal, Pierre, The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, ISBN 978-0-631-20102-1. "Echidna" p. 143.
- Herodotus; Histories, A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0674991338. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes, Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924.
- Hošek, Radislav, "Echidna" in Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC) III.1. Artemis Verlag, Zürich and Munich, 1986. ISBN 3760887511.
- Hyginus, Gaius Julius, The Myths of Hyginus. Edited and translated by Mary A. Grant, Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1960.
- Kern, Otto. Orphicorum fragmenta, Berlin, 1922. Internet Archive
- Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven, M. Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts, Cambridge University Press, Dec 29, 1983. ISBN 9780521274555.
- Lane Fox, Robin, Travelling Heroes: In the Epic Age of Homer, Vintage Books, 2010. ISBN 9780679763864.
- Lycophron, Alexandra (or Cassandra) in Callimachus and Lycophron with an English translation by A. W. Mair ; Aratus, with an English translation by G. R. Mair, London: W. Heinemann, New York: G. P. Putnam 1921. Internet Archive
- Lyne, R. O. A. M., Ciris: A Poem Attributed to Vergil, Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 9780521606998.
- Morford, Mark P. O., Robert J. Lenardon, Classical Mythology, Eighth Edition, Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-530805-1.
- Nonnus, Dionysiaca; translated by Rouse, W H D, I Books I–XV. Loeb Classical Library No. 344, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1940. Internet Archive
- Ogden, Daniel (2013a), Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 9780199557325.
- Ogden, Daniel (2013b), Dragons, Serpents, and Slayers in the Classical and early Christian Worlds: A sourcebook, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-992509-4.
- Ovid, Metamorphoses, Brookes More. Boston. Cornhill Publishing Co. 1922. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1918. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Pindar, Odes, Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1990. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Quintus Smyrnaeus, Quintus Smyrnaeus: The Fall of Troy, Translator: A.S. Way; Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA, 1913. Internet Archive
- Race, William H., Nemean Odes. Isthmian Odes. Fragments, Edited and translated by William H. Race. Loeb Classical Library 485. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1997, revised 2012. ISBN 978-0-674-99534-5. Online version at Harvard University Press.
- Robert, Louis, "Documents d'Asie Mineure", Bulletin de correspondance hellénique. Volume 106, 1982. pp. 309–378.
- Rose, Herbert Jennings, "Echidna" in The Oxford Classical Dictionary, Hammond and Scullard (editors), Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-869117-3
- Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Echidna"
- Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. (1924). LacusCurtis, Books 6–14, at the Perseus Digital Library
- Sophocles, Women of Trachis, Translated by Robert Torrance. Houghton Mifflin. 1966. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
- Taylor, Thomas (1806), Collectanea; or, collections, consisting of miscellanies inserted by Thomas Taylor in the European and Monthly Magazines. With an appendix, containing some hymns by the same author never before printed.
- Taylor, Thomas (1824), The Mystical Hymns of Orpheus: Translated from the Greek, and Demonstrated to be the Invocations which Were Used in the Eleusinian Mysteries, C. Whittingham.
- Trypanis, C. A., Gelzer, Thomas; Whitman, Cedric, CALLIMACHUS, MUSAEUS, Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander, Harvard University Press, 1975. ISBN 978-0-674-99463-8.
- Tzetzes, Chiliades, editor Gottlieb Kiessling, F.C.G. Vogel, 1826. (English translation, Books II–IV, by Gary Berkowitz. Internet Archive).
- Valerius Flaccus, Gaius, Argonautica, translated by J. H. Mozley, Loeb Classical Library Volume 286. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1928.
- van den Broek, R., Studies in Gnosticism and Alexandrian Christianity, BRILL, 1996. ISBN 9789004106543.
- West, M. L. (1966), Hesiod: Theogony, Oxford University Press.
- West, M. L. (1997), The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815042-3.