Echinochloa frumentacea

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Echinochloa frumentacea
Echinochloa frumentacea.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Panicoideae
Genus: Echinochloa
Species: E. frumentacea
Binomial name
Echinochloa frumentacea
  • Echinochloa colona var. frumentacea (Link) Ridl.
  • Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Hitchc. nom. illeg.
  • Echinochloa crus-galli var. edulis Honda
  • Echinochloa crus-galli var. frumentacea (Link) W.F.Wright
  • Echinochloa crusgalli var. frumentacea W. Wight
  • Echinochloa glabrescens var. barbata Kossenko
  • Oplismenus frumentaceus (Link) Kunth
  • Panicum crus-galli var. edule (Hitchc.) Thell. ex de Lesd.
  • Panicum crus-galli var. edulis (Hitchc.) Makino & Nemoto
  • Panicum crus-galli var. frumentacea (Link) Trimen
  • Panicum crus-galli var. frumentaceum (Roxb.) Trimen
  • Panicum frumentaceum Roxb. nom. illeg.

Echinochloa frumentacea (Indian barnyard millet, sawa millet, or billion dollar grass)[2] is a species of Echinochloa. Both Echinochloa frumentacea and E. esculenta are called Japanese millet. This millet is widely grown as a cereal in India, Pakistan, and Nepal. Its wild ancestor is the tropical grass Echinochloa colona,[3] but the exact date or region of domestication is uncertain. It is cultivated on marginal lands where rice and other crops will not grow well. The grains are cooked in water, like rice, or boiled with milk and sugar. Sometimes it is fermented to make beer. While also being part of staple diet for some communities in India, these seeds are, in particular, (cooked and) eaten during religious fasting (willingly abstaining from some types of food / food ingredients). For this reason, these seeds are commonly also referred to as "vrat ke chawal" in Hindi (i.e. - rice for fasting, literally). Other common names to identify these seeds include Jhangora in the Garhwal Hills, Bhagar (भगर) in Marathi speaking areas, Samo seeds, Morio / Mario / Moraiaya seeds. KuthiraiVaali (குதிரைவாளி)(Tamil)


  1. ^ "The Plant List". 
  2. ^ Echinochloa frumentacea. USDA NRCS Plant Fact Sheet.
  3. ^ Hilu, Khidir W. (1994). "Evidence from RAPD markers in the evolution of Echinochloa millets (Poaceae)". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 189 (3): 247–257. doi:10.1007/BF00939730.