Echinus Geyser

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Echinus Geyser
Echinus geyser.jpg
Echinus Geyser during an eruption
Location Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Park County, Wyoming
Coordinates 44°43′21″N 110°42′05″W / 44.7224352°N 110.7013199°W / 44.7224352; -110.7013199Coordinates: 44°43′21″N 110°42′05″W / 44.7224352°N 110.7013199°W / 44.7224352; -110.7013199[1]
Elevation 7,575 feet (2,309 m) [2]
Type Fountain geyser
Eruption height 40 feet (12 m) to 60 feet (18 m)
Frequency Rare
Duration 4 minutes
Temperature 80.3 °C (176.5 °F) [1]
Norris Geyser Basin

Echinus Geyser is a geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in the United States.


Echinus was named during one of the U.S. Geological Surveys of the park in the late 1870s or early 1880s. The name Echinus comes from the spiny appearance of the cone that resembles a Sea urchin or class Echinoidea.[3]

Echinus Geyser Pool, 1965


Echinus' eruptions are unpredictable. Its fountain reaches a height of as much as 40 to 60 feet (12 to 18 m), with a duration of about 4 minutes. Prior to 1998, this geyser was very regular, every 35 to 75 minutes. There were also major eruptions that lasted as much as 118 minutes. It is speculated that there was a secondary underground water source that used to power the major eruptions and that the connection to the source was severed leading to Echinus' current state.[4]

Echinus is the largest acid-water geyser in the world. Its waters have a pH of 3.3 to 3.6, nearly as acidic as vinegar.[4] The water temperature is 80.3 °C (176.5 °F).[1]


  1. ^ a b c "Echinus Geyser". Yellowstone Geothermal Features Database. Montana State University. 
  2. ^ "Echinus Geyser". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 
  3. ^ Haines, Aubrey L. (1996). Yellowstone Place Names-Mirrors of History. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. p. 120. ISBN 0-87081-383-8. 
  4. ^ a b "Echinus Geyser". National Park Service.