Echis pyramidum

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Echis pyramidum
Echis pyramidum-4.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Echis
Species: E. pyramidum
Binomial name
Echis pyramidum
  • Scythale pyramidum
    Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire In Savigny, 1827
  • [Echis] arenicola F. Boie, 1827
  • Echis pavo Reuss, 1834
  • Echis varia Reuss, 1834
  • Vipera echis Schlegel, 1837
  • Vipera pyramidarum Schlegel, 1837
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] arenicola
    Gray, 1849
  • Toxicoa arenicola Günther, 1858
  • Echis carinatus
    Boulenger, 1896 (part)
  • Echis carinatus pyramidum
    Constable, 1949
  • Echis p[yramidum]. pyramidum
    Cherlin, 1983
  • Echis pyramidum Joger, 1984
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] pyramidum pyramidum — Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] pyramidum lucidus Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia varia
    — Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia borkini Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis [(Toxicoa)] varia darevskii Cherlin, 1990
  • Echis pyramidum pyramidum
    Golay et al., 1993[2]
Common names: Northeast African carpet viper,[3] Egyptian saw-scaled viper,[4] more.

Echis pyramidum is a species of venomous viper endemic to Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[5]


The specific name, pyramidum, refers to the Egyptian pyramids.[6][7]


The average total length (body + tail) is 30–60 cm (12–24 in) with a maximum total length of 85 cm (33 in) (possibly slightly more).[3]

Common names[edit]

Northeast African carpet viper,[3] Egyptian saw-scaled viper,[4] Egyptian carpet viper, Geoffroy's carpet viper.[8]

Geographic range[edit]

In northeastern Africa it occurs in northern Egypt, central Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, and northern Kenya. There are also scattered populations in the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula in western Saudi Arabia (south of the 18th parallel), Yemen, South Yemen (in Hadhramaut), and in Oman.[2]

The type locality given is "Egypte" (Egypt).[2]

Disjunct populations reportedly occur in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and northern Egypt. It is absent in southern Egypt.[3][4]


Subspecies[5] Taxon author[5] Geographic range[4]
E. p. aliaborri Drews & Sacherer, 1974 Northern Kenya
E. p. leakeyi Stemmler & Sochurek, 1969 Northwestern Kenya, Southwest Ethiopia
E. p. pyramidum (I.Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1827) Southern Arabia, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, Libya and Tunisia.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Joger, U.; Geniez, P.; Crochet, P-A. & Baha El Din, S. (2010). "Echis pyramidum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2010: e.T178401A7539376. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178401A7539376.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  3. ^ a b c d Spawls S, Branch B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Dubai: Ralph Curtis Books. Oriental Press. 192 pp. ISBN 0-88359-029-8.
  4. ^ a b c d Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  5. ^ a b c "Echis pyramidum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2 August 2006.
  6. ^ Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire I.
  7. ^ E. p. pyramidum @ Tomáš Mazuch.
  8. ^ Echis pyramidum at Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN). Accessed 3 August 2007.

Further reading[edit]

  • Cherlin VA. 1990. [A taxonomic revision of the snake genus Echis (Viperidae). II. An analysis of taxonomy and description of new forms]. [Proc. Zool. Inst. Leningrad] 207: 193-223. (in Russian).
  • Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire I. 1827. Description des Reptiles. pp. 121–160. In: Savigny M-J-C-L. 1827. Description d'Égypte, ou Recueil des Observations et des Recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'Éxpedition de l'Armée française, publié pars les ordres de sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon Le Grand. Histoire Naturelle. Paris: l'Imprimerie Impériale. (Scythale pyramidum, pp. 151–154 + Plate VII, Figure 1).
  • Golay P, Smith HM, Broadley DG, Dixon JR, McCarthy CJ, Rage J-C, Schätti B, Toriba M. Endoglyphs and Other Major Venomous Snakes of the World. A Checklist. Geneva: Azemiops Herpetological Data Center. 478 pp.

External links[edit]