Echium candicans

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Pride of Madeira
Echium candicans1311.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Echium
Species: E. candicans
Binomial name
Echium candicans
Synonyms[2]
  • Argyrexias candicans Raf.
  • Echium brachyanthum Hornem.
  • Echium cynoglossoides Desf.
  • Echium densiflorum DC.
  • Echium macrophyllum Lehm.
  • Echium maderense Steud.
  • Echium marianum Boiss.
  • Echium pallidum Salisb.
  • Echium pavonianum Boiss.
  • Echium truncatum auct.

Echium candicans (syn. Echium fastuosum J.Jacq.[3]), commonly known as pride of Madeira, is a species of flowering plant in the family Boraginaceae, native to the island of Madeira. It is a large herbaceous Perennial subshrub, growing to 1.5–2.5 m (4 ft 11 in–8 ft 2 in).[4]

In the first year after germination the plant produces a broad rosette of leaves. In the second and subsequent years more or less woody flowering stalks are produced clothed in rough leaves. The flower head is large and covered with white or blue flowers having red stamens. It is much visited by bees and butterflies for its nectar.[3]

Etymology[edit]

The Latin specific epithet candicans means “shining white”, referring to one colour form of this species.[5]

Cultivation[edit]

Echium candicans is cultivated in the horticulture trade and widely available throughout the world as an ornamental plant for traditional and drought tolerant water conserving gardens. It is particularly suitable for coastal planting, and is a popular ornamental in coastal California. With a minimum temperature requirement of 5–7 °C (41–45 °F), in frost-prone areas it needs some winter protection. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[6][7]

In California, it is also an invasive species. It is removed from native plant communities as part of habitat restoration efforts in coastal parks such as the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

In New Zealand it is a common garden escape onto road-side verges and shingle banks throughout the drier parts of the two principal islands.

In the state of Victoria, Australia, it is considered to be a high weed risk and an alert has been posted by the Department of Primary Industries.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carvalho, J.A. (2011). "Echium candicans". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2011: e.T162036A115869493. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-1.RLTS.T162036A5538047.en. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  2. ^ The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species, retrieved 6 November 2015
  3. ^ a b "Echium candicans". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  4. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
  5. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 184533731X.
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Echium candicans". Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  7. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 35. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Pride of Madeira – Echium candicans". Retrieved 20 June 2012.
Close-up, found in Madeira's far east.