Echium vulgare

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Viper's bugloss
Echium vulgare L.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Boraginales
Family: Boraginaceae
Genus: Echium
Species: E. vulgare
Binomial name
Echium vulgare
L.

Echium vulgare — known as viper's bugloss and blueweed[1] — is a species of flowering plant in the borage family Boraginaceae. It is native to most of Europe, and western and central Asia[2][3] and it occurs as an introduced species in north-eastern North America.[1][4]

Description[edit]

It is a biennial or monocarpic perennial plant growing to 30–80 cm (12–31 in) tall, with rough, hairy, oblanceolate leaves.[5] The flowers start pink and turn vivid blue and are 15–20 mm (0.59–0.79 in) in a branched spike, with all the stamens protruding. The pollen is blue[6] but the filaments of the stamens remain red, contrasting against the blue flowers. It flowers between May and September.

Distribution[edit]

It is native to Europe and temperate Asia. It has been introduced to North America and is naturalised in parts of the continent including northern Michigan,[3] being listed as an invasive species in Washington state.[7] It is found in dry calcareous grassland and heaths, bare and waste places, along railways and roadsides, and on coastal cliffs, sand dunes and shingle.[8]

Human Control[edit]

Where the Viper's bugloss is an invasive species humans are trying to regulate them by weeding them.

Cultivation[edit]

Echium vulgare is cultivated as an ornamental plant, and numerous cultivars have been developed. The cultivar ‘Blue Bedder’ has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.[9][10]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; & Dickinson, R. (2004) ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto:Royal Ontario Museum, p. 203.
  2. ^ Flora Europaea: Echium vulgare
  3. ^ a b "Echium vulgare". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  4. ^ "Echium vulgare L". Retrieved 20 August 2015. 
  5. ^ Graves, Melissa; Mangold, Jane; Jacobs, Jim. "Biology, Ecology and Management of Blueweed" (PDF). store.msuextension.org. Montana State University. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  6. ^ Dorothy Hodges (1952). The pollen loads of the honeybee. Bee Research Association Ltd., London. 
  7. ^ "Common viper's bugloss: Echium vulgare (Lamiales: Boraginaceae): Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States". www.invasiveplantatlas.org. Invasive Pant Atlas of the United States. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  8. ^ Fitter, R. & A. (1974). The Wild Flowers of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins.
  9. ^ "RHS Plantfinder - Echium vulgare 'Blue Bedder'". Retrieved 12 January 2018. 
  10. ^ "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 35. Retrieved 24 January 2018.