The ecological humanities (also environmental humanities) is an interdisciplinary area of research, drawing on the many environmental sub-disciplines that have emerged in the humanities over the past several decades (in particular environmental literature, environmental philosophy, environmental history and environmental anthropology). The ecological humanities aim to help bridge traditional divides between the sciences and the humanities, and between Western, Eastern and Indigenous ways of knowing the natural world and the place of humans in it (Rose 2004).
The ecological humanities are characterised by a connectivity ontology and a commitment to two fundamental axioms relating to the need to submit to ecological laws and to see humanity as part of a larger living system.
One of the fundamental ontological presuppositions of ecological humanities is that the organic world and its inorganic parts are seen as a single system whereby each part is linked to each other part. This world view in turn shares an intimate connection with Lotka's physiological philosophy and the associated concept of the "World Engine". When we see everything as connected, then the traditional questions of the humanities concerning economic and political justice become enlarged, into a consideration of how justice is connected with our transformation of our environment and ecosystems. The consequence of such a connectivity ontology is, as proponents of the ecological humanities argue, that we begin to seek out a more inclusive concept of justice that includes non-humans within the domain of those to whom rights are owing. This broadened conception of justice involves "enlarged" or "ecological thinking", which presupposes the enhancement of knowledge sharing within fields of plural and diverse ‘knowledges’. This kind of knowledge sharing is called transdisciplinarity. It has links with the political philosophy of Hannah Arendt and the works of Italo Calvino. As Calvino put it, "enlarge[s] the sphere of what we can imagine". It also has connections with Leibniz's Enlightenment project where, the sciences are simultaneously abridged while also being enlarged.
The situation is complicated however by the recognition of the fact that connections are both non-linear and linear. The ecological humanities therefore, require both linear and non-linear modes of language through which reasoning about justice can be done. Thus there is a motivation to find linguistic modes which can adequately express both linear and non-linear connectivities.
There are three axioms of ecological humanities:
- The axiom of submission to ecosystem laws;
- The axiom of ecological kinship, which situates humanity as participant in a larger living system; and
- The axiom of the social construction of ecosystems and ecological unity, which states that ecosystems and nature may be merely convenient conceptual entities (Marshall, 2002).
Putting the first and second axioms another way, the connections between and among living things are the basis for how ecosystems are understood to work, and thus constitute laws of existence and guidelines for behaviour (Rose 2004)
The first of these axioms has a tradition in social sciences (see Marx, 1968: 3). From the second axiom the notions of "ecological embodiment/ embeddedness" and "habitat" have emerged from Political Theory with a fundamental connectivity to rights, democracy and ecologism (Eckersley 1996: 222, 225; Eckersley 1998).
The third axiom comes from the strong 'self-reflective' tradition of all 'humanities' scholarship and it encourages ecological humanities to investigate its own theoretical basis (and without which, ecological humanities is just 'ecology').
Political economic ecology
Some theorists have suggested that the inclusion of non-humans in the consideration of justice links ecocentric philosophy with political economics. This is because the theorising of justice is a central activity of political economic philosophy. If in accordance with the axioms of ecological humanities, theories of justice are enlarged to include ecological values then the necessary result is the synthesis of the concerns of ecology with that of political economy: i.e. Political Economic Ecology.
Energy systems language
The question of what language can best depict the linear and non-linear causal connections of ecological systems appears to have been taken up by the school of ecology known as systems ecology. To depict the linear and non-linear internal relatedness of ecosystems where the laws of thermodynamics hold significant consequences (Hannon et al. 1991: 80), Systems Ecologist H.T. Odum (1994) predicated the Energy Systems Language on the principles of ecological energetics. In ecological energetics, just as in ecological humanities, the causal bond between connections is considered an ontic category (see Patten et al. 1976: 460). Moreover, as a result of simulating ecological systems with the energy systems language H.T.Odum make the controversial suggestion that embodied energy could be understood as value, which in itself is a step into the field of Political Economic Ecology noted above.
- Biophysical economics
- Ecological economics
- Political theory
- Principles of energetics
- Systems ecology
- Value theory
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