Economic and Technological Development Zones
The China National Economic and Technological Development Zones (Chinese: 国家级经济技术开发区) are the special areas of the People's Republic of China where foreign direct investment is encouraged. They are usually called the "Economic and Technological Development Zones" or simply the "Development Zones".
These national level programs started with the Special Economic Zones for three cities in 1978, as part of China's economic reform, and were extended to the Economic and Technological Development Zones in 14 cities in 1984.
There are also pros and cons on development on these economic zones, the pros are creating more job opportunities, increasing its economic growth(national GDP) and encourage on foreign direct investment. As a result, it was a success because China is currently one of the fastest growing countries and significantly influencing the global economy. From the past two decades, China has become an industrialized country because of the development of these economic zones. In which encourage foreign direct investments, where trading, exports of manufacture goods, became one of the main aspect of economic growth. On the other hand, it also made it reliant on these foreign investment, such as reliant on Hong Kong for these foreign investment, due to the reason that Hong Kong is a free trade market. Based on the case in Shenzhen, its problem with being one of the economic zones can be categorized in four category 1) Foreign exchange leakage,2) Cost ineffectivness, 3) Failure to achieve state objectives and 4) Economic crimes and related social problems.
China has been among the top targets of global investment for more than two decades. In the new age of global recession, China keeps a stable growth rate, thanks to the inexpensive labor, stable government, preferable tax rate and government's support to foreign investment.
List of zones
In 2006, there are now 49 Development Zones (in the order of the list in the Chinese Wikipedia page, i.e. in the order of the approvals):
- Dalian Development Area
- Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area
- Fuqing Rongqiao
- Huizhou Dayawan
- Changsha Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Suzhou Industrial Park
- Shanghai Minhang
- Shanghai Hongqiao
- Shanghai Caohejing Development Zone (Shanghai Metro)
- Shanghai Pudong Lujiazui Financial & Trading Zone
- Shanghai Pudong Waigaiqiao Free-Trade Zone
- Shanghai Pudong Jinqiao Export Manufacturing Zone
- Shanghai Pudong Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park
- Hangzhou Xiangshan
- Ningbo Daxie Island
- Fuzhou Mawei District
- Xiamen Haicang District
- Guangzhou Nansha
- Hainan Yangpu Economic Development Zone
- Shuyang Shuyang Economic and Technological Development Zone
Provincial Economic Development Zones
There are now many Provincial Economic Development Zones, such as:
- Dalian Changxing Island Seaport Industrial Area (Liaoning)
- Dongying Economic Development Zone (Shandong)
- Yunmeng County Economic Development Zone, Xiaogan, Hubei
- Hanchuan Economic and Technological Development Zone (汉川市经济技术开发区), Xiaogan, Hubei
- Jingzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone, Jingzhou, Hubei
Some of them are as large as the National Economic and Technological Development Zones. There are also the Municipal-Level Economic Development Zones.
- Metropolitan regions of China
- Economic reform in the People's Republic of China
- Special Economic Zones
- Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China
- List of technology centers of the world
- List of economic and technological development zones in Beijing
- List of economic and technological development zones in Shanghai
- "汉川市历史沿革" [Hanchuan City Historical Development]. 行政区划网站www.xzqh.org (in Chinese). 行政区划网站www.xzqh.org. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
- "2016年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码：汉川市" [2016 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Hanchuan City]. 中华人民共和国国家统计局信息网 (in Chinese). 中华人民共和国国家统计局 National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2016. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
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- China Acadmenic Journals Full-text Database <http://www.eastview.com>