Economy of Algeria

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Economy of Algeria
Vue sur Alger de nuit (2006).jpg
CurrencyAlgerian dinar (DZD, دج)
Trade organisations
AU, AfCFTA (signed), OPEC, GECF, WTO and others
Country group
PopulationIncrease 42,972,878 (2020 est.)[3]
  • Increase $151.459 billion (nominal, 2021 est.)[4]
  • Increase $759.480 billion (PPP, 2021 est.)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 1.4% (2018) 0.9% (2019e)
  • −2.0% (2020f) 4.1% (2021f)[5]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $3,363.97 (nominal, 2021 est.)[4]
  • Increase $16,568 (PPP, 2021 est.)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
4.1% (2020 est.)[4]
Population below poverty line
  • 5.5% (2011)[6]
  • 29.2% on less than $5.50/day (2011)[7]
27.6 low (2011)[8]
Labour force
  • Increase 12,316,707 (2019)[11]
  • Decrease 36.9% employment rate (2017)[12]
Labour force by occupation
UnemploymentNegative increase 11.7% (2017 est.)[3]
Main industries
petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Steady 157th (below average, 2020)[13]
ExportsIncrease $23.8 billion (2020 est.)[14]
Export goods
petroleum, natural gas and petroleum products 94% (2017)[15]
Main export partners
ImportsDecrease $48.54 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Import goods
capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • Increase $29.05 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[3]
  • Decrease Abroad: $1.893 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[3]
Increase −$22.1 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Negative increase $6.26 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[3]
Public finances
Negative increase 27.5% of GDP (2017 est.)[3] [note 1]
−9.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[3]
Revenues54.15 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Expenses70.2 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Foreign reserves
Decrease $42 billion (March 2021 est.)[17]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Algerian exports in 2006
View of the oil port of Béjaïa.

The economy of Algeria expanded by 4% in 2014, up from 2.8% in 2013. Growth was driven mainly by the recovering oil and gas sector. Further economic expansion of 3.9% was forecast in 2015 and 4.1% in 2016.[18]

In 2012, Algeria's economy grew by 2.5%, up slightly from 2.4% in 2011. Excluding hydrocarbons, growth has been estimated up to 5.8%. Inflation is increasing and is estimated at 8.9%. Despite the financial authorities’ good performance thanks to modernisation reforms, the budget deficit widened to 3.3% of GDP in 2012. The deficit was attributed to the continuation of the expansionary fiscal policy initiated in 2011 to meet strong social demands in terms of purchasing power, jobs and housing. The oil and gas sector is the country's main source of revenues, and generated about 70% of total budget receipts. The economy was projected to grow by 3.2% in 2013 and by 4.0% in 2014.

The country's external position remained comfortable in 2012, with a trade surplus of about US$27.18 billion. The current-account surplus was estimated at 8.2% of GDP and official foreign-exchange reserves had been estimated at US$190.7 billion at end-December 2012, or the equivalent of more than three years of imports of non-factor goods and services. Oil and gas export earnings made up more than 97% of total exports.

Algeria has enormous possibilities to boost its economic growth, including huge foreign-exchange reserves derived from oil and gas. A development strategy targeting stronger, sustained growth would create more jobs, especially for young people, and alleviate the housing shortage the country is facing. The national strategic option is therefore to revitalise the process intended to diversify the economy starting with the non-oil sector while deepening the reforms needed for the structural transformation of the economy.[19]

Historical trends[edit]

The total imports and exports on the eve of the French invasion (in 1830) did not exceed £175,000. By 1850, the figures had reached £5,000,000; in 1868, £12,000,000; in 1880, £17,000,000; and in 1890, £20,000,000. From this point progress was slower and the figures varied considerably year by year. In 1905 the total value of the foreign trade was £24,500,000. About five-sixths of the trade is with or via France, into which country several Algerian goods have been admitted duty-free since 1851, and all since 1867. French goods, except sugar, have been admitted into Algeria without payment of duty since 1835. After the 1892 increase of the French minimum tariff which applied to Algeria for the first time, foreign trade greatly diminished.[citation needed]

GDP per capita grew 40% in the 1960s, reaching a peak growth of 538% in the 1970s.[20] Growth collapsed to 9.7% in the turbulent 1980s. Failure of timely reforms by successive governments caused the current GDP per capita to shrink by 28% in the 1990s.

This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Algeria at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund.

Year Gross Domestic Product
million Algerian dinars
US Dollar Exchange
Algerian dinars
Inflation Index
Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
1980 162,500 3.83 9.30 18.51
1985 291,600 4.77 14 15.55
1990 554,400 12.19 22 10.65
1995 2,004,990 47.66 73 5.39
2000 4,123,514 75.31 100 5.17
2005 7,493,000 73.44 114 7.43

For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US dollar is exchanged at 70.01 Algerian dinars only (updated May 24, 2007). Average wages in 2007 hover around US$18–22 per day.

New bridge construction near Aïn Turk.

Burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded a one-year standby arrangement with the International Monetary Fund in April 1994 and the following year signed onto a three-year extended fund facility which ended 30 April 1998. In March 2006, Russia agreed to erase $4.74 billion of Algeria's Soviet-era debt during a visit by President Vladimir Putin to the country, the first by a Russian leader in half a century. In return, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika agreed to buy $7.5 billion worth of combat planes, air-defence systems and other arms from Russia, according to the head of Russia's state arms exporter Rosoboronexport.[21][22]

Some progress on economic reform, Paris Club debt reschedulings in 1995 and 1996, and oil and gas sector expansion contributed to a recovery in growth since 1995, reducing inflation to approximately 1% and narrowing the budget deficit. Algeria's economy has grown at about 4% annually since 1999. The country's foreign debt has fallen from a high of $28 billion in 1999 to its current level of $5 billion. The spike in oil prices in 1999–2000 and the government's tight fiscal policy, as well as a large increase in the trade surplus and the near tripling of foreign exchange reserves has helped the country's finances. However, an ongoing drought, the after effects of the floods of 10 November 2001 and an uncertain oil market made prospects for 2002-03 more problematic. The government has pledged to continue its efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector.

Hotel Zianides in Tlemcen.

President Bouteflika has announced sweeping economic reforms, which, if implemented, will significantly restructure the economy. Still, the economy remains heavily dependent on volatile oil and gas revenues. The government has continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, but has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Other priority areas include banking reform, improving the investment environment, and reducing government bureaucracy.

The government has announced plans to sell off state enterprises: sales of a national cement factory and steel plant have been completed and other industries are up for offer. In 2001, Algeria signed an Association Agreement with the European Union. In June 1987, Algeria started accession negotiations for entry into the World Trade Organization, but negotiations ceased in 2014.


The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. Inflation under 5% is in green.[23]

Year GDP
(in bil. US$ PPP)
GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)
GDP growth
Inflation rate
(in Percent)
(in Percent)
Government debt
(in % of GDP)
1980 86.6 4,641 Decrease−5.4 % Negative increase9.7 % 15.8 % n/a
1981 Increase97.6 Increase5,069 Increase3.0 % Negative increase14.6 % Positive decrease15.4 % n/a
1982 Increase110.2 Increase5,550 Increase6.4 % Negative increase6.7 % Positive decrease15.0 % n/a
1983 Increase120.8 Increase5,887 Increase5.4 % Negative increase7.8 % Positive decrease14.3 % n/a
1984 Increase132.1 Increase6,237 Increase5.6 % Negative increase6.3 % Negative increase16.5 % n/a
1985 Increase143.9 Increase6,483 Increase5.6 % Negative increase10.4 % Negative increase16.9 % n/a
1986 Increase146.5 Decrease6,427 Decrease−0.2 % Negative increase14.0 % Negative increase18.4 % n/a
1987 Increase149.2 Decrease6,377 Decrease−0.7 % Negative increase5.8 % Negative increase20.1 % n/a
1988 Increase151.5 Decrease6,287 Decrease−1.9 % Negative increase5.9 % Negative increase21.8 % n/a
1989 Increase165.0 Increase6,679 Increase4.8 % Negative increase9.2 % Positive decrease18.1 % n/a
1990 Increase172.4 Increase6,891 Increase0.8 % Negative increase9.3 % Negative increase19.8 % n/a
1991 Increase176.0 Decrease6,865 Decrease−1.2 % Negative increase25.9 % Negative increase20.3 % 77.8 %
1992 Increase182.9 Increase6,963 Increase1.6 % Negative increase31.7 % Negative increase21.4 % Positive decrease62.9 %
1993 Increase183.3 Decrease6,817 Decrease−2.1 % Negative increase20.5 % Negative increase23.2 % Negative increase74.0 %
1994 Increase185.6 Decrease6,749 Decrease−0.9 % Negative increase29.0 % Negative increase24.4 % Negative increase98.4 %
1995 Increase196.7 Increase7,011 Increase3.8 % Negative increase29.8 % Negative increase28.1 % Negative increase116.2 %
1996 Increase207.9 Increase7,279 Increase3.8 % Negative increase18.7 % Positive decrease28.0 % Positive decrease98.1 %
1997 Increase213.8 Increase7,361 Increase1.1 % Negative increase5.7 % Steady28.0 % Positive decrease69.9 %
1998 Increase227.1 Increase7,698 Increase5.1 % Increase5.0 % Steady28.0 % Negative increase72.9 %
1999 Increase238.0 Increase7,943 Increase3.2 % Increase2.6 % Negative increase29.3 % Negative increase82.0 %
2000 Increase252.7 Increase8,282 Increase3.8 % Increase0.3 % Negative increase29.5 % Positive decrease62.8 %
2001 Increase266.2 Increase8,599 Increase3.0 % Increase4.2 % Positive decrease27.3 % Positive decrease54.3 %
2002 Increase285.4 Increase9,085 Increase5.6 % Increase1.4 % Positive decrease25.7 % Positive decrease51.3 %
2003 Increase312.1 Increase9,787 Increase7.2 % Increase4.3 % Positive decrease23.7 % Positive decrease42.1 %
2004 Increase334.4 Increase10,332 Increase4.3 % Increase4.0 % Positive decrease17.7 % Positive decrease35.2 %
2005 Increase365.5 Increase11,126 Increase5.9 % Increase1.4 % Positive decrease15.3 % Positive decrease26.3 %
2006 Increase383.1 Increase11,488 Increase1.7 % Increase2.3 % Positive decrease12.5 % Positive decrease23.6 %
2007 Increase406.6 Increase12,008 Increase3.4 % Increase3.7 % Negative increase13.8 % Positive decrease13.5 %
2008 Increase424.3 Increase12,267 Increase2.4 % Increase4.9 % Positive decrease11.3 % Positive decrease8.0 %
2009 Increase434.5 Increase12,321 Increase1.6 % Negative increase5.7 % Positive decrease10.2 % Negative increase9.8 %
2010 Increase455.8 Increase12,668 Increase3.6 % Increase3.9 % Positive decrease10.0 % Negative increase10.5 %
2011 Increase478.3 Increase13,027 Increase2.8 % Increase4.5 % Steady10.0 % Positive decrease9.3 %
2012 Increase503.6 Increase13,431 Increase3.9 % Negative increase8.9 % Negative increase11.0 % Steady9.3 %
2013 Increase526.1 Increase13,737 Increase2.8 % Increase3.3 % Positive decrease9.8 % Positive decrease7.6 %
2014 Increase555.9 Increase14,212 Increase3.8 % Increase2.9 % Negative increase10.6 % Negative increase7.7 %
2015 Increase582.7 Increase14,581 Increase3.7 % Increase4.8 % Negative increase11.2 % Negative increase8.8 %
2016 Increase609.6 Increase14,955 Increase3.3 % Negative increase6.4 % Positive decrease10.5 % Negative increase20.6 %
2017 Increase632.9 Increase15,237 Increase2.0 % Negative increase5.6 % Negative increase11.7 % Negative increase25.8 %

Gross domestic product (GDP)[edit]

In 2007 Algeria's estimated GDP was US$125.9 billion according to the official exchange rate. Using purchasing power parity, estimated GDP was US$268.9 billion, or US$8,100 on a per capita basis. The estimated real growth rate was 4.6%. In 2007 industry accounted for 61% of GDP, services constituted 31%, and agriculture provided the remaining 8%.[24]

The country has enjoyed several years of strong economic performance, with solid non-hydrocarbon growth, low inflation, an overall budget surplus of 8% of GDP and a positive trade balance of 28% of GDP in 2008. Average annual non-hydrocarbon GDP growth averaged 6 percent in 2003–2007, with total GDP growing at an average of 4.5% during the same period due to less buoyant oil production in 2006–07.

After having virtually eliminated external debt before 2013, the drop hydrocarbon prices and revenues has led to a large budget deficit which has been only partly offset by spending cuts. Consequently, government debt has increased to more than 30% of GDP.[25] Inflation has remained at 3-6% on average for 2013–17. However, the economy remains highly dependent on hydrocarbons, which represent 94% of total exports;[26] a continued slowdown of global energy demand has significantly put pressure on Algeria's fiscal and external positions.[27]

The nominal GDP in 2017 was US$167.5 billion.[4]

Government budget[edit]

In 2007, government revenues of US$58.5 billion exceeded expenditures of US$41.4 billion. Receipts from the hydrocarbons industry usually account for roughly 60% of revenues.[24]

Public and private sectors[edit]

Algeria's economy includes a significant public sector built up under a policy of import substitution industrialization which remained intact after other developing nations liberalised their economies under the influence of structural adjustment programmes advocated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund towards the end of the 20th century. As of 2019, this sector consisted of 400 publicly owned firms, and generates a third of the state's revenue. Although economic liberalisation has advocates in Algeria, in 2018 froze all plans to pursue privatisation.[28]

In addition, the social safety net in Algeria is stronger than in other countries in the region: it saw periods of expansion in the 1970s, and in the 2000s, helping to build stability after the Civil War. It is supplemented by consumer subsidies. These measures allow for wages to be kept low.[28]

The restrictive political economy in Algeria and continued adherence to the ISI model has limited foreign direct investment in the country: Algeria has one of the lowest levels of FDI in Africa. However, local businesses have benefited from the state undertaking public works projects in the construction of roads, ports, dams and housing. Both fixed capital formation and credit extended to the private sector increased during the 2010s.[28]


Natural gas[edit]

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing[edit]

Algeria's agricultural sector, which contributes about 8 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) but employs 14 percent of the workforce, is unable to meet the food needs of the country's population. As a result, some 45 percent of food is imported. The primary crops are wheat, barley, and potatoes. Farmers also have had success growing dates for export. Cultivation is concentrated in the fertile coastal plain of the Tell region, which represents just a slice of Algeria's total territory. Altogether, only about 3 percent of Algerian territory is arable. Even in the Tell, rainfall variability has a significant impact on production. Government efforts to stimulate farming in the less arable steppe and desert regions have met with limited success. However, herdsmen maintain livestock, specifically cow and sheep in the High Plateaus region.[29]

Algeria's climate and periodic wildfires are not conducive to a thriving forestry industry. However, Algeria is a producer of cork and Aleppo pine. In 2005 roundwood removals totaled 7.8 million cubic meters, while sawnwood production amounted to only 13 million cubic meters per year.[30]

Algeria's fishing industry does not take full advantage of the Mediterranean coast, in part because fishing is generally done from small family-owned boats instead of large commercial fishing trawlers. However, the government is attempting to boost the relatively small catch—slightly more than 125,000 metric tons in 2005—by modernizing fishing ports, permitting foreigners to fish in Algerian waters, and subsidizing fishing-related projects.[30]

Algeria produced, in 2018:

  • 4.6 million tonnes of potato (17th largest producer in the world);
  • 3.9 million tonnes of wheat;
  • 2 million tons of watermelon (6th largest producer in the world);
  • 1.9 million tons of barley (18th largest producer in the world);
  • 1.4 million tons of onion (16th largest producer in the world);
  • 1.3 million tons of tomato (18th largest producer in the world);
  • 1.1 million tons of orange (14th largest producer in the world);
  • 1 million tons of date (4th largest producer in the world, second only to Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Iran);
  • 860 thousand tons of olives (6th largest producer in the world);
  • 651 thousand tons of pepper;
  • 502 thousand tons of grape;
  • 431 thousand tons of carrot;
  • 388 thousand tons of pumpkin;
  • 262 thousand tons of tangerine;
  • 242 thousand tons of apricot (4th largest producer in the world, second only to Turkey, Iran and Uzbekistan);
  • 207 thousand tons of cauliflower and broccoli;
  • 202 thousand tons of garlic;
  • 200 thousand tons of pear;
  • 193 thousand tons of cucumber;
  • 190 thousand tons of peach;
  • 186 thousand tons of pea;
  • 181 thousand tons of aubergine;
  • 124 thousand tons of artichoke (5th largest producer in the world, losing only to Italy, Egypt, Spain and Peru);
  • 118 thousand tons of oats;
  • 111 thousand tons of plum (20th largest producer in the world);
  • 109 thousand tons of fig (4th largest producer in the world, second only to Turkey, Egypt and Morocco);

In addition to smaller productions of other agricultural products.[31]


Fishing is a flourishing but minor industry. Fish caught are principally sardines, bonito, mackerel, smelt and sprats. Fresh fish are exported to France, dried and preserved fish to Spain and Italy. Coral fisheries are found along the coast from Bona to Tunis. The annual catch averages around 142,000 tons, 54% sardines.


Algeria is rich in minerals; the country has many iron, lead, zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines. The most productive are those of iron and zinc. Lignite is found in Algiers; immense phosphate beds were discovered near Tébessa in 1891, yielding 313,500 tons in 1905. Phosphate beds are also worked near Sétif, Guelma and Aïn Beïda. There are more than 300 quarries which produce, amongst other stones, onyx and white and red marbles. Algerian onyx from Ain Tekbalet was used by the Romans, and many ancient quarries have been found near Sidi Ben Yebka, some being certainly those from which the long-lost Numidian marbles were taken. Salt is collected on the margins of the chotts.

In 2019, the country was the 17th largest world producer of gypsum,[32] and the 19th largest world producer of phosphate.[33]

Banking and finance[edit]

Algeria's banking sector is dominated by public banks, which suffer from high levels of non-performing loans to state-owned enterprises (SOEs). As of 2007, public banks controlled 95 percent of total bank assets. In 2007 nonperforming loans represented a towering 38 percent of total loans at public banks, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates. Modest progress has been made in implementing several reforms proposed by the IMF, including replacing bank credits to SOEs with government subsidies; boosting bank supervision, accountability, and transparency; and modernizing the payments system. One specific reform that has been achieved is the establishment in 2006 of the Algerian Real Time Settlements system, which facilitates the prompt and reliable electronic transfer of payments. In November 2007, the proposed sale and privatization of Crédit Populaire d’Algérie was postponed because of turbulent market conditions. Recently, HSBC and Deutsche Bank announced that they would commence commercial banking (in the case of HSBC) and investment banking (in the case of Deutsche Bank) in Algeria. Only a few companies are listed on the underdeveloped and relatively opaque Algiers stock exchange.[30] The non-bank sector remains less developed, although recent reforms in the field of regulation and supervision have laid the foundations for leasing, factoring, and venture capital.

The Algerian equity market remains relatively shallow, with only four companies being listed in the Bourse d’Algerie. Conversely, the bond market has expanded in recent years: the government has issued debt instruments with varying maturities of up to fifteen years, and five private companies have issued corporate bonds.

The insurance sector was liberalized in 1995, but is still dominated by government-owned institutions and so far accounts only for a very small part of the economy: total premium volume amounted to approximately 1 percent of GDP. The pension sector encompasses three pension funds, which attained coverage of approximately 40 percent of the working population in 2005.

Based on 2006 and 2007 estimates, 31 percent of the total population has access to financial services, with one bank branch or post office every 7,250 inhabitants. The microfinance sector still has great potential for further development. A 2006 study could not find major regulatory impediments to microfinance and suggested that the geographical net of postal offices – offering an increasing number of financial services to customers – holds a high potential of increasing access to finance for the Algerian population.

Official remittance inflows increased steadily from US$1.9 to 2.9 billion between 2005 and 2007.[27]


Algeria's tourism industry, which contributes only about 1 percent of GDP, lags behind that of its neighbors Morocco and Tunisia. Algeria receives only about 200,000 tourists and visitors annually. Ethnic Algerian French citizens represent the largest group of tourists, followed by Tunisians. The modest level of tourism is attributable to a combination of poor hotel accommodations and the threat of terrorism. However, the government has adopted a plan known as “Horizon 2025,” which is designed to address the lack of infrastructure.[34] Various hotel operators are planning to build hotels, particularly along the Mediterranean coast. Another opportunity involves adventure holidays in the Sahara (which comprises approximately 80% of the country's land area).[35] In addition to potential ecotourism, the country boasts many cultural and historical sites, seven of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The Algerian government has set the goal of boosting the number of foreign visitors, including tourists, to 1.2 million by 2010.[30]

Other industries[edit]

Algeria has many diversified industries that contribute to meet local demands and some times to exportation. The food industry is one of the largest industrial sector in Algeria. Private companies generally dominate the food sector in Algeria with large companies such as Cevital, La Belle, Groupe Bimo, Hamoud Boualam, Ifri, Général Emballage.

The pharmaceutical industry is also present in Algeria, with the domination of state-owned company Saidal, as well as other small private companies. The local pharmaceutical industry covers 38% of local needs.

The mechanical industry has existed in Algeria for a long time, with the state-owned company SNVI (Société Nationale des Véhicules Industriels) being the largest producer of buses and industrial vehicles in the region. These vehicles are exported to the Maghreb, Africa, and the Middle East. Mercedes-Benz has also invested in Algeria in cooperation with a state-owned company to produce industrial and military vehicles. Deutz AG also invested to produce agricultural utilities.

In the electric and electronic industry, Algeria has made a great leap in the field compared to its neighbours. The Algerian region Bordj-Bou-Arreridj is the biggest electronic pole in Africa, local companies cover 83% of it needs and export other products, Algeria started producing some 100% home made electronic product including smartphones, tablets, TV, TV decoders, air conditioning products ..., at least 16 big companies are active in the field, some of the companies are : Bya Electronic, HB Technologies, ZALA Computer, Cristor, Condor, Cobra, Continental électronique, Essalem Electronics, Samha, FRIGOR, BMS Electric, Bomare Company, etc.

Currency, exchange rate, and inflation[edit]

Algeria's currency is the Algerian dinar (DZD). The dinar is loosely linked to the U.S. dollar in a managed float. Algeria's main export, crude oil, is priced in dollars, while most of Algeria's imports are priced in euros. Therefore, the government endeavors to manage fluctuations in the value of the dinar. As of April 2008, US$1 was equivalent to about DZD 64.6.[36]

Algeria's foreign currency reserves have grown rapidly since 2000, reflecting rising prices for exported oil. At the end of 2007, foreign reserves totaled US$99.3 billion, up from US$12 billion in 2000 and the equivalent of almost four years of imports.[36] In 2007 the estimated inflation rate was 4.6 percent.[24]

In 2010, the IMF voiced concerns about poor management of Algeria's monetary system and inflation.[37]

In April 2014, a report focusing on world economic projections was published by the IMF, according to which it was predicted that, in 2015, Algeria's economic growth would fall by 1.5%, while unemployment would rise by 1.2%.[38]


The largest employer is government, which claims 32 percent of the workforce. Even though industry is a much larger part of the economy than agriculture, agriculture employs slightly more people (14 percent of the workforce) than industry (13.4 percent of the workforce). One of the reasons for this disparity is that the energy sector is very capital-intensive. Trade accounts for 14.6 percent of the workforce, while the construction and public works sector employs 10 percent, reflecting the government's efforts to upgrade the country's infrastructure and stock of affordable housing.[39]

Unemployment has remained at levels around 10% since 2010 but is significantly higher for youth (24.8%) and women (16.3%)[40]

At the end of 2006, the unemployment rate was about 15.7 percent, but the rate among those under the age of 25 was 70 percent. In 2005 the labor participation rate was only 52 percent, versus an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average of 70 percent. New entrants to the workforce and the lack of emigration options make unemployment a chronic problem and an important challenge to the government. Given its highly capital-intensive nature, the hydrocarbons industry is not in a position to employ many job seekers.[39]

International trade and investment[edit]

Algeria is seeking more trade and foreign investment. For example, the hydrocarbons law passed in April 2005 is designed to encourage foreign investment in energy exploration. Increased production could raise Algeria's profile as a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. In keeping with its pro-trade agenda, Algeria achieved association status with the European Union (EU) in September 2005. Over a 12-year period, the association agreement is expected to enable Algeria to export goods to the EU tariff-free, while it gradually lifts tariffs on imports from the EU. Algeria has signed bilateral investment agreements with 20 different nations, including many European countries, China, Egypt, Malaysia, and Yemen. In July 2001, the United States and Algeria agreed on a framework for discussions leading to such an agreement, but a final treaty has not yet been negotiated. Ultimately, trade liberalization, customs modernization, deregulation, and banking reform are designed to improve the country's negotiating position as it seeks accession to the World Trade Organization.[41]

In 2007 Algerian imports totaled US$26.08 billion. The principal imports were capital goods, foodstuffs, and consumer goods. The top import partners were France (22 percent), Italy (8.6 percent), China (8.5 percent), Germany (5.9 percent), Spain (5.9 percent), the United States (4.8 percent), and Turkey (4.5 percent). In 2007 Algeria exported US$63.3 billion, more than twice as much as it imported. Exports accounted for 30 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Hydrocarbon products constituted at least 95 percent of export earnings. The principal exports were petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products. The top export partners were the United States (27.2 percent), Italy (17 percent), Spain (9.7 percent), France (8.8 percent), Canada (8.1 percent), and Belgium (4.3 percent). Algeria supplies 25 percent of the European Union's natural gas imports. In 2007 Algeria posted a positive merchandise trade balance of US$37.2 billion. In 2007 Algeria achieved a positive current account balance of US$31.5 billion. High prices for Algeria's energy exports are the main driver for the improvement in the current account balance.[41]

Algeria's trade surplus for 2010 rose to over $83.14 billion. The Algerian Centre for Information and Statistics Directorate of the Algerian Customs attribute this increase from the previous year to higher fuel revenue due to higher prices for a barrel of oil, and a slight decrease in imports of consumer non-food materials. The center said that Algerian exports rose by 78.26% during the period from January to November 2010 from $27.51 billion to $44.4 billion during the same period in 2009. Imports grew by 89.1% from $43.36 billion to $76.35 billion between 2009 and 2010.[42]

Reflecting strong oil export revenues, external debt is on a downward trajectory. For example, these revenues facilitated early repayments of US$900 million in loans from the African Development Bank and Saudi Arabia. In March 2006, Algeria's purchase of 78 aircraft from Russia led to the cancellation of Algeria's entire debt to Russia. In 2006 external debt was estimated at US$4.4 billion, down from US$23.5 billion in 2003.[41]

In 2006 foreign direct investment (FDI) in Algeria totaled US$1.8 billion. The petrochemical, transport, and utilities sectors have been recent beneficiaries of FDI. FDI into the oil sector was expected to rise as a result of a hydrocarbons law, approved in April 2005, that created a more even playing field for foreign oil companies to compete with Algeria's state-owned oil company, Sonatrach, for exploration and production contracts. Algeria also is seeking foreign investment in power and water systems.[41]

As of August 2006, cumulative World Bank assistance to Algeria totaled US$5.9 billion, encompassing 72 projects. Currently, the World Bank is pursuing seven projects, specifically budget modernization, mortgage finance, natural disaster recovery, energy and mining, rural employment, telecommunications, and transportation. In 2005 economic assistance to Algeria from the United States amounted to US$4.4 million, most of which was attributable to the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) and the remainder to International Military Education and Training (IMET). MEPI encourages economic, political, and educational reform in the Middle East. In 2006 IMET, which provides U.S. military training to foreign troops, had a budget of US$823 million. In 2005 the European Union contributed US$58 million to Algeria's economic development under the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership.[36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Middle East and North Africa Economic Update, April 2020 : How Transparency Can Help the Middle East and North Africa". World Bank. p. 10. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  6. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) - Algeria". World Bank. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at $5.50 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - Algeria". World Bank. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". UNDP. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  11. ^ "Labor force, total - Algeria". World Bank. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  12. ^ "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Algeria". World Bank. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Algeria". Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  14. ^ Reuters Staff (14 January 2021). "Algeria's exports fall by a third in value in 2020 on lower oil price". Reuters. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  15. ^ "Algeria Exports". Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  16. ^ a b "Foreign trade partners of Algeria". The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  17. ^ "Algeria foreign exchange reserves fall to $42 billion". Brecorder. 2 March 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  18. ^ Algeria: African Economic Outlook, May 2015
  19. ^ "Algeria Economic Outlook". African Development Bank. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  20. ^ GDP: GDP per capita, current US dollars Archived February 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Russia agrees Algeria arms deal, writes off debt". Reuters. 2006-03-11. Archived from the original on 2006-05-28.
  22. ^ "La Russie efface la dette algérienne" (in French). Radio France International. March 10, 2006.
  23. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 2018-09-21.
  24. ^ a b c Algeria country profile, p. 11.
  25. ^ "Algeria Government Debt: % of GDP [1997 - 2019] [Data & Charts]". Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  26. ^ "Algeria Business Trends".
  27. ^ a b "Home: MFW4A - Making Finance Work for Africa". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  28. ^ a b c Al-Sholi, Ahmad (21 April 2019). "The End of Absurdity in Algeria". Jacobin. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
  29. ^ Algeria country profile, pp. 11–12.
  30. ^ a b c d Algeria country profile, p. 12.
  31. ^ Algeria production in 2018, by FAO
  32. ^ USGS Gypsum Production Statistics
  33. ^ USGS Phosphate Production Statistics
  34. ^ "Tourism Development Strategy Horizon 2025". Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  35. ^ "Algeria holds clear potential as tourist destination despite challenges". Oxford Business Group. 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  36. ^ a b c Algeria country profile, p. 15.
  37. ^ "Echorouk Online - IMF report: Algerian monetary system going from bad to worse". Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2010-10-31.
  38. ^ Fanack. "Algeria's Struggling Economy in Perspective". Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  39. ^ a b Algeria country profile, p. 13.
  40. ^ Algeria Overview, World Bank (31 March 2015)
  41. ^ a b c d Algeria country profile, p. 14
  42. ^ "Algeria's trade surplus". Nuqudy. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2010-12-29.


  1. ^ data cover central government debt as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]