Economy of Austria

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Economy of Austria
Vienna Skyline.jpg
CurrencyEuro (EUR, €)
Calendar year
Trade organisations
Country group
PopulationIncrease 8,901,064 (1 January 2020)[3]
  • Increase $472.89 billion (nominal, 2023)[4]
  • Increase $627.04 billion (PPP, 2023)[5]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 2.4% (2018) 1.6% (2019)
  • −6.7% (2020e) 4.6% (2021e)[4]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $52,32 (nominal, 2023)[5]
  • Increase $69,04 (PPP, 2023)[5]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
  • 1.2% (2020 est.)[4]
  • 1.5% (2019)[4]
  • 2.1% (2018)[4]
Population below poverty line
Positive decrease 16.9% at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE, 2019)[7]
Negative increase 27.5 low (2019, Eurostat)[8]
Labour force
  • Decrease 4,559,603 (2019)[11]
  • Increase 76.2% employment rate (Target: 77%; 2018)[12]
Labour force by occupation
  • Positive decrease 5.0% (August 2020)[13]
  • Positive decrease 10.3% youth unemployment (15 to 24 year-olds; July 2020)[14]
Average gross salary
€4,163 / $4,604 monthly (2017)
€2,761 / $3,053 monthly (2017)
Main industries
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism
Decrease 27th (very easy, 2020)[15]
ExportsIncrease $156.7 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Export goods
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, manufactured goods, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Main export partners
ImportsIncrease $158.1 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Import goods
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • Increase $294.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
  • Increase Abroad: $339.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Decrease $7.859 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Positive decrease $630.8 billion (31 December 2017)[6]
Public finances
  • Positive decrease 70.4% of GDP (2019)[16]
  • Positive decrease €280.426 billion (2019)[16]
  • €2.9 billion surplus (2019)[16]
  • +0.7% of GDP (2019)[16]
Revenues49.0% of GDP (2019)[16]
Expenses48.2% of GDP (2019)[16]
  • Scope:[17]
  • AAA
  • Outlook: Stable
Decrease $21.57 billion (31 December 1937 est.)[6]

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of Austria is a developed social market economy, with the country being one of the fourteen richest in the world in terms of GDP (gross domestic product) per capita.[18] Until the 1980s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised. In recent years, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.

Labour movements are particularly strong in Austria, and they have a large influence on labour politics. Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the national economy. The economy of Austria's average GDP is 13th growth in OECD countries, from 1992 to 2017. In Austria, 1.37% over average population growth is the strong factor.

Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making the Austrian economy vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy. However, since Austria became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other European Union economies. This development reduced its economic dependence on Germany. In addition, Austria's membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors.

They were attracted by Austria's access to the European Single Market and the country's proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP has accelerated in recent years, and reached 3.3% in 2006.[19]

In 2022 Austria has a very high, 52,026$ nominal GDP per capita ranked 15th.[20]

Vienna was ranked the fifth richest NUTS-2 region within Europe (see Economy of the European Union), with its GDP reaching €38,632 per capita. It was trailing behind Inner London, Luxembourg, the Brussels-Capital Region and Hamburg.[21]

Growth had been steady between 2002 and 2006, varying between 1 and 3.3%.[22] After hitting 0% in 2013, growth had picked up a little. As of 2016, growth was set at 1.5%.[23]


Foundation and Interbellum[edit]

First Austrian Republic, founded as a result of the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, inherited an economy battered by the ravages of the First World War, namely:

  • The abolition of the gold standard in 1914.[24]
  • Provision by the central bank of credit to the state, increasing the money supply.[24]
  • The balance-of-payments deficit caused by the Austrian need to import food and fuel, devaluing the krone (the Austrian currency at the time).[25]
  • The use of deficit spending to finance food subsidies,[25] leading to a 12-fold increase of banknotes in circulation.[24]

A number of international relief schemes failed to garner enough support[26] while a report by Sir William Goode argued that the Austrian economy would collapse without swift foreign intervention.[25] As such, the Austrian economic crisis stretched into its second year, with inflation running at 99%.[24]

League of Nations Bailout[26][edit]

With annual inflation running at 2,877%,[24] the League of Nations was officially appointed to organise an Austrian reconstruction plan in August 1922. The League scheme was based on the view that Austrian troubles as a result of an inability to pay for necessities and obtain credit, and therefore, an Austrian financial revival was critical to Austrian survival. To this end, the plan was focused solely on financial reconstruction. Austria would receive loans raised from international money markets and the Austrian public, which would be secured on customs and tobacco taxes. In exchange, Austria would in effect lose sovereignty over its economy, agreeing to:

  • Relinquish control over the mints to an independent bank, with the aim of returning to the gold standard.
  • Terminate the printing of money by the central bank.
  • Eliminate the budget deficit (requiring the implementation of austerity measures and monetary control).

The measures took effect in 1923. Short-term effects were impressive; during the announcement to undertake Austrian reconstruction in August 1922, public confidence soared. Foreign currency holdings were converted back into krone, stabilising the currency. This allowed the Austrian Foreign Exchange Agency to finally intervene to fix the krone to the dollar, something that the wild gyrations of the past had not permitted. Capital rushed back into Austria, and domestic prices stabilised, pronouncing the end of hyperinflation.[27]

The steam ran out shortly after implementation. Growth averaged 0.35% per annum until 1929,[26] unemployment leapt five-fold,[28] bankruptcies increased 41-fold,[29] and the trade deficit doubled.[30]


Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, and consequently lost control of its own economic policy until the formation of the Second Republic in 1945.

Post World War II[edit]

Ever since the end of the World War II, Austria has achieved sustained economic growth. In the soaring 1950s, the rebuilding efforts for Austria lead to an average annual growth rate of more than 5% in real terms and averaged about four-point five percent through most of the 1960s.[31] Following moderate real GDP growth of 1.7%, 2% and 1.2%, respectively, in 1995, 1996, and 1997, the economy rebounded and with real GDP expansion of 2.9 percent in 1998 and 2.2% in 1999.

Austria became a member of the EU on 1 January 1995.[32] Membership brought economic benefits and challenges and has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market. Austria also has made progress in generally increasing its international competitiveness. As a member of the economic and monetary union of the European Union (EMU), Austria's economy is closely integrated with other EU member countries, especially with Germany. On 1 January 1999, Austria introduced the new Euro currency for accounting purposes. In January 2002, Euro notes and coins were introduced, replacing those of the Austrian schilling.


In 1999, Austria introduced the single European currency, the euro. With 18 other EU member states it forms the Eurozone.

In Austria, Euros appear as 1999, however all Austrian euro coins introduced in 2002 have this year on it; unlike other countries of the Eurozone where mint year is minted in the coin. Eight different designs, one per face value, were selected for the Austrian coins. In 2007, in order to adopt the new common map like the rest of the Eurozone countries, Austria changed the common side of its coins.

Before adopting the Euro in 2002 Austria had maintained use of the Austrian schilling which was first established in December 1924. The Schilling was abolished in the wake of the Anschluss in 1938 and has been reintroduced after the end of the World War II in November 1945.

Austria has one of the richest collection of collectors' coins in the Eurozone, with face value ranging from 10 to 100 euro (although a 100,000 euro coin was exceptionally minted in 2004). These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting of silver and gold coins. Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the eurozone. For instance, a €5 Austrian commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.

Privatisation, state participation and labour movements[edit]

Many of the country's largest firms were nationalised in the early post-war period to protect them from Soviet takeover as war reparations. For many years, the government and its state-owned industries conglomerate played a very important role in the Austrian economy. However, starting in the early 1990s, the group was broken apart, state-owned firms started to operate largely as private businesses, and a great number of these firms were wholly or partially privatised. The government still operates some firms, state monopolies, utilities, and services. In the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–2008 two banks were nationalised. Since 2019 the Österreichische Industrieholding (ÖBAG) administers the investments of the Republic of Austria in partially or entirely nationalized companies, but came under strong criticism after leaked messages showed how Thomas Schmidt had a say in the appointment of the supervisory board and became sole director. Austria enjoys well-developed industry, banking, transportation, services, and commercial facilities.

Austria has a strong labour movement. The Austrian Trade Union Federation (ÖGB) comprises constituent unions with a total membership of about 1.5 million—more than half the country's wage and salary earners. Since 1945, the ÖGB has pursued a moderate, consensus-oriented wage policy, cooperating with industry, agriculture, and the government on a broad range of social and economic issues in what is known as Austria's "social partnership". The ÖGB has often opposed the Schüssel government's programme for budget consolidation, social reform, and improving the business climate, and indications are rising that Austria's peaceful social climate could become more confrontational.

Agriculture, industry and services[edit]

Cows near top of mountain Schneeberg

Austrian farms, like those of other west European mountainous countries, are small and fragmented, and production is relatively expensive. Since Austria's becoming a member of the EU in 1995, the Austrian agricultural sector has been undergoing substantial reform under the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Although Austrian farmers provide about 80% of domestic food requirements, the agricultural contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined since 1950 to less than 3%.

Although some industries are global competitors, such as several iron and steel works, chemical plants and oil corporations that are large industrial enterprises employing thousands of people, most industrial and commercial enterprises in Austria are relatively small on an international scale.

Kitzbühel, one of Austria's famous winter tourist cities

Most important for Austria is the service sector generating the vast majority of Austria's GDP. Vienna has grown into a finance and consulting metropole and has established itself as the door to the East within the last decades. Viennese law firms and banks are among the leading corporations in business with the new EU member states. Tourism is very important for Austria's economy, accounting for around 10 percent of Austria's GDP.[33] In 2001, Austria was the tenth most visited country in the world with over 18.2 million tourists. Previously, dependency on German guests made this sector of the Austrian economy very dependent on German economy. However recent developments have brought a change, especially since winter ski resorts such as Arlberg or Kitzbühel are now more and more frequented by Eastern Europeans, Russians and Americans.

Austria produced in 2018:

  • 2.3 million tons of sugar beet (the beet is used to manufacture sugar and ethanol);
  • 2.1 million tons of maize;
  • 1.3 million tons of wheat;
  • 697 thousand tons of potato;
  • 695 thousand tons of barley;
  • 387 thousand tons of apple;
  • 367 thousand tons of grape;
  • 278 thousand tons of triticale;
  • 184 thousand tons of soybean;
  • 177 thousand tons of rye (12th largest world producer);
  • 132 thousand tons of onion;
  • 120 thousand tons of rapeseed;
  • 111 thousand tons of pear;

In addition to smaller productions of other agricultural products.[34]

Health care services[edit]

Austrian health care spending for 1970 to 2007 compared with other nations

Austria's health care system was developed alongside other social welfare programmes by the social democrats in Vienna initially.[35]

Trade position[edit]

Trade with other EU countries accounts for almost 66% of Austrian imports and exports. Expanding trade and investment in the emerging markets of central and eastern Europe is a major element of Austrian economic activity. Trade with these countries accounts for almost 14% of Austrian imports and exports,[36] and Austrian firms have sizable investments in and continue to move labour-intensive, low-tech production to these countries. Although the big investment boom has waned, Austria still has the potential to attract EU firms seeking convenient access to these developing markets.

Mergers and acquisitions[edit]

Companies and investors from Austria are active in mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Since 1991, more than 7,183 mergers & acquisitions transactions have been announced with a known total value of 261.6 bil. EUR. In 2017, over 245 deals with a total value of over 12.9 bil. EUR have taken place.[37] They are not only active in national deals, but also as important investors in cross-border M&A abroad, with Germany being the most important partner. 854 German companies have been acquired by Austrian parant companies (outbound) so far.[38]

The industry with the largest M&A activity in Austria in terms of transaction value has been the financial sector, whereas the industry with the largest number of transactions has been Industrials - representing 19.2%.


The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2021 (with IMF staff estimtates in 2022–2027). Inflation under 5% is in green.[39]

Year GDP

(in Bil. US$PPP)

GDP per capita

(in US$ PPP)


(in Bil. US$nominal)

GDP per capita

(in US$ nominal)

GDP growth


Inflation rate

(in %)


(in %)

Government debt

(in % of GDP)

1980 84.7 11,227.0 80.9 10,732.0 Increase2.3% Negative increase6.3% 1.6% n/a
1981 Increase92.6 Increase12,252.3 Decrease70.1 Decrease9,280.7 Decrease-0.1% Negative increase6.8% Negative increase2.2% n/a
1982 Increase100.2 Increase13,241.0 Steady70.1 Decrease9,267.7 Increase1.9% Negative increase5.4% Negative increase3.1% n/a
1983 Increase107.0 Increase14,187.1 Increase71.0 Increase9,417.2 Increase2.8% Increase3.3% Negative increase3.7% n/a
1984 Increase111.2 Increase14,746.3 Decrease67.0 Decrease8,882.6 Increase0.3% Negative increase5.7% Negative increase3.8% n/a
1985 Increase117.3 Increase15,543.4 Increase68.6 Increase9,090.8 Increase2.2% Increase3.2% Positive decrease3.6% n/a
1986 Increase122.5 Increase16,210.5 Increase97.4 Increase12,886.1 Increase2.3% Increase1.7% Positive decrease3.1% n/a
1987 Increase127.6 Increase16,868.1 Increase121.8 Increase16,093.0 Increase1.7% Increase1.4% Negative increase3.8% n/a
1988 Increase133.4 Increase17,608.3 Increase133.6 Increase17,632.8 Increase1.0% Increase1.9% Positive decrease2.7% 57.4%
1989 Increase144.0 Increase18,965.1 Decrease133.3 Decrease17,547.8 Increase3.9% Increase2.2% Positive decrease2.3% Positive decrease56.3%
1990 Increase155.9 Increase20,394.2 Increase166.9 Increase21,827.4 Increase4.3% Increase2.8% Negative increase2.7% Positive decrease55.9%
1991 Increase166.7 Increase21,622.6 Increase174.4 Increase22,621.9 Increase3.4% Increase3.1% Negative increase3.2% Negative increase56.1%
1992 Increase174.1 Increase22,323.6 Increase195.5 Increase25,068.4 Increase2.1% Increase3.4% Negative increase3.3% Positive decrease56.0%
1993 Increase179.2 Increase22,729.4 Decrease190.4 Decrease24,152.7 Increase0.5% Increase3.2% Negative increase4.0% Negative increase60.6%
1994 Increase187.4 Increase23,634.1 Increase204.0 Increase25,725.6 Increase2.4% Increase2.7% Positive decrease3.9% Negative increase63.7%
1995 Increase196.4 Increase24,712.4 Increase241.2 Increase30,350.5 Increase2.7% Increase1.6% Negative increase4.2% Negative increase67.9%
1996 Increase204.8 Increase25,733.6 Decrease237.3 Decrease29,820.6 Increase2.4% Increase1.8% Negative increase4.7% Positive decrease67.8%
1997 Increase212.7 Increase26,695.1 Decrease213.0 Decrease26,737.5 Increase2.1% Increase1.2% Negative increase4.8% Positive decrease63.1%
1998 Increase222.8 Increase27,931.7 Increase218.6 Increase27,399.1 Increase3.6% Increase0.8% Positive decrease4.7% Negative increase68.8%
1999 Increase234.0 Increase29,275.7 Decrease217.5 Decrease27,210.5 Increase3.6% Increase0.5% Positive decrease4.1% Positive decrease61.1%
2000 Increase247.4 Increase30,875.2 Decrease197.4 Decrease24,636.5 Increase3.4% Increase2.0% Positive decrease3.9% Negative increase65.7%
2001 Increase256.1 Increase31,848.8 Increase197.5 Decrease24,558.9 Increase1.3% Increase2.3% Negative increase4.0% Negative increase66.4%
2002 Increase264.4 Increase32,717.3 Increase214.2 Increase26,508.3 Increase1.7% Increase1.7% Negative increase4.4% Negative increase67.0%
2003 Increase272.2 Increase33,527.3 Increase262.2 Increase32,298.6 Increase0.9% Increase1.3% Negative increase4.8% Positive decrease64.9%
2004 Increase287.1 Increase35,147.3 Increase301.3 Increase36,883.9 Increase2.7% Increase2.0% Negative increase5.9% Positive decrease64.8%
2005 Increase302.8 Increase36,811.3 Increase316.3 Increase38,450.6 Increase2.2% Increase2.1% Negative increase6.0% Negative increase68.3%
2006 Increase322.9 Increase39,055.3 Increase336.3 Increase40,674.9 Increase3.5% Increase1.7% Positive decrease5.6% Positive decrease67.0%
2007 Increase344.0 Increase41,469.2 Increase389.2 Increase46,922.6 Increase3.7% Increase2.2% Positive decrease5.2% Positive decrease64.7%
2008 Increase355.7 Increase42,745.9 Increase432.0 Increase51,914.0 Increase1.5% Increase3.2% Positive decrease4.4% Negative increase68.4%
2009 Decrease344.5 Decrease41,301.4 Decrease401.3 Decrease48,111.7 Decrease-3.8% Increase0.4% Negative increase5.7% Negative increase79.6%
2010 Increase355.1 Increase42,466.0 Decrease392.6 Decrease46,955.2 Increase1.8% Increase1.7% Positive decrease5.2% Negative increase82.4%
2011 Increase373.0 Increase44,469.2 Increase431.6 Increase51,452.3 Increase2.9% Increase3.5% Positive decrease4.9% Positive decrease82.2%
2012 Increase391.6 Increase46,477.7 Decrease409.7 Decrease48,616.9 Increase0.7% Increase2.6% Negative increase5.2% Positive decrease81.7%
2013 Increase406.4 Increase47,936.7 Increase430.2 Increase50,747.4 Increase0.0% Increase2.1% Negative increase5.4% Positive decrease81.0%
2014 Increase417.1 Increase48,813.5 Increase442.7 Increase51,814.4 Increase0.7% Increase1.5% Negative increase6.1% Negative increase83.8%
2015 Increase431.1 Increase49,955.5 Decrease382.0 Decrease44,267.8 Increase1.0% Increase0.8% Negative increase6.2% Negative increase84.4%
2016 Increase460.2 Increase52,659.8 Increase395.7 Increase45,278.8 Increase2.0% Increase1.0% Negative increase6.5% Positive decrease82.5%
2017 Increase479.5 Increase54,393.6 Increase417.1 Increase47,320.5 Increase2.3% Increase2.2% Positive decrease5.9% Positive decrease78.6%
2018 Increase503.2 Increase56,636.7 Increase455.4 Increase51,254.4 Increase2.5% Increase2.1% Positive decrease5.2% Positive decrease74.0%
2019 Increase519.8 Increase58,679.9 Decrease445.1 Decrease50,239.4 Increase1.5% Increase1.5% Positive decrease4.8% Positive decrease70.6%
2020 Decrease490.7 Decrease55,125.0 Decrease432.9 Decrease48,636.3 Decrease-6.7% Increase1.4% Negative increase5.4% Negative increase83.2%
2021 Increase534.0 Increase59,692.1 Increase477.4 Increase53,367.5 Increase4.5% Increase2.8% Negative increase6.2% Positive decrease83.1%
2022 Increase582.1 Increase64,751.1 Increase479.8 Increase53,370.7 Increase2.6% Negative increase5.6% Positive decrease5.2% Positive decrease80.7%
2023 Increase617.6 Increase68,354.0 Increase518.8 Increase57,420.9 Increase3.0% Increase2.2% Positive decrease4.9% Positive decrease76.6%
2024 Increase647.3 Increase71,291.0 Increase550.6 Increase60,630.9 Increase2.3% Increase2.0% Positive decrease4.8% Positive decrease74.6%
2025 Increase673.2 Increase73,765.9 Increase578.1 Increase63,343.8 Increase1.9% Increase2.0% Steady4.8% Positive decrease73.0%
2026 Increase698.8 Increase76,190.1 Increase605.4 Increase66,009.1 Increase1.8% Increase2.0% Steady4.8% Positive decrease72.4%
2027 Increase725.3 Increase78,691.9 Increase630.5 Increase68,407.3 Increase1.8% Increase2.0% Steady4.8% Positive decrease70.4%

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Population on 1 January". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  7. ^ "People at risk of poverty or social exclusion". Eurostat. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  8. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  9. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  10. ^ "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". UNDP. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  11. ^ "Labor force, total - Austria". World Bank. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  12. ^ "Employment rate by sex, age group 20-64". Eurostat. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Unemployment by sex and age - monthly average". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  14. ^ "Unemployment rate by age group". OECD. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Austria". Retrieved 21 November 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Euro area and EU27 government deficit both at 0.6% of GDP" (PDF). Eurostat. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  17. ^ "Scope affirms Austria's rating at AAA with a Stable Outlook". Scope Ratings. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  18. ^ "Austria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
  19. ^ Real GDP Growth – Expenditure Side, provided by the Austrian National Bank (in German)
  20. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2022". International Monetary Fund. October 2022. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  21. ^ (in English) Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27 Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, provided by Eurostat
  22. ^ (in English) Real GDP Growth3 – Expenditure Side, provided by the Austrian National Bank
  23. ^ Austrian Economic Chamber (July 2018). "GDP Growth in Austria" (PDF). Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  24. ^ a b c d e Beer, Christian; Gnan, Ernest; Teresa Valderrama, Maria. "A (not so brief) history of inflation in Austria" (PDF).
  25. ^ a b c Cottrell, Philip L. (2013), Ziegler, Dieter; Berghoff, Hartmut; Kocka, Jürgen (eds.), "Austrian Reconstruction, 1920–1921: A Matter for Private Business or the League of Nations?", Business in the Age of Extremes: Essays in Modern German and Austrian Economic History, Publications of the German Historical Institute, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–75, doi:10.1017/cbo9781139061827.005, ISBN 978-1-107-01695-8, retrieved 23 September 2022
  26. ^ a b c Warnock, Barbara (2015). "The first bailout : the financial reconstruction of Austria 1922-1926" (PDF).
  27. ^ Parker, Randall; Whaples, Robert. Routledge Handbook of Major Events in Economic History.
  28. ^ The First Report of the Commissioner-General of the League of Nations for Austria, 15 December 1922 – 15 January 1923
  29. ^ van Waldré de Bordes, J. (27 May 1925). Bankruptcies in Austria.
  30. ^ The Fourteenth Report of the Commissioner-General of the League of Nations for Austria, 15 January – 15 February 1924
  31. ^ Nowotny, Ewald (December 2017). "(in German) Die Geschichte des WIFO und der österreichischen Wirtschaftspolitik in der Zweiten Republik". Wifo. Archived from the original on 15 August 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  32. ^ "Austria in the EU". Austrian Embassy Washington. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  33. ^ "Trade and Industry in Austria, Exports, Tourism". 2007. Archived from the original on 27 November 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
  34. ^ Austria production in 2018, by FAO
  35. ^ Austria. European Observatory on Health Care Systems
  36. ^ "Austria Business Facts". Archived from the original on 20 April 2020.
  37. ^ "M&A Statistics by Countries - Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA)". Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA). Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  38. ^ "Mergers & Acquisitions in Austria". Institute for Mergers, Acquisitions and Alliances (IMAA). Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  39. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".

External links[edit]