Economy of Belarus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Economy of Belarus
Минск немига.jpg
Minsk, the financial capital of Belarus
CurrencyBelarusian rubel (BYN, Rbl)
Calendar year
Trade organisations
CIS, EAEU, CISFTA
Country group
Statistics
PopulationDecrease 9,408,350 (1 January 2020)[3]
GDP
  • Increase $65.75 billion (nominal, 2021 est.)[4]
  • Increase $196 billion (PPP, 2019 est.)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 3.1% (2018) 1.2% (2019e)
  • −0.9% (2020) 3.3% (2021f)[5]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $7,032 (nominal, 2021 est.)[4]
  • Increase $20,578 (PPP, 2021 est.)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
GDP by component
  • household consumption: 54.8%
  • government consumption: 14.6%
  • investment in fixed capital: 24.9%
  • investment in inventories: 5.7%
  • exports of goods and services: 67%
  • imports of goods and services: −67%
  • (2017 est.)[6]
4.8% (2020 est.)[4]
Population below poverty line
  • Positive decrease 5.6% (2018)[7]
  • Steady 0.4% on less than $5.50/day (2020f)[8]
Positive decrease 25.2 low (2018)[9]
Labour force
  • Decrease 4,975,430 (2019)[12]
  • Increase 67.5% employment rate (2018)[13]
Labour force by occupation
UnemploymentPositive decrease 4.8% (2018)[14]
Average gross salary
Br 1,644 (monthly)[15]
Br 1,447 (monthly)[15]
Main industries
metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, refrigerators, washing-machines and other household appliances Agricultural products: grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Decrease 49th (very easy, 2020)[16]
External
ExportsIncrease $28.65 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Export goods
Main export partners
ImportsIncrease $31.58 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Import goods
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • Decrease $6.929 billion (31 December 2016 est.)[6]
  • Decrease Abroad: $3.547 billion (31 December 2016 est.)[6]
Increase −$931 million (2017 est.)[6]
Negative increase $39.92 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Public finances
Positive decrease 53.4% of GDP (2017 est.)[6]
+2.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[6]
Revenues22.15 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Expenses20.57 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Foreign reserves
Increase $7.315 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
Change in per capita GDP of Belarus, 1973–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.

The economy of Belarus is an upper-middle income mixed economy.[2] As a post-Soviet transition economy, Belarus rejected most privatisation efforts in favour of retaining centralised political and economic controls by the state.[21] The highly centralised Belarusian economy emphasises full employment and a dominant public sector. It can be described as a welfare state.[22] Belarus is the world's 72nd-largest economy by GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which in 2019 stood at $195 billion, or $20,900 per capita.

As of 2018, Belarus ranks 53rd from 189 countries on the United Nations Human Development Index, and appeared in the group of states with "very high development". With an efficient health system, it has a very low infant-mortality rate of 2.9 (compared to 6.6 in Russia or 3.7 in the United Kingdom). The rate of doctors per capita is 40.7 per 10,000 inhabitants (the figure is 26.7 in Romania, 32 in Finland, 41.9 in Sweden) and the literacy rate is estimated[by whom?] at 99%. According to the United Nations Development Programme, the Gini coefficient (inequality indicator) is one of the lowest in Europe.[23]

Economic background[edit]

Before the October Revolution, Belarus was a relatively backward and underdeveloped country, heavily reliant on agriculture and with rural overpopulation.[24] Belarus was absolutely devastated by the Second World War, it suffered the loss of about a quarter of its population and immense destruction of infrastructure. In the post-war years, Belarus industrialised and became an important trade hub between the Soviet Union and Europe. Manufacturing became a pillar of its economy emphasising tractors, heavy trucks, oil processing, metal-cutting lathes, synthetic fibres, TV sets, semi-conductors and microchips.[24] In the 1980s, more than half of the industrial personnel of Belarus worked for enterprises with over 500 employees. Among the Soviet republics, it had an unusually high export rate of its products, about 80%, and was the most technologically advanced.[24] Because of its role as a producer of products made from raw materials imported from the Soviet Union, Belarus was called "the Soviet assembly shop."[25]

Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union and under Lukashenko's leadership, Belarus has maintained government control over key industries and eschewed the large-scale privatizations seen in other former Soviet republics.[26]

The period between 1996 and 2000 was also characterised by significant financial distress, in particular in 1998 and 1999 as a result of the financial and economic crisis in Russia. This resulted primarily in a sharp increase in prices and the devaluation of the national currency, a decline in trade with Russia and other CIS countries, growth in inter-enterprise arrears, and overall deterioration of the country's balance of payments. Extreme tension within the foreign exchange market was the key factor that destabilized the economy in 1998 and 1999. In 1999, consumer prices grew by 294%.[citation needed]

Between 2001 and 2005, the national economy demonstrated steady and dynamic growth. The GDP grew at an average rate of 7.4 percent, peaking in 2005 at 9.2 percent. This growth was mainly a result of the performance of the industrial sector, which grew on average more than 8.7 percent per year, with a high of 10.4 percent in 2005. Potatoes, flax, hemp, sugarbeets, rye, oats, and wheat are the chief agricultural products. Dairy and beef cattle, pigs, and chickens are raised. Belarus has only small reserves of petroleum and natural gas and imports most of its oil and gas from Russia. The main branches of industry produce tractors and trucks, earth movers for use in construction and mining, metal-cutting machine tools, agricultural equipment, motorcycles, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, and consumer goods. The chief trading partners are Russia, Ukraine, Poland, and Germany.

The Belarus GDP grew 9.9% in 2006.[27] In the first quarter of 2007, GDP grew 8.2%.[28] GDP further grew in 2008 by 10%.[29]

Analysis of foreign direct investment to Belarus between 2002 and 2007 shows that nearly 80% of FDI was geared into the service sector, while industrial concerns accounted for 20%. Agricultural FDI was off-the-charts paltry.[30]

Crisis of 2011[edit]

Shortly before the 2010 presidential election, average salaries in Belarus were increased by the government to $500 per month. It is believed to be one of the main reasons for the crisis in 2011.[31] Other reasons for the crisis were strong governmental control in the economy, a discount rate lower than inflation and the budget deficit.[32]

In January 2011, Belarusians started to convert their savings from Belarusian rubels to dollars and euros. The situation was influenced by rumors of possible devaluation of the rubel.[33] Exchange rates in Belarus are centralized by the government-controlled National Bank of Belarus.[34] The National Bank was forced to spend $1 billion of the foreign reserves to balance the supply and demand of currency[33] On March 22, it stopped the support to banks.[33] The National Bank also didn't change the exchange rate significantly (3,000 BYR per dollar on January 1 and 3,045 BYR on April 1), so the increased demand of dollars and euro exhausted cash reserves of banks. In April and May 2011, many people had to wait for several days in queues to buy dollars in the exchange booths.[34] In April, Belarusian banks were given informal permission of government to increase the exchange rate to 4,000 BYR for 1 dollar (later 4,500 BYR), but few people started to sell dollars and euro. On May 24, the rubel was officially devalued by 36% (from 3,155 to 4,931 BYR per 1 dollar).[35] But the shortage of the currency retained. As a result of the shortage, a black market of currency was created. In July 2011, the black market exchange rate was nearly 6,350 BYR per 1 dollar,[36] in August, it reached 9,000 BYR per 1 dollar.[37]

In September 2011, National Bank of Belarus introduced a free exchange market session to determine a market value of the rubel.[38] From November 2011 to March 2012, the exchange rate was Rbls 8,000—8,150 per dollar, but it started to rise in April 2012 and reached Rbls 8,360 per dollar on 10 July 2012.[39]

Recovery from the crisis was difficult due to isolation of the Belarusian government from the EU and USA.[34]

The crisis strongly affected the economy. Inflation reached 108.7% in 2011.[40] Average salary (counted in dollars) decreased from $530 in December 2010 to $330 in May 2011.[41] In May 2012, the average salary reached $436 (3,559,600 with 8,165 per dollar).[42] Refinancing rate (analogue of discount rate) rose from 10.5% in December 2010 to 45% in December 2011[43] and fell to 32% in June 2012.[44] In November 2011, interest rates of several banks reached 120% in rubels.[45]

2015 unemployment regulation[edit]

In April 2015, Alexander Lukashenko signed a bill "On preventing freeloading practices" which introduced a fine on unemployed population. This law obliges all citizens who are paying direct taxes less than 183 days every year to pay a fee in the size of 20 basic amounts (BYN 360 ≈ $250).[46][47][48] Mass media compared the bill with a struggle with "тунеядцы", or social parasites, in Soviet Union.[47][48] Several groups of people are exempt from paying the fee: parents with a child under 7 years old, disabled persons, students, etc. Avoiding of payment is going to be punished by fines, administrative arrests and compulsory public works.[46]

2020 COVID figures[edit]

The Belarusian economy was relatively less impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic due to relatively light and delayed Covid-19 lockdown and quarantine measures due to Lukashenko's trivialization of the pandemic. Professor Victor Sayevich said in September 2020 that Belarus suffered a decline in economic figures of between 1.5% and 2%, whereas European countries sustained drops around 12%. Contemporaneous political unrest and increased state repression also negatively impacted the economy.[49][unreliable source?][50]

Wages and labour market[edit]

Nominal accrued wages in Belarus by raions in 2017 (in rubels).

The Belarusian labour market is highly regulated. Important elements of the central-planning system are still in place. In principle, the decision to determine wages is left to firms, but the Government can affect the structure of wages through the so-called tariff system, a type of centrally determined wage grid. The tariff system is binding in the budget sector, including enterprises and organisations mainly financed and subsidised within the state and/or the local budgets. The private (so-called self-financing sector) sector, representing, as already noted, only a small share of employment, has little autonomy.[51]

Unemployment[edit]

Official unemployment rate is lower than 1%.[52] Methods of International Labour Organization (international standard) also include job-seekers who are not registered officially.[53] Many unemployed people in Belarus are trying to avoid registration, because of obligatory public works.[citation needed]

There are no official statistics of unemployment using the ILO methods. 6.1% Belarusians of economically active population called themselves unemployed during the 2009 census.[54] In July 2012, World Bank concluded that the real unemployment rate is seven times higher than the official rate.[55] Former labour minister Alexander Sosnov estimates that the unemployment rate is 10% of the economically active population[56] According to Charter 97 estimate, the real unemployment in Belarus may be 15% or even 24%.[53][57]

Labour rights[edit]

In 2021, International Trade Union Confederation listed Belarus among top 10 worst countries for working people in the world (Global Rights Index).[58] Reasons for worsening of the situation included state repression of independent union activity, arbitrary arrests, and severe cases of limited or no access to justice.[59]

During the 2020 Belarusian protests, several companies attempted to start a strike and were met with brutal repression.[59] In 2021, three employees of Byelorussian Steel Works were imprisoned for attempting to organize a strike.[60]

Economy sectors[edit]

Share of output selected industries in total industrial output in 2008

  Machinery and metalworking (23.2%)
  Fuel (21.3%)
  Food (14.6%)
  Chemical and petrochemical (13.4%)
  Electric power (5.5%)
  Building materials (5.1%)
  Wood-working, paper (4.4%)
  Light (3.6%)
  Other (8.9%)

Sector-focused structure of Gross Domestic Product in 2008

  Industry (28.1%)
  Agriculture (8.4%)
  Construction (9.4%)
  Transport and communications (8%)
  Trade and catering (10.6%)
  Net taxes on products (14.4%)
  Other (21.1%)

In the Soviet period, Belarus specialized mainly in machine building and instrument building (especially tractors, large trucks, machine tools, and automation equipment), in computers and electronics industry and in agricultural production. In 1992, industry in Belarus accounted for approximately 38 percent of GDP, down from 51 percent in 1991. This figure reflects a decline in the availability of imported inputs (especially crude oil and deliveries from Russia), a drop in investments, and decreased demand from Belarus's traditional export markets among the former Soviet republics. Belarus's economy was also affected by decreased demand for military equipment, traditionally an important sector.[citation needed]

In 1994, gross industrial output declined by 19 percent. At the beginning of 1995, every industrial sector had decreased output, including fuel and energy extracting (down by 27 percent); chemical and oil refining (18 percent); ferrous metallurgy (13 percent); machine building and metal working (17 percent); truck production (31 percent); tractor production (48 percent); light industry (33 percent); wood, paper, and pulp production (14 percent); construction materials (32 percent); and consumer goods (16 percent).[citation needed]

In 1996, a Free Economic Zone (FEZ) area was set up in Brest. The programme has been expanded to Minsk, Gomel, Vitebsk, Grodno, and Mogilev. As of 2020, more than 270 foreign organizations have benefited from the opportunity. Membership in a FEZ confers substantial benefits:[61]

* Tax free profits on all goods and services for five years, then a 50% discount

  • 50% discount on VAT on import substitution goods manufactured within an FEZ
  • No taxes on real estate owned or leased in the FEZ
  • Exempt from payments to National Agriculture Support Fund
  • No tax on purchasing vehicles
  • No customs duty on raw materials and equipment imported from outside Belarus
  • A guarantee that legislation governing firms will not change for seven years
A Belarus tractor

As of 2013, some of Belarusian industry was inflicted with overproduction: its unsold goods stocks were estimated to be worth at least US$3.8 billion, including 20,000 unsold Belarus-brand tractors.[62]

Land ownership is tightly regulated in Belarus. The Land Code and Presidential Decree 667 was issued in 2007, and follows strict guidelines according to its "targetted use". Approximately 90% of the land is dedicated by this means to agricultural or forestry use.[30]

Agriculture[edit]

The cumulative decline of value-added reached 30 percent since 1991, and 15 percent since 1995. The share of agriculture in GDP declined by over 10-percentage point to 14 percent in 1997. This happened, irrespective to the president's economic strategy of self-sufficiency in food production in 2001. The decline in overall agriculture production partly could be attributed to unfavorable weather conditions (like floods), but declines in the harvests of potatoes, vegetables, and other crops that grow mostly in private plots were smaller than in produce grown by collective farms. Also, animal breeding has been in decline and it is concentrated in the state sector. Subsidization of agricultural sector in Belarus amounted to 1–2 percent of GDP in the form of direct government credits, advanced payments for the realization of state orders of major crops, at strongly negative interest rates. Additionally, a state budget fund, Agriculture Support Fund provides funds to compensate food producers for the costs of inputs (fertilizers and equipment) that amounted to another 1–2 percent of GDP in 1996–1997. Finally, the Central Bank of Belarus issued subsidized credits to the agriculture sector at an interest rate of half the refinance rate. However, in spite of the fact that state-owned and collective farms cultivate about 83 percent of agricultural land and benefited the most from the government subsidies, privately run farms and private plots produce more than 40 percent of gross output.[citation needed]

Belarus can be divided into three agricultural regions: north (flax, fodder, grasses, and cattle), central (potatoes and pigs), and south (pastureland, hemp, and cattle). Belarus' cool climate and dense soil are well suited to fodder crops, which support herds of cattle and pigs, and temperate-zone crops (wheat, barley, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, flax, and sugar beets). Belarus' soils are generally fertile, especially in the river valleys, except in the southern marshy regions.[citation needed]

The greatest changes in agriculture in the first half of the 1990s were a decline in the amount of land under cultivation and a significant shift from livestock to crop production because crops had become a great deal more profitable than before. The sales price for crops generally increased more than production costs, while inputs for livestock (such as imported fodder) have increased in price beyond livestock sales prices.[citation needed]

The food processing industry in the country is led primarily by state concern Belgospischeprom and local municipal or regional owned production facilities.[citation needed]

Textiles[edit]

The Orsha Linen Mill, which is a part of the Belarusian State Concern Bellegprom, processes from flax a number of linen fabrics, which necessitates "spinning, weaving, dyeing, mechanical, chemical softening, shrinkage and other textile processings." The linen mill was projected from 1928; the first factory was completed in 1930, the second in 1961 and the third in 1972. In 2008, the plant supplied 8% of the global market for linen fabrics, when 5,000 workers processed 25,000 tonnes of flax fiber.[63]

The OJSC Slavianka plant in Babruisk houses modern textile equipment.[64] The first trousers were commissioned in 1930, and today the firm produces of the most modern fabrics:

  • Coats and costumes
  • Dresses and blouses
  • Clothes for sports
  • Business-style clothing for students
  • Special clothes

Energy[edit]

Belarus is a partner country of the EU INOGATE energy programme, which has four key topics: enhancing energy security, convergence of member state energy markets on the basis of EU internal energy market principles, supporting sustainable energy development, and attracting investment for energy projects of common and regional interest.[65]

Beneficial terms of Russian oil and gas deliveries are behind a degree of economic dependence on Russia, Belarus' EAEU neighbour.[66] According to some estimates, profits stemming from the low prices the country pays for Russian gas and oil -either consumed locally or processed and then re-exported- has occasionally accounted to up to 10% of national GDP.[66] Besides, the main export market for the Belarusian agricultural and industrial produce lies in its Russian neighbour.[66]

Nuclear energy[edit]

In 2008, the Belarusian government decided to build a nuclear power plant. The help of Power Machines Company, Atomstroyexport, Rosatom and Atommash was enlisted to erect in Shulniki, Hrodna Voblast two pressurized water reactors of the AES-2006 type. The first unit was commissioned not long after December 2019.[67]

Electricity[edit]

The electric power sector of the country is amalgamated into the state-owned production union of the power sector “Belenergo”, which consists, apart from the central dispatch unit ODU, of six republican unitary regional power system enterprises (RUP-Oblenergo) and of entities of all kinds of ownership that carry out repair, maintenance and rehabilitation of facilities, research and development, service activities, and construction of new power sector facilities. RUP-Oblenergo are set up on particular territory (the regional power systems cover the relevant geographic administrative units of Belarus). RUP-Oblenergo are vertically integrated companies that perform generation, transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.[citation needed]

Oil[edit]

All the activities related to prospecting, exploration and production of oil and associated gas in the country are carried out by the government-controlled concern “Belneftekhim” via its subsidiary, the unitary republic enterprise “Belorusneft”. Belorusneft exports about 50% of its oil output. Oil deposits on the territory of Belarus are located in a single oil and gas basin, the Pripyat depression, which covers approximately 30,000 km2 (12,000 sq mi). About 50 out of total of 70 known fields are currently under production[vague]. Belarus' own production covers only about 30% of domestic oil consumption. For this reason, the Government is seeking ways to access oil and gas resources on the territory of the Russia and other countries, so that oil produced there could be delivered to refineries in Belarus and refined products would be sold domestically and on export markets.[citation needed]

Belarus has two state-owned oil pipeline operating companies, both inherited from Glavtransneft in 1991. Gomel Oil Transportation Enterprise (RUP Gomeltransneft Druzhba) operates pipelines to the west and southwest directions, and Novopolotsk Oil Transportation Enterprise (NRUPTN “Druzhba”) for the north (Belarus-Lithuania) direction. All decisions concerning plans to increase capacity or build new capacity are taken by these two state-owned companies.[citation needed]

The activities of oil pipeline operating companies are regulated in accordance with the Law on Natural Monopolies, which explicitly prescribes a mechanism for their regulation by a state regulator. The Law on Natural Monopolies considers oil pipeline transport operators to be natural monopolies (Article 3). The Law also has certain requirements for transparency of their activities. Domestic oil transportation via pipelines is primarily regulated by the Law on Trunk Pipelines (2002), n 87–3. Article 27 of the Law regulates pipeline transport service in accordance with the capacity of the pipelines and actual throughput, based on the principle of equal access and non-discrimination.[citation needed]

Natural gas[edit]

Almost all of the natural gas used in Belarus is imported from Russia (about 99% of consumption). Domestic gas prices continue to be regulated by the government and in many instances cover only a fraction of the actual cost. Belarus has a well-developed gas transportation and gas distribution networks that ensure reliable supplies of natural gas to the consumers in the country. Beltransgaz, 100% state-owned joint stock company, owns and operates the system of main natural gas pipelines. In November 2002, the Belarusian parliament passed a law allowing for the privatization of Beltransgaz. An agreement was reached in 2006 with Gazprom about the acquisition of a 50% plus a share stake in Beltransgaz at a price of $2.5 billion.[citation needed]

Oil shale[edit]

Belarus contains large, but undeveloped reserves of oil shale, estimated at 8.8 billion tonnes. As of 2010, Belarus seeks to start exploiting the reserves to reduce its dependence on the Russian hydrocarbons.[68]

Renewable energy[edit]

Pulp and paper[edit]

Major pulp and paper mills and woodworking factories in Belarus
  Major woodworking facilities
  Pulp and paper mills

Slonim in the Grodno oblast has been the site of a paper mill since 1806. In 1995, the plant was renamed 'Slonim Cardboard and Paper Plant "Albertin"' and now produces cardboard, paper and tissue paper.[69] Interpaper LLC produces much of Belarus' toilet paper, paper napkins and paper towels.[70] Svetlogorsk Pulp&Board Mill produces paper bags and paper boxes.[71]

The OJSC Spartak (paper mill) is located in Škloŭ and produces 20 kinds of paper.[72] In 2017, the state-owned timber and paper industries concern, Bellesbumprom, put up for sale an 85.14% stake in Spartak for $7.393m.[73]

Mining[edit]

Although not rich in minerals, Belarus has been found to have small deposits of iron ore, nonferrous metal ores, dolomite, potash (for fertilizer production), rock salt, phosphorites, refractory clay, molding sand, sand for glass production, and various building materials.[citation needed]

Belarus also has deposits of industrial diamonds, titanium, copper ore, lead, mercury, bauxite, nickel, vanadium, and amber.[citation needed]

In 2019, the country was the 2nd largest world producer of potash,[74] and the 20th largest world producer of salt.[75]

Metal production[edit]

In 1982, the Soviet Union decreed a steel works should be erected and the Byelorussian Steel Works was born two years later in order primarily to process local scrap steel. The major items of production consist of rebar, billet, channel, wire rod and cold heading wire rod. More than 50 alloyed and low-alloyed structural and carbon steel grades are produced by the plant. Two BSW shops produce steel cord, brass bead wire and hose wire.[76][77]

Aluminum and stainless steel are sourced for the domestic market in Russia and Serbia.[78]

Tsvetmet casts as many as 5,000 tons per annum of non-ferrous metal like copper, bronze and brass;[79] while cast iron and steel parts as large as 8,000 kg are produced by the Universal-Lit company.[80][81] The latter company is a part of Sergey Romanovich's Niva-Holding empire of integrated engineering solutions for the mining industry, which employs 2,100 people in Soligorsk, Minsk, Mogilev and Urechye across several subsidiary organizations.[82]

Manufacturing[edit]

MAZ-5551

Belarus is home to several domestic automotive manufacturers such as BelAZ, which makes haulage and earthmoving equipment, MZKT, which makes heavy off-road vehicles, especially military trucks, Neman, which makes public transport buses, and MoAZ, which makes anything else industrial with wheels. Most vehicles manufactured in Belarus are commercial vehicles. Belarus has been seeing foreign automotive companies setting up partnerships and automotive factories in the country. Belarusian company MAZ and German company MAN have been in partnership since 1997. Belkommunmash makes electric urban transit vehicles.

The most recent partnership has been between American company General Motors and Belarusian company Unison SP ZAO to produce the Cadillac Escalade for Russian and CIS markets.[83]

The be:Мотавела plant was located in the city of Minsk between 1945 and 2018, but beginning in 2013, the government started to question the will of ATEK Holdings, who had managed the company for a number of years. ATEK was not fulfilling its investment programme, and eventually declared bankruptcy in 2017. The premises have become a sort of multi-tenant light industrial facility.[84]

The government has been supportive of China's Belt and Road Initiative global infrastructure development strategy, leading to the inception in 2012 of the associated low-tax China–Belarus Industrial Park near Minsk National Airport planned to grow to 112 square kilometres (43 sq mi) by the 2060s. This is intended to be a manufacturing centre for the Eurasian Economic Union, with good transport links to the European Union.[85][86]

Chemical industry[edit]

The Belarusian chemical industry specializes in extracting value from the Russian oil products which transit through the country's pipelines to Germany and the west. Synthetic polymers like nylon, viscose, acrylic, polyester and polyethylene are produced from this stream as well as household chemical products.[87] Oil refineries are located in Navapolacak (Naftan) and in Mazyr (Mozyr Oil Refinery).

More than 500 kinds of chemical and petrochemical products are produced in Belarus by one firm: the Belneftekhim Concern, which is "among the largest and most strategically important" businesses in the country, and was created in 1997, unites most important chemical industries under one umbrella. It provides about 30 percent of all industrial output in Belarus and half of exports, which go to over 120 countries worldwide. More than 70 percent of petrochemical products are sold abroad.[88][89]

Mineral fertilizers in the nitrogen phosphorus and potassium complex are produced by Belaruskali at the Starobin plant.[87][90] Belarusian Grodno Azot is one of major players in global UAN fertilizer market.[91]

Defense[edit]

During Soviet times, Belarus’ radio-electronic industry was primarily oriented towards military applications. With the break-up of the Soviet military and the reduction in size of the new state's military establishments, the Belarus defense sector desperately needs to export to survive. Currently, under Belarusian law, its weapons exports are required to be carried out through one of four licensed weapons trade exporters: Belspetsvneshtekhnika, Beltekhexport, Belvneshpromservis and Belorusintorg. Certain other enterprises are permitted to sell products that they developed or control.[citation needed]

Banking[edit]

Six commercial banks, four formerly state-owned specialized banks Belagroprombank (agricultural sector), Promstroibank (industrial sector), Vneshekonombank (foreign trade), and Belarusbank (savings bank) and two universal banks (Priorbank and Belbusinessbank) dominated the banking system. These former state-owned specialized banks accounts for over 80 percent of the banking system outstanding loans, over 70 percent of domestic currency deposits, and all the NBB's refinancing credit. Many commercial banks are subject to direct and personal influence of the government since many officials at the ministerial level participate in chairing and managing banks. Commercial banks act as agents of the central bank distributing state financial resources. Therefore, also the Central Bank of Belarus fulfills mostly technical functions as the president and government are permanently interfering in the operation of the whole banking sector by decrees and resolutions.[92]

Luxury goods[edit]

Spirits and liquors are produced at the eight distilleries of the Joint Stock Company «Minsk kristall»,[93] which in turn is managed by the state-run Belgospishcheprom concern.[94]

Belyuvelirtorg, which was organized in 1948, is a chain of 64 jewelry stores present all over Belarus. The chain retails items made of gold, silver and natural stones as well as watches and the like. The chain produces precious metal decorative chain and its own line of rings, bracelets and earrings in its Gomel factory.[95]

Information technology[edit]

Information technology was a growing sector of Belarus economy. In the early 2000s, a propitious climate was created in the country: IT companies received a 0% rate on taxes and state subsidies, income tax for tech workers was also reduced.[96] Launched in 2006, the Hi-Tech Park on the northeastern outskirts of Minsk was meant to become Belarusian Silicon Valley. In 2019 Lukashenko visited the HTP and called it his favorite project.[97] By 2020, it hosted more than 750 start-ups and outsourcing companies that employed 58,000 workers.[98][99][100] Overall, more than 100,000 citizens worked in IT.[101]

In the last two decades Belarusian IT turned into a major tech hub in Europe, it made up 5.5% of the country's GDP and exported up to $2 billion (€1.69bn) worth of software.[102]

The nation-wide opposition crackdown led by the authorities after 2020 protests resulted in significant decline of the previously booming IT sector because most tech specialists fled the country.[103][104][105] Most Minsk-born start-ups relocated to other European countries, only in 2021 more than 15,000 IT workers left the country. More than 3000 tech workers had gone to Ukraine, 1800 employees of 30 companies with total investments of $76.8 million moved to Poland, at least 41 companies went to Lithuania.[106][107] Such giants as Viber and Wargaming joined the exodus.[108][99]

2022 Russian Invasion of Ukraine provoked the second wave of IT brain drain in Belarus. According to Dev.by, it was even bigger than the first one.[109] Almost 40% of companies faced refuses in new contracts due to sanctions, imposed on Belarus.[110]

In August 2021 Lukashenko accused HTP companies of working 'for the USA for half prices'.[111] On April 4, 2022, he commanded to 'deal with the tech workers' and return the IT sector into equal terms with other industries. In March 2022 taxes for IT companies were raised.[96]

Tourism[edit]

Foreign tourists received by organisations engaged in tourist activities in the Republic of Belarus in 2014 by countries (percent of total)

  Russia (82.3%)
  Latvia (1.7%)
  Lithuania (1.5%)
  Ukraine (1.3%)
  Germany (1.2%)
  Poland (1.2%)
  Turkey (0.7%)
  United Kingdom (0.7%)
  Italy (0.6%)
  Australia (0.6%)
  Israel (0.6%)
  United States (0.5%)
  Finland (0.5%)
  Switzerland (0.5%)
  France (0.4%)
  Other (5.7%)

Because of its position, Belarus is actively visited with transit purposes: about 1,500,000 arrivals per year.[113]

Russian people are greater part of the inbound tourist flow, but there is no proper number of their arrivals as the border between Russia and Belarus is crossed without any border control as a part of the Union State policy.[113]

Belarusian health resorts and sanatoriums are popular with Russian tourists because of relatively lower prices. In 2010, Belarus had 334 sanatoria, health resorts and health-improving organizations and other specialized accommodation facilities.[114]

The number of arrivals of foreign visitors to Belarus in 2000 was 2,029,800. Since 2005, this number fluctuates between 4,737,800 and 5,673,800. Private arrivals are the most popular purpose of the travel. In all these indicators, crossings of Russian-Belarusian border are excluded, though they are likely to be significant.[113]

As in 2010, the number of tourist departures abroad was 7,464,200.[115] There were 783 travel agencies (in 2010) in the country and they serve small part of all arrivals of foreign citizens and departures of Belarusians.[116] This also leads to the widespread opinion that tourism in Belarus is negligible. Most of the travel agencies are private,[117] more than 50% of them are situated in Minsk.[118]

The main partners in the field of international tourism are countries of the former Soviet Union, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, Turkey, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Sweden, and the Netherlands.[citation needed]

The profit from foreign tourism amounts to less than US$200 per each tourist. The volume of tourism in total export makes up 1%. The most popular among the visitors are: Minsk City (40% of visitors), Grodno Oblast (32%), Brest Oblast (22%), Vitebsk Oblast (5%).[citation needed]

The number of hotels has grown from 256 to 359 in 2010.[114] The intensive construction of new hotels is organized in Minsk because of the planned Ice Hockey World Championships in 2014. But the average rate of use of the hotels does not exceed 40%.[citation needed]

The number of employees in tourism and recreation areas in 2010 were 9,900.[114]

A World Heritage Committee session, held in Durban (South Africa) approved the addition of the Architectural, Residential and Cultural Complex of the Radziwill Family at Nesvizh into the World Heritage List. The castle in Mir was also included in this list.[citation needed]

International cooperation and treaties[edit]

Belarus became a member of ICSID in 1992 and UNCITRAL in 2004.[30] As of 2009, there had been no cases involving Belarus in ICSID arbitration.[30] As of June 2008, Belarus had concluded 54 Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs); of these BITs more than 20 were with first-world countries.[30] As of April 2009, Belarus had signed Double Taxation Treaties (DTTs) with 61 countries.[30] As of 2009, the corporate tax rate was 24%.[30] In 2009, a flat tax rate of 12% was imposed on personal incomes, and the standard rate of VAT was 18%.[30] Import and export duties are mostly ad valorem.[30] An environmental tax is imposed on the release of contaminants and the extraction of natural resources.[30] Belarus is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union.[30] Belarus accepted in 2001 the IMF Agreement that the foreign exchange rate be free of restrictions on payments and transfers.[30] Residents of Belarus need a permit from the National Bank of Belarus to open bank accounts in foreign countries.[30] As of 2009, the social insurance rate payable by the employer was 35%.[30] In 2009, the average monthly wage was $500, and "a rigid wage determination process" was in place.[30] The labour market, which is governed by the Republican Labour Arbitration body, is inflexible and strict limitations apply to severance and termination.[30] The right to strike is allowed for all employees except those of the state, and succeeds on a two-thirds majority.[30] Corporations which wish to hire a foreign labourer are subject to a permit process determined by the Ministry of Internal Affairs.[30] Entrepreneurship "is subject to prolific legislative activity" and "very high number of administrative controls", and although the country signed on to the UN Convention against Corruption in 1995, the Corruption Perception Index had Belarus ranked high in the league tables.[30]

Environmental issues[edit]

Belarus has established ministries of energy, forestry, land reclamation, and water resources and state committees to deal with ecology and safety procedures in the nuclear power industry.[citation needed]

The most serious environmental issue in Belarus results from the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant across the border in the Ukrainian SSR, had a devastating effect on Belarus. As a result of the radioactivity release, many villages were abandoned. About 70% of the nuclear fallout from the plant landed on Belarusian territory, and about 25% of that land is considered uninhabitable. Resettlement and medical costs were substantial and long-term. Government restrictions on residence and use of contaminated land are not strictly enforced.

Gross Regional Product (GRP)[edit]

Gross regional product in 2021
Rank Region GRP
(in BYN)[119]
GRP
(in EUR)
GRP per capita

(in BYN)

GRP per capita

(in EUR)

1  Minsk Rbls 55.103 billion €22.0 billion Rbls 27,600 €11,000
2  Minsk Region Rbls 32.129 billion €12.8 billion Rbls 21,900 €8,700
3  Gomel Region Rbls 21.125 billion €8.4 billion Rbls 15,300 €6,100
4  Brest Region Rbls 18.488 billion €7.4 billion Rbls 13,600 €5,400
5  Grodno Region Rbls 17.853 billion €7.1 billion Rbls 17,200 €6,900
6  Vitebsk Region Rbls 15.037 billion €6.0 billion Rbls 13,300 €5,300
7  Mogilev Region Rbls 13.419 billion €5.4 billion Rbls 13,200 €5,300
 Belarus Rbls 173.153 billion €69.1 billion Rbls 18,500 €7,400

Other statistics[edit]

A proportional representation of Belarus exports, 2019
Belarusian annual GDP and CPI rates 2001–2013
Investment (gross fixed)–
  • 24.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share–
  • lowest 10%: 3.4%
  • highest 10%: 23.5% (2002)
Distribution of family income – Gini index
  • 27.9 (123)
    country comparison to the world: 123
Agriculture – products–
  • grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk
Industrial production growth rate–
  • 11.5% (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
Electricity–
  • production: 29.91 TWh (2006)
  • country comparison to the world: 63
  • consumption: 30.43 TWh (2006)
  • country comparison to the world: 58
  • exports: 5.789 TWh (2006)
  • imports: 10.15 TWh (2006), mainly from Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania
Electricity – production by source–
  • fossil fuel: 99.5%
  • hydro: 0.1%
  • other: 0.4% (2001)
  • nuclear: 0%
Oil–
  • production: 33,700 bbl/d (5,360 m3/d) (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
  • consumption: 179,700 bbl/d (28,570 m3/d) (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
  • exports: 256,400 bbl/d (40,760 m3/d) (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • imports: 394,100 bbl/d (62,660 m3/d) (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
Natural gas–
  • production: 164 million cu m (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
  • consumption: 21.76 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
  • exports: 0 cu m (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
  • imports: 21.6 billion cu m (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
Current account balance–
  • -$3.832 billion (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
Exports – commodities–
  • machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals; textiles, foodstuffs
Imports – commodities–
  • mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals
Reserves of foreign exchange & gold–
  • $3.775 billion (November 2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
Debt – external–
  • $9.127 billion (December 31, 2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
Exchange rates–
  • Belarusian rubels per US dollar – 17,500 (August 2015), 10,000 (April 2014), 8,650 (Jan 9, 2013), 8,180 (Mar 7, 2012), 8,900 (Nov 9, 2011), 4,977 (May 31, 2011, after the devaluation) 2,130 (2008 est.), 2,145 (2007), 2,144.6 (2006), 2,150 (2005), 2,170 (2004)

Sanctions[edit]

A number of state-owned Belarusian companies were sanctioned by the EU, USA, UK, Canada following 2006, 2010, 2012 and 2020 elections. In 2020 and 2021, the EU imposed sanctions on several companies, including MAZ, MZKT, BelAZ (automotive industry), Dana Holdings real estate company, trading companies Bremino Group, Sohra, Logex, Globalcastcom Management, NNK, and other companies.[120] On 24 June 2021, the EU introduced the sectoral sanctions that affected petroleum and fertilizer production, tobacco industry, supply of dual-purpose equipment, and access to the EU financial markets by the Belarusian government.[120] In 2007, the U.S. Treasury imposed sanctions on Belneftekhim concern and its subordinated companies. They were later suspended, but not cancelled.[120] In 2021, USA renewed them and imposed new sanctions on several companies.[120] In 2021, UK and Canada imposed similar sanctions on several companies.[120]

In 2020–2021, Belarusian authorities made different efforts to circumvent the Western sanctions. They also hid the statistics to prevent revealing the ways used to circumvent them and track their effects.[121][122] In particular, access to data regarding production and exports of the sanctioned goods became restricted to public.[121] In October 2021, Belstat started to hide data regarding exports of tractors and trucks.[123] Overall classified exports in January–August 2021 is estimated at US$8.2 billion.[123] In September 2021, Alexander Lukashenko mentioned minister of industry Petr Parkhomchik [ru] and vice prime minister Yuri Nazarov (politician) [ru] as the people who organized the circumvention of sanctions.[124] He also accused several workers of state factories of gathering information about the ways used to circumvent the sanctions, and he threatened them with imprisonment.[124][125] 13 workers from Grodno Azot fertilizer factory, Naftan oil refinery, BMZ steel mill and Belarusian Railway were arrested by the Belarusian KGB in a possible connection with this statement. It was reported that some of them were accused of state treason.[124] At least two of them were later released.[126] In June 2021, Belorusneft was removed from subordination of Belneftekhim. This move was believed to be connected with the sanctions.[127]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Population on 1 January". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 13 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  5. ^ Bank, World (8 June 2020). "Global Economic Prospects, June 2020". openknowledge.worldbank.org. World Bank: 80. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "EUROPE :: BELARUS". CIA.gov. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) - Belarus". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  8. ^ Bank, World (9 April 2020). "Europe Central Asia Economic Update, Spring 2020 : Fighting COVID-19". openknowledge.worldbank.org. World Bank: 43, 44. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  9. ^ "WorldBank, 2017". worldbank.org. World Bank Group. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". hdr.undp.org. HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  11. ^ "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". hdr.undp.org. UNDP. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Labor force, total - Belarus". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Belarus". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  14. ^ "Labour force participation rate". belstat.gov.by. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  15. ^ a b "News". www.myfin.by.
  16. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Belarus". Doingbusiness.org. Retrieved 2017-11-21.
  17. ^ a b "Belarus - WTO Statistics Database". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Export partners of Belarus". The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  19. ^ "İmport partners of Belarus". The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  20. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  21. ^ Viachaslau Yarashevich (2014). "Political Economy of Modern Belarus: Going Against Mainstream?". Europe-Asia Studies. 66 (10): 1703–1734. doi:10.1080/09668136.2014.967571. S2CID 153993706.
  22. ^ E.Sh. Veselova (2016). "The Market-Socialist Country". Problems of Economic Transition. 58 (6): 546–555. doi:10.1080/10611991.2016.1222209. S2CID 157129993.
  23. ^ Le Bélarus, l'Etat miraculé. (28 April 2019) - "Sur le plan des inégalités, selon le Programme des Nations unies pour le développement, le coefficient de Gini (qui est un indicateur de la répartition des revenus, 0 étant l'égalité parfaite et 1 ou 100 étant l'inégalité la plus extrême) du Bélarus est l'un des plus bas du continent : 27 (Alors qu'il est de 37,2 en Estonie, 34 en Italie et 31,8 en Pologne... mais 25,6 en Islande)."
  24. ^ a b c Ioffe, Grigory (2010). "Understanding Belarus: economy and political landscape". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (1): 85–118. doi:10.1080/0966813032000161455. S2CID 154982719.
  25. ^ Nuti, D. (2000). "Belarus: A Command Economy without Central Planning". Russian & East European Finance and Trade. M.E. Sharpe. 36 (4): 45–79. ISSN 1061-2009. JSTOR 27749538.
  26. ^ Cheng, Enfu; Ding, Xiaoqin (June 2012). Translated by Wang, Shan. "Alternative thoughts and practice to contemporary capitalism: A response to Francis Fukuyama's criticism". International Critical Thought. Taylor and Francis. 2 (2): 127–138. doi:10.1080/21598282.2012.684276. ISSN 2159-8282. S2CID 154163791. However, Belarus’ state-owned enterprises almost remain intact, but still play major and leading roles in its economy, and its state-owned sector still has a share of more than 70% within its total industry after nearly 20 years’ economic reform.
  27. ^ MENAFN. "- MENAFN.COM". Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  28. ^ World Bank – Belarus Country Brief 2008 – Accessed Jan.20, 2009
  29. ^ "AgriMarket.Info – Accessed Jan. 20, 2009". Archived from the original on 2009-06-28. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Investment Policy Review: Belarus" (PDF). United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2009.
  31. ^ "Presidential election played role as catalyst for economic crisis, expert says". Archived from the original on 2014-07-06. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  32. ^ Ярослав Романчук. КРИЗИС. Четыре айсберга для белорусского «Титаника» (by economist Jaroslav Romanchuk) (in Russian)
  33. ^ a b c "ЦБ Белоруссии отказался продавать банкам валюту для населения". lenta.ru. Retrieved Aug 10, 2020.
  34. ^ a b c Kramer, Andrew E. (11 May 2011). "Belarus Economic Crisis Deepens as Currency Plunges". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016.
  35. ^ VTB Says Belarus Bound for Meltdown, Ruble Plunge, as Locals Hoard Fridges, Bloomberg
  36. ^ "Ruble-dollar black market exchange rate reaches 6,350". charter97.org.
  37. ^ "Реакция валютчиков - доллар взлетел до 8500-9000 рублей". charter97.org. Retrieved Aug 10, 2020.
  38. ^ "US dollar reaches 8,600 rubels at additional trading session". Archived from the original on 2012-12-03.
  39. ^ "Official Exchange Rate of the Belarusian Ruble Against Foreign Currencies Set on a Daily Basis – National Bank of the Republic of Belarus". www.nbrb.by.
  40. ^ "Wyborcza.pl". wyborcza.biz.
  41. ^ "Белстат: средняя зарплата с начала года снизилась на 200 долларов". telegraf.by. 23 June 2011.
  42. ^ Infographics (2013-06-26). За май реальная зарплата в Беларуси выросла на 7,7%. NAVINY.BY – БЕЛОРУССКИЕ НОВОСТИ (in Russian). Retrieved 2013-10-10.
  43. ^ "Government expects National Bank's refinance rate to decreased by half by year-end, vice premier says". Archived from the original on 2015-05-03. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  44. ^ "National Bank of the Republic of Belarus: Refinancing Rate".
  45. ^ "Белорусские банки на грани краха". Росбалт. Retrieved Aug 10, 2020.
  46. ^ a b "Belarus president signs ordinance to prevent freeloading practices". Archived from the original on 2015-04-03. Retrieved 2015-04-30.
  47. ^ a b Dolgov, Anna (3 April 2015). "No Job? Pay Up. Belarus Imposes Fines for Being Unemployed". The Moscow Times.
  48. ^ a b RFE/RL; network, part of the New East (16 April 2015). "Backlash as Belarus imposes 'social parasite' law to fine unemployed" – via www.theguardian.com.
  49. ^ "Opinion: The goal of Western puppeteers is to discredit Belarus". Belarusian Telegraph Agency. 17 September 2020.
  50. ^ "The cost of a police state: Belarus's economic problems". OSW Centre for Eastern Studies. 2021-05-11. Retrieved 2022-07-03.
  51. ^ The Distribution of Wages in Belarus
  52. ^ "Unemployment Rate in Belarus is Less than 1%, Belstat". telegraf.by. 29 March 2011.
  53. ^ a b What does the International labour organization (ILO) labour market statistics describe?, Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2015
  54. ^ ""Socio-Economic Characteristics of Population of the Republic of Belarus" (Volume 6)". Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved Aug 10, 2020.
  55. ^ "В Беларуси фактическая безработица занижена в 7 раз – ВБ". Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  56. ^ Низкая безработица — фетиш белорусской власти (in Russian)
  57. ^ Real unemployment rate in Belarus not less than 15 per cent, Charter 97 (2 April 2008)
  58. ^ 2021 ITUC Global Rights Index: COVID-19 pandemic puts spotlight on workers’ rights
  59. ^ a b 2021 ITUC Global Rights Index
  60. ^ Жлобинский суд вынес решение по делу о забастовке на БМЗ, когда на заводе остановились печи
  61. ^ "Free Economic Zones in Belarus". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  62. ^ Тищенко, Михаил (2013-08-15). Минск пытается избавиться от "золотого запаса" тракторов (in Russian). Lenta.ru. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  63. ^ "Our history". linenmill.by. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  64. ^ "OJSC "Slavianka"". export.by. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  65. ^ "INOGATE". www.inogate.org.
  66. ^ a b c Yeliseyeu, Andrei (2019-02-21). "Belarus and the EAEU, expectations vs. reality". Visegrad Insight. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
  67. ^ "Prelaunch Operations In Progress As BelNPP First Unit Begins Hot Trials". BelarusFeed. 11 December 2019.
  68. ^ Dyni, John R. (2010). "Oil Shale". In Clarke, Alan W.; Trinnaman, Judy A. (eds.). Survey of energy resources (PDF) (22 ed.). World Energy Council. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-946121-02-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-04.
  69. ^ "JSC Slonim Cardboard and Paper Plant "Albertin"". export.by. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  70. ^ "Interpaper LLC". export.by. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  71. ^ "Paper bags JSC Svetlogorsk Pulp&Board Mill". export.by. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  72. ^ "OJSC "Papel-mill "Spartak"". export.by. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Bellesbumprom has put up for sale state-owned stakes in OAO Paper Mill Spartak, OAO KOPiT Borisovles and OAO Minskprojektmebel". export.by. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  74. ^ USGS Potash Production Statistics
  75. ^ USGS Salt Production Statistics
  76. ^ "Open Joint-Stock Company «Byelorussian Steel Works". export.by. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  77. ^ L. Selivanovskikh (2018). "Belarus: Moving Forward". In Latukha, Marina (ed.). Talent Management in Global Organizations: A Cross-Country Perspective. Springer. ISBN 9783319764184.
  78. ^ "ГЛАВНАЯ - О НАС". Колорпрокат. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  79. ^ "Production Unitary Enterprise "Tsvetmet"". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  80. ^ "Production Unitary Enterprise Universal-Lit". export.by. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  81. ^ "Universal-Lit". NIVA-HOLDING. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  82. ^ "About Us - ABOUT "NIVA-HOLDING"". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  83. ^ "General Motors To Produce New Cadillac Escalade In Minsk, Belarus For Russia & CIS Markets". 11 July 2015.
  84. ^ "Motovelo". Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  85. ^ Jacopo Dettoni; Wendy Atkins (15 August 2019). "What the BRI brings to Belarus and Great Stone Industrial Park". fDi Intelligence. Financial Times. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  86. ^ Simes, Dimitri (16 July 2020). "Unrest threatens China's Belt and Road 'success story' in Belarus". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  87. ^ a b "Chemical Industry of Belarus". Virtual Guide to Belarus. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  88. ^ "Belarus facts: Petrochemical industry". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  89. ^ "Oil and oil products". Belneftekhim. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  90. ^ "ABOUT COMPANY". JSC Belaruskali. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  91. ^ "Global UAN Fertilizer Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2025". Markets and Research. November 2020.
  92. ^ Belarus: Recent Economic Developments (Staff Country Reports ed.). International Monetary Fund. 1998. p. 183. ISBN 9781452705163.
  93. ^ "Joint Stock Company "Minsk kristall"". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  94. ^ "ABOUT THE CONCERN Belarusian state food industry concern BELGOSPISHCHEPROM". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  95. ^ "HOME » ABOUT US » COMPANY". Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  96. ^ a b "Lukashenko prizval "razobratsya s aytishnikami"" Лукашенко призвал "разобраться с айтишниками" [Lukashenko commands to deal with IT sector]. Interfax. 2022-04-04. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  97. ^ Epifanova, M. (2020-09-25). "Silikonovaya pustynya" Силиконовая пустыня [Silicon Desert] (in Russian). Novaya Gazeta. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  98. ^ Mirovalev, Mansur (28 September 2018). "Tiny Belarus is a throwback to the Soviet Union — and the center of a booming tech economy". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  99. ^ a b Cooper, Benjamin (2020-12-09). "How Belarus' Soviet Past Led to its Modern-Day IT Success". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  100. ^ Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle; Makhovsky, Andrei (2020-08-26). "Tech firms threaten to quit Belarus after crackdown, internet outages". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  101. ^ Williams, Sean (2020-08-18). "Belarus has torn up the protest rulebook. Everyone should listen". Wired. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  102. ^ Stefan Weichert; Emil Filtenborg (2020-10-26). "Will Belarus' political crisis kill off its booming IT sector?". Euronews. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  103. ^ Jo Harper (2021-04-07). "Belarusian IT specialists relocate to Poland". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  104. ^ Vasilyeva, N. (2020-09-18). "Fears of a brain drain in Belarus as IT workers prepare to flee brutal crackdown". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  105. ^ Tatjana Schweizer (2022-03-16). "Eastern European IT specialists caught in the crossfire of war". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  106. ^ David L. Stern, Robyn Dixon (2021-07-24). "Belarus once cultivated high-tech talent. Now those people are fleeing political crackdowns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  107. ^ Ilya Zhegulev, Margaryta Chornokondratenko, Andrius Sytas (2020-10-01). "With warm words and fast visas, neighbors woo IT workers fleeing Belarus". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-05-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  108. ^ "Belarus IT sector hit by exodus after post-vote crackdown". France 24. 2021-06-27. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  109. ^ "Dve volny IT-relokatsiy iz Belarusi: kakaya iz nikh bolshe i molozhe?" Две волны IT-релокаций из Беларуси: какая из них больше и моложе? [Two Waves of IT Relocations in Belarus: which is bigger and younger?] (in Russian). BelMarket.by. 2022-04-11. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  110. ^ Pankratova, A. (2022-03-25). "«Zakazchiki prosyat, chtoby kompanii perevezli sotrudnikov v lyubuyu druguyu stranu». Chto proiskhodit s IT-otraslyu Belarusi posle sanktsiy" «Заказчики просят, чтобы компании перевезли сотрудников в любую другую страну». Что происходит с IT-отраслью Беларуси после санкций ['Clients ask us to relocate employees anywhere': Belarusian IT sector after sanctions] (in Russian). Pro Business. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  111. ^ Lenkevich, I. (2022-04-04). "Ot IT-strany k IT-zone" От IT-страны к IT-зоне [From IT state to IT zone] (in Russian). Reform.by. Retrieved 2022-05-27.
  112. ^ http://belstat.gov.by/en/ofitsialnaya-statistika/otrasli-statistiki/naselenie/turizm/graficheskii-material_15/foreign-tourists-received-by-organisations-engaged-in-tourist-activities-in-the-republic-of-belarus-in-2012-by-countries/[dead link]
  113. ^ a b c State Border Committee of the Republic of Belarus (2011). "Arrivals of foreign citizens to the Republic of Belarus by purpose of travel 2000–2010". Land of Ancestors. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  114. ^ a b c State Border Committee of the Republic of Belarus. (2011). "Tourism development indicators of Belarus". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  115. ^ State Border Committee of the Republic of Belarus. (2011). "Departures of Belarusian citizens abroad by purpose of travel". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  116. ^ State Border Committee and Ministry of Sports and Tourism of the Republic of Belarus. (2011). "Main indicators of organizations engaged in tourist activities". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  117. ^ Ministry of Sports and Tourism of the Republic of Belarus. (2011). "Number of organisations engaged in tourist activities by ownership type in Belarus". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  118. ^ Ministry of Sports and Tourism of the Republic of Belarus. (2011). "Number of organizations engaged in tourist activities in 2010 in Belarus". Land of Ancestors. National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Belarus. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  119. ^ https://www.belstat.gov.by/upload-belstat/upload-belstat-excel/Oficial_statistika/2021/GDP_GRP-2112-en.xlsx[bare URL spreadsheet file]
  120. ^ a b c d e "Экономические санкции в отношении Беларуси". ahk.de. 2021-08-12. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  121. ^ a b Mateusz Kubiak (2021-08-10). "Belarus Struggles to Circumvent Western Sanctions Against Its Oil Industry". jamestown.org. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  122. ^ Арина Ползик (2021-09-03). "Смертность и экспорт. Зачем Беларусь скрывает статистику" (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  123. ^ a b Вадим Шаталин (2021-10-18). "Беларусь засекретила 15 процентов экспорта в Россию" (in Russian). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  124. ^ a b c "Работники "Азота", БМЗ, БелЖД, "Нафтана". Что известно о задержанных, которых показали по госТВ". zerkalo.io. 2021-09-21. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  125. ^ «Но посмотрите на своих сотрудников на предприятиях. У меня есть информация, что мерзавцев несколько там еще кое-где осталось, и они ставят перед собой цель проинформировать коллективный Запад о том, как Пархомчик с Назаровым пытаются обойти санкции. Шпионят фактически и сдают информацию туда... — Сядут, и надолго. Это я прямо говорю» = "But look on your employees at your enterprises. I have the information that several scoundrels are still there, and they set themselves the goal of informing the collective West about how Parkhomchik and Nazarov are trying to circumvent the sanctions. They actually spy and pass information there... They will go to prison for a long time. I am speaking directly."
  126. ^ "В Новополоцке продолжаются задержания работников". Belsat TV. 2021-09-28. Retrieved 2021-10-24.
  127. ^ "Как белорусская нефтехимия пытается обойти американские санкции". Нефть и капитал. 2021-09-08. Retrieved 2021-11-15.

External links[edit]