Economy of Cambodia

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Economy of Cambodia
Phnom Penh Evening Aerial View.png
CurrencyRiel (KHR, ៛)
Calendar year
Trade organisations
WTO, ASEAN, AFTA, SCO
Country group
Statistics
PopulationIncrease 16,926,984 (2020 est.)[3]
GDP
  • Increase $26.730 billion (nominal, 2019 est.)[4]
  • Increase $76.934 billion (PPP, 2019 est.)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 7.5% (2018) 7.1% (2019e)
  • −1.0% (2020f) 6.0% (2021f)[5]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $1,621 (nominal, 2019 est.)[4]
  • Increase $4,664 (PPP, 2019 est.)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
2.5% (2020 est.)[4]
Population below poverty line
36.0 medium (2013)[8]
Labour force
  • Increase 9,230,114 (2019)[11]
  • Increase 81.1% employment rate (2016)[12]
Labour force by occupation
Unemployment
  • Negative increase 0.3% (2017 est.)[3]
  • high underemployment, according to official statistics
Main industries
tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Decrease 144th (medium, 2020)[13]
External
ExportsIncrease $11.42 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Export goods
clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
Main export partners
ImportsIncrease $14.37 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Import goods
petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction equipments, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • $29.17 billion (2014 est.)[3]
  • Abroad: N/A
Decrease −$1.871 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Negative increase $11.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[3]
Public finances
Negative increase 30.4% of GDP (2017 est.)[3]
−1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[3]
Revenues3.947 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Expenses4.354 billion (2017 est.)[3]
Economic aid$934 million pledged in grants and concessional loans for 2011 by international donors
Foreign reserves
Increase $12.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[3]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of Cambodia currently follows an open market system (market economy) and has seen rapid economic progress in the last decade.[15] Cambodia had a GDP of $24.57 billion in 2018.[16] Per capita income, although rapidly increasing, is low compared with most neighboring countries. Cambodia's two largest industries are textiles and tourism, while agricultural activities remain the main source of income for many Cambodians living in rural areas.[17] The service sector is heavily concentrated on trading activities and catering-related services. Recently, Cambodia has reported that oil and natural gas reserves have been found off-shore.[18]

In 1995, with a GDP of $2.92 billion[19] the government transformed the country's economic system from a planned economy to its present market-driven system.[20] Following those changes, growth was estimated at a value of 7% while inflation dropped from 26% in 1994 to only 6% in 1995. Imports increased due to the influx of foreign aid, and exports, particularly from the country's garment industry, also increased. Although there was a constant economic growth, this growth translated to only about 0.71% for the ASEAN economy in 2016, compared with her neighbor Indonesia, which contributed 37.62%.[21]

After four years of improving economic performance, Cambodia's economy slowed in 1997–1998 due to the regional economic crisis, civil unrest, and political infighting. Foreign investments declined during this period. Also, in 1998 the main harvest was hit by drought. But in 1999, the first full year of relative peace in 30 years, progress was made on economic reforms and growth resumed at 4%.

Currently, Cambodia's foreign policy focuses on establishing friendly borders with its neighbors (such as Thailand and Vietnam), as well as integrating itself into regional (ASEAN) and global (WTO) trading systems. Some of the obstacles faced by this emerging economy are the need for a better education system and the lack of a skilled workforce; particularly in the poverty-ridden countryside, which struggles with inadequate basic infrastructure. Nonetheless, Cambodia continues to attract investors because of its low wages, plentiful labor, proximity to Asian raw materials, and favorable tax treatment.[22]

Recent economic history[edit]

Following its independence from France in 1953, the Cambodian state has undergone five periods of political, social, and economic transformation:

  1. Kingdom of Cambodia (1953-1970)
  2. Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
  3. Democratic Kampuchea (1975-1982, ousted in 1979); became Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea in exile (1982-1993)
  4. People's Republic of Kampuchea (1979-1989), later renamed The State of Cambodia (1989–1992)
  5. Kingdom of Cambodia (1993–present)

In 1989, the State of Cambodia implemented reform policies that transformed the Cambodian economic system from a command economy to an open market one.[23] In line with the economic reformation, private property rights were introduced and state-owned enterprises were privatized. Cambodia also focused on integrating itself into regional and international economic blocs, such as the Association of South East Asian Nations and the World Trade Organization respectively. These policies triggered a growth in the economy, with its national GDP growing at an average of 6.1% before a period of domestic unrest and regional economic instability in 1997 (1997 Asian financial crisis).[23] However, conditions improved and since 1999, the Cambodian economy has continued to grow at an average pace of approximately 6-8% per annum.[24]

In 2007, Cambodia's gross domestic product grew by an estimated 18.6%. Garment exports rose by almost 8%, while tourist arrivals increased by nearly 35%. With exports decreasing, the 2007 GDP growth was driven largely by consumption and investment. Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows reached US$600 million (7 percent of GDP), slightly more than what the country received in official aid. Domestic investment, driven largely by the private sector, accounted for 23.4 percent of GDP. Export growth, especially to the US, began to slow in late 2007 accompanied by stiffer competition from Vietnam and emerging risks (a slowdown in the US economy and lifting of safeguards on China's exports). US companies were the fifth largest investors in Cambodia, with more than $1.2 billion in investments over the period 1997-2007.

Cambodia was severely damaged by the financial crisis of 2007–2008, and its main economic sector, the garment industry, suffered a 23% drop in exports to the United States and Europe.[25] As a result, 60,000 workers were laid off. However, in the last quarter of 2009 and early 2010, conditions were beginning to improve and the Cambodian economy began to recover. Cambodian exports to the US for the first 11 months of 2012 reached $2.49 billion, a 1 per cent increase year-on-year. Its imports of US goods grew 26 per cent for that period, reaching $213 million. Another factor underscoring the potential of the Cambodian economy is the recent halving of its poverty rate. The poverty rate is 20.5 per cent, meaning that approximately 2.8 million people live below the poverty line.

The table below represents the fluctuations in Cambodia's economy over the period from 2004–2011 (2012 data is not yet available).[26]

Category 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
GNI per capita, PPP(current international $) 1,250 1,440 1,630 1,830 1,960 1,970 2,080 2,230
Total Population (Millions) 13.19 13.36 13.52 13.67 13.82 13.98 14.14 14.31
GDP (Millions US$) 5,337.83 6,293.05 7,274.42 8,639.16 10,351.83 10,401.94 11,242.27 12,829.54
GDP Growth (annual %) 10.34 13.25 10.77 10.21 6.69 0.09 5.96 7.07

Data[edit]

Year GDP
(in Bil. US$ PPP)[27]
GDP per capita
(in US$ PPP)[28]
GDP growth
(real)[29]
Inflation rate
(in Percent)[30]
Unemployment
(in Percent)[31]
Government debt
(in % of GDP)[32]
1993 Increase17.587 Increase1,763 n/a n/a n/a n/a
1994 Decrease11.465 Decrease1,111 Decrease-34,809 % n/a n/a n/a
1995 Increase12.6 Increase1,182 Increase9.903 % Positive decrease-0.799 % n/a n/a
1996 Increase13.343 Increase1,214 Increase5.598 % Negative increase7.151 % n/a 30.151 %
1997 Increase13.878 Increase1,228 Increase4.007 % Negative increase7.96 % n/a Negative increase31.576 %
1998 Increase14.528 Increase1,252 Increase4.682 % Negative increase14.807 % n/a Negative increase37.183
1999 Increase16.374 Increase1,377 Increase12.705 % Increase4.008 % n/a Positive decrease34.737 %
2000 Increase18.128 Increase1,491 Increase10.712 % Positive decrease−0.792 % Positive decrease2.764 % Negative increase35.235 %
2001 Increase19.477 Increase1,570 Increase7.447 % Positive decrease−0.601 % Positive decrease2.055 % Positive decrease34.869 %
2002 Increase20.759 Increase1,642 Increase6.579 % Increase3.225 % n/a Negative increase39.748 %
2003 Increase22.525 Increase1,752 Increase8.506 % Increase1.21 % n/a Negative increase43.099 %
2004 Increase24.854 Increase1,902 Increase10.341 % Increase3.925 % n/a Positive decrease42.703 %
2005 Increase28.147 Increase2,120 Increase13.25 % Negative increase6.349 % n/a Positive decrease33.876 %
2006 Increase31.179 Increase2,313 Increase10.771 % Negative increase6.143 % n/a Positive decrease31.072 %
2007 Increase34.363 Increase2,511 Increase10.213 % Negative increase7.668 % Positive decrease1.257 % Positive decrease29.564 %
2008 Increase36.662 Increase2,640 Increase6.692 % Negative increase24.997 % Negative increase0.825 % Positive decrease26.995 %
2009 Increase36.694 Decrease2,603 Increase0.087 % Positive decrease-0.661 % Positive decrease0.579 % Negative increase28.465 %
2010 Increase38.882 Increase2,716 Increase5.963 % Increase3.996 % Negative increase0.771 % Negative increase28.744 %
2011 Increase41.631 Increase2.862 Increase7.07 % Increase5.479 % Negative increase0.577 % Negative increase29.735 %
2012 Increase44.675 Increase3,022 Increase7.313 % Increase2.933 % Negative increase1.279 % Negative increase31.534 %
2013 Increase47.962 Increase3,191 Increase7.357 % Increase2.943 % Positive decrease0.438 % Negative increase31.734 %
2014 Increase51.388 Increase3,364 Increase7.143 % Increase3.855 % Negative increase0.692 % Negative increase31.901 %
2015 Increase55.003 Increase3,543 Increase7.036 % Increase1.221 % Positive decrease0.393 % Positive decrease31.157 %
2016 Increase58.871 Increase3,733 Increase7.031 % Increase3.045 % Negative increase0.716 % Positive decrease29.123 %
2017 Increase62.891 Increase3,928 Increase6.829 % Increase2.891 % Positive decrease0.141 % Negative increase29.958 %
2018 Increase67.588 Increase4,159 Increase7.469 % Increase2.458 % n/a Positive decrease29.361 %
2019 Increase72.356 Increase4,388 Increase7.054 % n/a n/a Negative increase29.572  %

Economic sectors[edit]

Garment industry[edit]

The garment industry represents the largest portion of Cambodia's manufacturing sector, accounting for 80% of the country's exports. In 2012, the exports grew to $4.61 billion up 8% over 2011. In the first half of 2013, the garment industry reported exports worth $1.56 billion.[33] The sector employs 335,400 workers, of which 91% are female.

The sector operates largely on the final phase of garment production, that is turning yarns and fabrics into garments, as the country lacks a strong textile manufacturing base. In 2005, there were fears that the end of the Multi Fibre Arrangement would threaten Cambodia's garment industry; exposing it to stiff competition with China's strong manufacturing capabilities.[34] On the contrary, Cambodia's garment industry at present continues to grow rapidly. This is can be attributed to the country's open economic policy which has drawn in large amounts of foreign investment into this sector of the economy.

Garment Factories by Ownership Nationality in 2010:[35]

Nationality of Ownership Ownership by percentage Number of factories owned
Taiwan 28% 66
China 19% 44
Hong Kong 17% 39
South Korea 13% 31
Malaysia 6% 14
Cambodia 5% 13
Singapore 4% 10
USA 4% 9
Others 4% 10
A garment factory worker in Cambodia undertaking health precautions

In 2010, 236 garment export-oriented factories were operating and registered with GMAC, the Garment Manufacturers Association in Cambodia, with 93% being foreign direct investment (FDI).

As seen in the table above, Cambodia's garment industry is characterized by a small percentage of local ownership. This is a reflection of the deficiency of skilled workers in the country as well as the limited leverage and autonomy Cambodian factories have in strategic decisions.[36] Another characteristic of the industry is the country's competitive advantage as the only country where garment factories are monitored and reported according to national and international standards.[37]

This has allowed Cambodia to secure its share of quotas for exports to the US through the US-Cambodia Trade Agreement on Textiles and Apparel (1999–2004), which linked market access to labor standards. However, the Cambodian garment industry remains vulnerable to global competition due to a lack of adequate infrastructure, labor unrest, the absence of a domestic textile industry, and almost complete dependence on imported textile material.[38]

GMAC is establishing a specialized training institute to train garment workers. The institute is in Phnom Penh Special Economic Zone and will be completed by late 2016. It aims to train 1,600 garment workers in the first three years and 240 university students each year as part of a separate program.[39]

Agriculture[edit]

Cambodians planting rice, 2004.

Agriculture is the traditional mainstay of the Cambodian economy. Agriculture accounted for 90 percent of GDP in 1985 and employed approximately 80 percent of the work force. Rice is the principal commodity.

Major secondary crops include maize, cassava, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, soybeans, sesame seeds, dry beans, and rubber. The principal commercial crop is rubber. In the 1980s it was an important primary commodity, second only to rice, and one of the country's few sources of foreign exchange.

Tourism[edit]

In the 1960s, Cambodia was a prominent tourist destination in the Southeast Asian region. Due to protracted periods of civil war, insurgencies, and especially the genocidal regime of the Khmer Rouge (see Khmer Rouge Genocide), Cambodia's tourism industry was reduced to being virtually non-existent. Since the late 1990s, tourism is fast becoming Cambodia's second largest industry, just behind the garment manufacturing.[40] In 2006, Cambodia's tourism sector generated a revenue of US$1.594 billion, which made up approximately 16% of the country's GDP.[40]

Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Cultural heritage tourism is especially popular in the country, with many foreign tourists visiting the ancient Hindu temple of Angkor Wat located in the Siem Reap province. Other popular tourist attractions include the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh, as well as ecotourism spots such as Tonlé Sap Lake and the Mekong River.

The tourism industry in Cambodia has been perpetuated by the development of important transportation infrastructure; in particular Cambodia's two international airports in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap respectively. To the Cambodian economy, tourism has been a means for accumulation of foreign currency earnings and employment for the Cambodian workforce, with about 250,000 jobs generated in 2006.[40] Meanwhile, challenges to the industry include a leakage of revenue to foreign markets due to a dependence on foreign goods as well as the prevalence of the Child sex tourism industry.[41]

Gambling industry[edit]

A Cambodian casino in Bavet at the Vietnamese border crossing

Gambling in Cambodia is officially illegal under the 1996 Law on Suppression of Gambling, which outlawed all unauthorized forms of gambling and provided for penalties ranging from monetary fines to short prison sentences, although the Cambodian government's General Department of Prisons does not list gambling as one of the 28 offenses punishable by imprisonment.[42]

The prohibition on gambling, which also extends to all forms of online gambling, only applies to Cambodian citizens. As of October 2015, there were 75 casinos catering to foreign tourists operating within Cambodia, providing an estimated US$29 million in revenue to the national government in the first nine months of the year and $2 billion in income for the casinos. Cambodian citizens are allowed to gamble through government sponsored gaming including five separate privately run national lotteries.[43] Cambodians were also previously permitted to play the slot machines located in the nation's casinos, however due to complaints of violence related to gambling debts and widespread problem gambling, slot machines were banned in 2009.[44]

Gambling as a popular pastime is ingrained in Southeast Asian culture in general and Cambodian culture in particular. Men who don't gamble are often viewed as not masculine.[45] Consequently, despite the laws against citizens gambling, illegal gambling is widespread in Cambodia. The police forces in Cambodia, ruled by one of the most corrupt governments in the world,[46] often look the other way as casinos freely allow locals to enter and provide private rooms for government and law enforcement officials, who oftentimes have a vested financial interest in the casinos, to conduct illegal gambling.[47]

Extralegal activities are also widespread outside of the permitted casinos ranging from cockfights and card rooms to sports book (primarily regional football matches and kickboxing) and unauthorized lotteries. Most of these activities are controlled by organized crime and protected by bribes to law enforcement.[48]

A number of societal issues plague Cambodia as a result of gambling, most notably gambling addiction.


Russian Boulevard in Phnom Penh.

Construction[edit]

The increase in tourist arrivals has led to growing demand for hotels and other forms of accommodation surrounding tourist hotspots. Siem Reap in particular has seen a construction boom in recent years. The capital Phnom Penh has also witnessed a growth in the construction and real estate sector. Recently, planned projects that have been on the pipeline for several years have been shelved temporarily due to a reduction in foreign investment. From 2009, the Cambodian government has allowed foreigners to own condominiums. This has helped in attracting real estate investors from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and other countries.

The construction sector attracted investment of $2.1 billion in 2012 which is a 72 per cent rise compared with 2011. Construction licenses issued stood at 1,694 projects in 2012, which was 20% lower than 2011 but they were higher in value.

Resources[edit]

Oil seeps were discovered in Cambodia as early as the 1950s by Russian and Chinese geologists. Development of the industry was delayed, however, by the Vietnam and Cambodian Civil Wars and the political uncertainty that followed. Further discoveries of oil and natural gas deposits offshore in the early 2000s led to renewed domestic and international interest in Cambodia's production possibilities. As of 2013, the US company Chevron, Japanese JOGMEC and other international companies maintained production sites both on shore and off. Chevron alone had invested over US$160 million and drilled 18 wells.[49]

Sok Khavan, acting director general of the Cambodian National Petroleum Authority, estimated that once the contracts are finalized and legal issues resolved, the Cambodian government will receive approximately 70% of the revenues, contributing to an economy in which the GDP is projected to increase five-fold by 2030.[50] In addition, there are 10,000 square miles offshore in the Gulf of Thailand that holds potential reserves of 12-14 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and an unspecified amount of oil.[50] The rights to this territory are currently a subject of dispute between Cambodia and Thailand, further delaying any possible production developments. In early 2013 it was reported that the two countries were close to a deal that would allow joint production to begin.[51][52]

Foreign aid[edit]

Rice milling is very important to the Cambodian economy.

Cambodia's emerging democracy has received strong international support. Under the mandate of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC), $1.72 billion (1.72 G$) was spent in an effort to bring basic security, stability and democratic rule to the country. Various news and media reports suggest that since 1993 the country has been the recipient of some US$10 billion in foreign aid.[53][54]

With regards to economic assistance, official donors had pledged $880 million at the Ministerial Conference on the Rehabilitation of Cambodia (MCRRC) in Tokyo in June 1992. In addition to that figure, $119 million was pledged in September 1993 at the International Committee on the Reconstruction of Cambodia (ICORC) meeting in Paris, and $643 million at the March 1994 ICORC meeting in Tokyo.

Cambodia experienced a shortfall in foreign aid in the year 2005 due to the government's failure to pass anti-corruption laws, opening up a single import/export window, increasing its spending on education, and complying with policies of good governance.[55] In response, the government adopted the National Strategic Development Plan for 2006–10 (also known as the “Third Five-Year Plan”). The plan focused on three major areas:

  • the speeding up of economic growth at an annual rate of 6-7%
  • eradicating corruption
  • developing public structures in favor of quality (i.e. by education, training, and healthcare) over quantity (i.e. rapid population growth)[56]

Banking[edit]

There are no significant barriers to bank entry. At the end of 2013, there stood 35 commercial banks of which most have majority foreign ownership.[57] Since 2011 new banks with offshore funding have begun to enter the market.

Telecommunications[edit]

Energy[edit]

Cambodia has significant potential for developing renewable energy. The country, however, remains one of the few countries in the ASEAN region that has not adopted renewable energy targets.[58] To attract more investment in renewable energy Cambodia could adopt targets, improve renewable energy governance, develop a regulatory framework, improve project bankability and facilitate market entry for international investors.[58] Due to high vulnerability to climate change, it is recommended that Cambodia focuses on developing renewable energy away from fossil fuels as part of climate change mitigation measures.[59]

Transport[edit]

A national transport map of Cambodia.
National Highway 1 - Kien Svay, Kandal Province.
A rural road in Cambodia.
The system of Transport in Cambodia, rudimentary at the best of times, was severely damaged in the chaos that engulfed the nation in the latter half of the 20th century. The country's weak transport infrastructure hindered emergency relief efforts, exacerbating the logistical issues of procurement of supplies in general and their distribution. Cambodia received Soviet technical assistance and equipment to support the maintenance of the transportation network.

Child labour[edit]

Map of Cambodia and surrounding countries

Child labour refers to the full-time employment of children under a minimum legal age.[60] In 2003, an International Labour Organization (ILO) survey reported that one in every ten children in the capital above the age of seven was engaged in child domestic labour.[60] Children who are too young to work in the fields work as scavengers.[61] They spend their days rummaging in dumps looking for items that can be sold for money.[61] Children also often work in the garment and textile industry, in prostitution, and in the military.[62][63][64]

In Cambodia, the state had ratified both the Minimum Age Convention (C138)[65] in 1999 and Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (C182) in 2006, which are adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO). For the former convention, Cambodia had specified the minimum age to work to be at age 14.[66] Yet, significant levels of child labour appear to be found in Cambodia.[67]

In 1998, ILO estimated that 24.1% of children in Cambodia aged between 10 and 14 were economically active.[67] Many of these children work long hours and Cambodia Human Development Report 2000 reported that approximately 65,000 children between the ages of 5 to 13 worked 25 hours a week and did not attend school.[68] There are also many initiative and policies put in place to decrease the prevalence of child labour such as the United States generalized system of preferences, the U.S.-Cambodia textile agreement, ILO Garment Sector Working Conditions Improvement Project, and ChildWise Tourism.[62][69]

There is a need to eliminate child labour in Cambodia as a report by UNICEF states that child labourers could be missing out on education.[70] When children do not attend school, they are denied the knowledge and skills needed for national development.[70] Without education and vital life skills, they are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, which may exacerbate the existing cycle of poverty in their families.[71] Consequently, this lack in productivity due to lack of education will hold back economic growth in Cambodia.[71]

Trade - EBA Issues[edit]

The announcement from February 12, 2020 was to suspend EBA ("Everything But Arms") trade preferences between EU and Cambodia. The country has known to be the second largest beneficiary from EBA's program. The EU's preliminary conclusion sent to Cambodian government in November 12, 2019 because Cambodia failed to address serious human and labor rights concerns under Human Rights Watch. Moreover, the issue behind ending the opposition party (CNRP) and dropping charges against the leader of CNRP violated the right to freedom of expression.[72]

Challenges for industrial development[edit]

Although Cambodia exports mainly garments and products from agriculture and fisheries, it is striving to diversify the economy. There is some evidence of expansion in value-added exports from a low starting point, largely thanks to the manufacture of electrical goods and telecommunications by foreign multinationals implanted in the country. Between 2008 and 2013, high-tech exports climbed from just US$3.8million to US$76.5 million.[73]

It will be challenging for Cambodia to enhance the technological capacity of the many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) active in agriculture, engineering and the natural sciences. Whereas the large foreign firms in Cambodia that are the main source of value-added exports tend to specialize in electrical machinery and telecommunications, the principal task for science and technology policy will be to facilitate spillovers in terms of skills and innovation capability from these large operators towards smaller firms and across other sectors.[73][74]

There is little evidence that the Law on Patents, Utility Model Certificates and Industrial Designs (2006) has been of practical use, thus far, to any but the larger foreign firms operating in Cambodia. By 2012, 27 patent applications had been filed, all by foreigners. Of the 42 applications for industrial design received up to 2012, 40 had been filed by foreigners. Nevertheless, the law has no doubt encouraged foreign firms to introduce technological improvements to their on-shore production systems, which can only be beneficial.[73]

Statistics[edit]

A proportional representation of Cambodian exports.
Investment (gross fixed)
3% of GDP (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
  • lowest 10%: 2.6%
  • highest 10%: 23.7% (2011)
Agriculture - products
  • rice,
  • rubber,
  • corn,
  • vegetables,
  • cashews,
  • tapioca,
  • silk
Industries
  • tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate
  • 5.7% (2011 est.)
Electricity
... 2010 2011
production 1.273 billion kWh ...
consumption 1.272 billion kWh ...
exports 0 kWh ...
imports 274 million kWh ...
Exchange rates
Year Riels (KHR) per US dollar
2012 4,097
2011 4,395.62
2010 4,145
2009 4,139.33
2008 4,070.94
2007 4,006
2006 4,103


See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

Definition of Free Cultural Works logo notext.svg This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 Text taken from UNESCO Science Report: towards 2030, 698-713, UNESCO, UNESCO Publishing. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

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Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.

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