Economy of Jersey
St. Helier in 2011
|1 January - 31 December|
|GDP||$5.1 billion (2005)|
GDP per capita
|RPI 5.0% (2011)|
|53,790 (December 2011)|
Labour force by occupation
|financial & legal (24%), wholesale & retail (16%), public sector (13%) (2011)|
|Unemployment||4.7% (March 2011 est.)|
Average gross salary
|£2,816 / $4,363 mean monthly (2011)|
|Financial & legal services, construction, retail & wholesale, manufacturing, agriculture, transport & communications. (2008).|
|light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles|
Main export partners
|United Kingdom, France|
|machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals|
Main import partners
|United Kingdom, France|
Gross external debt
|Revenues||$846 million (2011 est.)|
|Expenses||$928 million (2011 est.)|
The economy of Jersey is largely driven by international financial services and legal services, which accounted for 40.5% of total GVA in 2010. Other sectors include construction, retail, agriculture, tourism and telecommunications.
- 1 Financial & legal services
- 2 Construction
- 3 Retail & wholesale
- 4 Agriculture
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Transport, storage & communication
- 7 Stock exchange
- 8 Seasonal workers
- 9 Traditional & historical economy
- 10 Historical exchange rates
- 11 Taxation
- 12 External links
- 13 See also
- 14 References
Financial & legal services
Jersey based financial organisations provide services to customers worldwide. In June 2008 it was reported that 12,070 people were employed full-time, within this sector. The Royal Bank of Scotland International (RBSI) is a major employer with some 900 staff employed in Jersey, as of March 2009.
The finance sector profits rose to about £1.5 billion in 2007, representing a real-term increase of 12% on 2006.
Jersey is one of the top worldwide Offshore financial centers It is described by some as a tax haven. It attracts deposits from customers outside of the island, seeking the advantages such places offer, like reduced tax burdens. Its taxation laws have been widely criticised by various people and groups, however the former Chief Minister of Jersey, Terry Le Sueur, has countered these criticisms, saying that "Jersey [is] among cooperative finance centres". And in September 2013 the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, said it was not fair any longer to refer to any of the overseas territories or Crown dependencies as tax havens, as they have taken action to make sure that they have fair and open tax systems.House of Commons Hansard 9 Sept 2013 Its information privacy law also provides exemptions that other European countries do not, for example in the way Trusts do not have to disclose as much information to Benficiaries about use of their personal data as is normally required under such laws.
On 4 February 2009 Jersey Finance officially announced its intention to open a new representative office in London.
The first regulated Bitcoin fund was established in Jersey in July 2014, with the approval of the Jersey Financial Services Commission, after island leaders expressed a desire for Jersey to become a global center for digital currencies. At the time of the establishment of the fund by a Jersey-based hedge fund company, Bitcoin was already being accepted by some local businesses.
St. Helier, and the Waterfront area in particular, has seen much redevelopment during the early 21st century, with several projects in planning or under-construction during 2009. Developments include a leisure complex, the Radisson hotel, and a new central bus station - Liberation Station. As of 2009 there are plans to sink the A1 road, to provide building sites above it for offices, possibly for financial companies.
Construction grew by 8% over the period 2006 to 2007.
Retail & wholesale
As of June 2008 there were 6,610 persons in full-time employment within Jersey's wholesale & retail trades.
Retail and wholesale grew by around 5% during 2007.
A number of online retailers, and fulfillment houses operate from the Channel Islands, including Jersey, supplying a variety of low-value goods such as CDs, DVDs, video games, and gadgets. Residents of the EU were choosing to order goods from Jersey, so as to benefit from a tax relief known as Low-value consignment relief (LVCR). UK residents, in particular, were taking advantage of this situation.
In April 2012 the UK Government made law changes to prevent the Channel Islands continued exploitation of LVCR, meaning that UK residents would have to pay the full VAT amount on items imported from the Channel Islands. Some goods are still sold and distributed from Jersey, despite these changes.
Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the United Kingdom. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export income earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EU countries.
As of 2009 the Jersey Royal potato is the biggest crop export.
Jersey saw a boom in tourism during the post World War 2 years. This boom has been winding down since the late-1980s. Many of the larger hotels, which were constructed during the boom, have now been demolished.
Visitors to the island arrive either by sea at Saint Helier, or by air at Jersey Airport. These routes are subsidised by the States of Jersey. Exact figures for subsidies are not in the public domain.
Visitor length of stays have reduced from an average of 5.7 nights, in 1997, to 4.3 nights, in 2010.
Most tourist attractions are operated by private companies, including companies owned, or funded by the States of Jersey. Elizabeth Castle, for example, is controlled by Jersey Heritage. Some other attractions are owned by the National Trust for Jersey.
In 2011 visitor numbers rose by 0.6%, with a notable increase in visitors from Germany, and France. It was reported that tourist and business visitors spent a total of £242m while on the island.
Notable hotels include:
- the Pomme d'Or overlooking Liberation Square in St. Helier, which during the occupation served as the German Navy Headquarters and from whose balcony the Liberation force raised the Union Flag on Liberation Day, 9 May 1945;
- the Hotel de France, formerly the Imperial and the Jesuit college, in St. Saviour overlooking the town of St. Helier;
Transport, storage & communication
Most of the telecoms infrastructure is owned by Jersey Telecom.
The workforce in Jersey tends to increase during the summer months, with around 3,500 more people employed in the summer of 2008 than in the winter of 2007. These seasonal workers are mostly employed in agriculture, hotels, restaurants and bars.
Traditional & historical economy
Until the 19th century, cider was the largest agricultural export with up to a quarter of the agricultural land given over to orchards. In 1839 for example, 268,199 imperial gallons (1,219,260 L) of cider were exported from Jersey to England alone, but by 1870 exports from Jersey had slumped to 4,632 imperial gallons (21,060 L). Beer had replaced cider as a fashionable drink in the main export markets, and even the home market had switched to beer as the population became more urban. Potatoes overtook cider as the most important crop in Jersey in the 1840s. Small-scale cider production on farms for domestic consumption, particularly by seasonal workers from Brittany and mainland Normandy, was maintained, but by the mid-20th century production dwindled until only eight farms were producing cider for their own consumption in 1983. The number of orchards had been reduced to such a level that the destruction of trees in the Great Storm of 1987 demonstrated how close the Islands had come to losing many of its traditional cider apple varieties. A concerted effort was made to identify and preserve surviving varieties and new orchards were planted. As part of diversification, farmers have moved into commercial cider production, and the cider tradition is celebrated and marketed as a heritage experience.
Historical exchange rates
Jersey pounds per US dollar - 0.55 (2005), 0.6981 (January 2002), 0.6944 (2001), 0.6596 (2000), 0.6180 (1999), 0.6037 (1998), 0.6106 (1997); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound.
Until the twentieth century, the States relied on indirect taxation to finance the administration of Jersey. The levying of impôts (duties) was in the hands of the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats until 1921 when that body's tax raising powers were transferred to the Assembly of the States, leaving the Assembly of Governor, Bailiff and Jurats to serve simply as licensing bench for the sale of alcohol. The Income Tax Law of 1928 introducing income tax was the first law drafted entirely in English. Income tax has been levied at a flat rate of 20% for decades.
Historically, no VAT was levied in Jersey, with the result that luxury goods have often been cheaper than in the UK or in France. This provided an incentive for tourism from neighbouring countries. The absence of VAT also led to the growth of a fulfilment industry, whereby low-value luxury items, such as videos, lingerie and contact lenses are exported in a manner avoiding VAT on arrival, thus undercutting local prices on the same products. In 2005 the States of Jersey announced limits on licences granted to non-resident companies trading in this way. The States of Jersey introduced a goods and services tax (GST) in 2008. Although this is a form of VAT, it has been charged at a much lower rate than UK or French VAT, and as such Jersey's fulfilment industry continues.
The strategy for introducing the new GST tax was to fill a 'black hole' in the budget that was created by the introduction of a new 0/10 tax that replaced the old tax system that previously exempted foreign investors from corporation tax and levied a 20% rate on Jersey residents. The new 0/10 tax exempts all businesses except those in financial services from having to pay any corporation tax (0%), while leaving the financial services to pay a low tax rate (10%). The income generated from the new 0/10 tax proposal will not be equal to the revenue of the original tax system and this leaves Jersey with a deficit in their budget of several million pounds.
To fill the deficit created by the changes made to Jersey's tax structure, the States of Jersey introduced GST. GST is added to most goods and services, which has raised the cost of living. The people hit the hardest by the new GST will be the people on the lowest incomes, however, to try to prevent islanders living below the poverty line, the States of Jersey introduced an Income Support service in January 2008.
It is arguable that the people who benefit from Jersey's new tax structure are the owners of the large businesses that are separate or support the financial service based businesses. This is because they do not have to pay any corporation tax but will still benefit from the island's business.
- "CIA World Fact Book". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Jersey Retail Prices Index" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "Jersey in figures, 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Jersey Economic Digest 2008[dead link]
- "Jersey Gross Value Added (GVA)and Gross National Income (GNI) 2010". Gov.je. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Jersey Gross Value Added (GVA) and Gross National Income (GNI) 2007[dead link]
- JED 2008[dead link]
- "GVA and GNI". Gov.je. 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Manpower by Sector[dead link]
- "RBSI in Jersey". BBC News. 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "The Global Financial Centres Index 8" (PDF). Z/Yen. 2010.
- Nick Mathiason, business correspondent (2007-11-03). "Jersey is a tax haven". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2014-12-08.
- "Tax Research UK » Jersey". Taxresearch.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Molony, James (2009-03-04). "Jersey among cooperative finance centres". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- Jersey: Data Protection In Jersey And Other Offshore Jurisdictions 23 July 2008 Article by Wendy Benjamin, mondaq.com, retr 2012 Sep 14
- "Tax me if you can". Bbcworldnews.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2012-10-12.
- "BBC One - Panorama, Tax Me if You Can". Bbc.co.uk. 2009-02-10. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Jersey Finance London Office[dead link]
- "Jersey approve Bitcoin fund launch on island". BBC news. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Leisure complex[dead link]
- Radisson Hotel[dead link]
- Esplanade Quarter[dead link]
- Sandpiper CI Ltd.
- Channel Islands' VAT 'loophole' LVCR ends
- Airline subsidies
- Jersey in Figures 2010
- Small rise in visitors to Jersey but they are spending more
- Hassall, Peter D. (1997). Night and Fog Prisoners (PDF). Jersey Heritage Trust. p. 63.
- Huelin-Renouf Shipping
- "Default Parallels Plesk Panel Page". Condorlogistics.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
- Channel Islands Stock Exchange
- Balleine's History of Jersey, ISBN 1-86077-065-7
- The Triumph of the Country, Kelleher, Jersey 1994, ISBN 0-9518162-4-1
- Jersey Society in London, Bulletin, 1983
- Regional Knitting in the British Isles & Ireland
- 8 March 2005 Proposition P44/2005: Fiscal Strategy
- Jersey in Figures, 2005, States of Jersey