Economy of Maharashtra
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Maharashtra is one of the largest states in India. Maharashtra's gross state domestic product for 2014 is estimated at $295 Billion in current prices. As of 2010 Maharashtra had a Per Capita Income of $1,660, far ahead of national average of $1,219 . Maharashtra's GDP Per Capita crossed the US$2,000 threshold for the first time in 2011 . Maharashtra is third-most urbanised state with urban population of 45% of whole population.
Mumbai, the capital of Maharashtra houses the headquarters of almost all major banks, financial institutions, insurance companies and mutual funds. India's largest stock exchange Bombay Stock Exchange, oldest in Asia, is located in the city. More than 41% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Maharashtra. After successes in the information technology in the neighbouring states, Maharashtra has set up software parks in Pune, Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Nagpur and Nasik, Aurangabad and Latur. Maharashtra is the second largest exporter of software with annual exports of 18 000 crores and accounts for more than 30 per cent of the country's software exports, with over 1,200 software units based in the state. Maharashtra ranks first nationwide in coal-based thermal electricity as well as nuclear electricity generation with national market shares of over 13% and 17% respectively. Maharashtra is also introducing Jatropha cultivation and has started a project for the identification of suitable sites for Jatropha plantations. Ralegaon Siddhi is a village in Ahmednagar District that is considered a model of environmental conservation.
Maharashtra is India's leading industrial state contributing 13% of national industrial output. 64.14% of the people are employed in agriculture and allied activities. Almost 46% of the GSDP is contributed by industry.
Maharashtra has had a long History in textiles and Mumbai was the original home of India's textile mills. Solapur, Ichalkaranji, Malegaon and Bhiwandi are some of the cities known for textile industry today .
Sugar industry has made considerable progress specially in the co-operative sector. Maharashtra is well known for the development of co-operative sugar industry whereby the farmers acquire a share in the sugar mills.
Pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, heavy chemicals, electronics, automobiles, engineering, food processing, and plastics are some of the major industries in the state. Maharashtra is renowned for the production of three-wheelers, jeeps, commercial vehicles and cars, synthetic fibers, cold rolled products and industrial alcohol. Small scale industries have also come up in a big way in the state. The state capital Mumbai and the Mumbai Metropolitan Region has historically been the most industrialized area in the state. Industrial development in the state is largely concentrated in the, Pune Metropolitan Area , Nashik, Aurangabad and Nagpur. The six important industries in the state are cotton textiles, chemicals, machinery, electricals, transport and metallurgy. Pune is emerging as one of the largest automobile hubs in the country.
To attract industries to different areas of the state, the government of Maharashta established Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) in 1962. MIDC provides businesses with infrastructure such as land (open plot or built-up spaces), roads, water supply, drainage facilities etc. To date 233 areas have been developed around the state with emphasis on different sectors such as Industrial, IT, Pharmaceutical, and Wine.
Although Maharashtra is a highly industrialized state of India, agriculture continues to be the main occupation in the state. Since most of the cultivable land is still rain-fed, the Southwest Monsoon season between June and September is critical to the food sufficiency and quality of life in the state. Therefore, the agricultural calendar of Maharashtra and other parts of India, is governed by Monsoon. Any fluctuations in the time distribution, spatial distribution or quantity of the monsoon rains may lead to conditions of floods or droughts causing the agricultural sector to adversely suffer. This has a cascading effect on the secondary economic sectors, the overall economy, food inflation and therefore the overall quality and cost of living for the general population. Districts in Western Maharashtra on the Deccan plateau such as Pune and Ahmadnagar are particularly prone to drought.
Irrigation facilities are being extended so that agriculture could be made less dependent upon rain water. Maharashtra has by far the largest number of Dams in India. Despite that, the net irrigated area totals only 33,500 square kilometres or about 16% of cultivable land.
The main Cash crops include cotton, sugarcane turmeric, and several oil seeds including groundnut, sunflower and soyabean. The state has huge areas, under fruit cultivation of which mangoes, bananas, grapes, and oranges are the main ones.
Most of the Growers of Cash crops such as sugarcane and cotton in the state belong to farmers cooperatives. For example, most of the sugar production in Maharashtra takes place at mills owned by local cooperative societies. The members of the society include all farmers, small and large, supplying sugarcane to the mill. Over the last fifty years, the local sugar mills have played a crucial part in encouraging political participation and as a stepping stone for aspiring politicians.
- Maharashtra economy soars to $85b by 2005
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