Economy of Mumbai

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Mumbai, Maharashtra is the entertainment, fashion and commercial centre of India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region have ranged from $151 to $368 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[1][2][3] Mumbai accounts for slightly more than 6.16% of India's economy contributing 10% of factory employment, 30% of income tax collections, 60% of customs duty collections, 20% of central excise tax collections, 40% of foreign trade and rupees 40,000 crore (US$10 billion) in corporate taxes to the Indian economy.[4]

Headquarters of a number of Indian financial institutions such as the Bombay Stock Exchange, Reserve Bank of India, National Stock Exchange, the Mint, as well as numerous Indian companies such as the Tata Group, Essel Group and Reliance Industries are located in Mumbai. Most of these offices are located in downtown South Mumbai which is the nerve centre of the Indian economy. Many foreign establishments also have their branches in the South Bombay area.

Mumbai is the world's 37th largest city by GDP.[5] Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in India for business startup in 2009.[6] As of 2009-10, Mumbai enjoys a Per Capita Income of $2,845. This is 16.6% higher than 2008-09 levels of $2,440. In PPP dollars, Mumbai had a Per Capita Income of $7,050 as of 2009-10 fiscal. In recent years, Mumbai has been experiencing rapid growth.


Mumbai has traditionally owed its prosperity largely to its textile mills and its seaport till the 1980s. These are now increasingly being replaced by industries employing more skilled labour such as engineering, diamond polishing, healthcare and information technology. Mumbai is also the primary financial centre for India, both the major Indian stock exchanges (BSE and The National Stock Exchange), brokerages, asset management companies (including majority of the mutual fund companies), headquarters of most Indian state-owned and commercial banks, as well as the financial & monetary regulatory authorities of India (SEBI and RBI among other institutions).[citation needed]

As Mumbai is the capital of Maharashtra, government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such proletarian professions. The port and shipping industry too employs many residents directly and indirectly. Like most metropolitan cities, Mumbai also has a large influx of people from rural areas looking for employment.[citation needed]

The entertainment industry is the other major employer in Mumbai. Most of India's television and satellite networks are located in Mumbai, as well as the major publishing houses. A large number of the Hindi and English television shows are produced in Mumbai. The Hindi movie industry, known by some as Bollywood, is also located in Mumbai, along with the largest studios and production houses. To add to this, most major advertising companies operating in India also have their primary office in Mumbai.[citation needed]


Several major Indian companies are headquartered in Mumbai. The three largest private companies in India, Tata Group, Reliance Industries, and Aditya Birla Group, are based in Mumbai. Below is a list of some of these major companies:

Company Revenue (billion US$)
Tata Group 103
Reliance Industries 75
Aditya Birla Group 43.5
Hindustan Petroleum 34.44
Bharat Petroleum 39.45
State Bank of India 47.9
Reserve Bank of India 402.86
ICICI Bank 13.52
Larsen & Toubro 16.0
Reliance ADAG 15.4
Essar Group 39.0
HDFC Bank 12.48
Axis Bank 9.42
Bank of Baroda 5.51
Bank of India 5.44
IDBI Bank 4.61
Union Bank of India 4.12
Hindalco Industries 14.0
Bajaj Group 6.69
Godrej Group 3.7
Mahindra Group 15.9
JSW Group 7
RPG Group 4.01

Consumer Goods Industries[edit]

Mumbai is home to some of India's largest consumer packaged goods companies like Hindustan Unilever,[7] Procter & Gamble,[8] Nivea,[9] Colgate-Palmolive,[10] Godrej Consumer Products [11] and many more.



The World Travel & Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated US$3.9 billion or 3.2% of the city's GDP in 2016 and supported 637,900 jobs, 7.3% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 8.8% to US$9 billion by 2026 (3.1% of GDP). Mumbai's tourism industry accounted for 5.4% of India's total travel and tourism-related GDP in 2016, and employed 2.4% of the country's total workforce.[12]

Foreign tourists accounted for 35.7% of all tourism-related spending in Mumbai in 2016. Nearly one-fifth of foreign tourists visiting the city come from the United Arab Emirates.[12]


Below is a list of major industries located in Mumbai:

  • Hindi film industry
  • Automotive parts
  • Utensils
  • Biscuits (Cookies)
  • Clothing
  • Textile mills
  • Pencils
  • Tractors
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Import
  • Export
  • IT
  • Health Care

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  2. ^ "Global city GDP rankings 2008-2025". PwC. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2009.
  3. ^ Lewis, Clara. "Delhi, not Mumbai, India's economic capital – Times of India". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  4. ^ "Mumbai, Mumbai city, Mumbai tourism, Mumbai tour, Maharashtra Capital Mumbai, Commercial Capital Mumbai, Bollywood Mumbai, Mumbai Transport". Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
  5. ^ The 150 richest cities in the world by GDP in 2005, dated 11 March 2007. The list fails to include Taipei. Accessed 3 July 2007.
  6. ^ "Doing Business in India 2009". World Bank. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b "CITY TRAVEL & TOURISM IMPACT 2017 Mumbai" (PDF). World Travel and Tourism Council. Retrieved 19 March 2018.