Economy of Panama

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Economy of Panama
Panama City skyline.jpg
Panama City is the capital and financial center of Panama
Calendar year
Trade organizations
Country group
PopulationIncrease 4,176,873 (2018)[3]
  • Increase $71.085 billion (nominal, 2022)[4]
  • Increase $159.863 billion (PPP, 2022)[4]
GDP rank
GDP growth
  • 3.7% (2018) 3.0% (2019e)
  • −2.0% (2020f) 4.2% (2021f)[5]
GDP per capita
  • Increase $16,173 (nominal, 2022)[4]
  • Increase $36,370 (PPP, 2022)[4]
GDP per capita rank
GDP by sector
1.5% (2020 est.)[4]
Population below poverty line
Positive decrease 22.1% (2016)[7]
Positive decrease 49.2 high (2018)[8]
Labor force
  • Increase 2,063,132 (2019)[11]
  • Increase 61.5% employment rate (2018)[12]
  • shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor[6]
Labor force by occupation
UnemploymentNegative increase 6% (2017 est.)[6]
Main industries
construction, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling
Decrease 86th (easy, 2020)[13]
  • Increase $15.5 billion (2017 est.)[6]
  • includes the Colon Free Zone
Export goods
fruit and nuts, fish, iron and steel waste, wood
Main export partners
  • Increase $21.91 billion (2017 est.)[6]
  • includes the Colon Free Zone
Import goods
fuels, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel rods, pharmaceuticals
Main import partners
FDI stock
  • Increase $56.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
  • Increase Abroad: $11.38 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Increase −$3.036 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Negative increase $91.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Public finances
Negative increase 37.8% of GDP (2017 est.)[6]
−1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)[6]
Revenues12.43 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Expenses13.44 billion (2017 est.)[6]
Decrease $2.703 billion (31 December 2017 est.)[6]
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of Panama is based mainly on the services sector, which accounts for nearly 80% of its GDP and accounts for most of its foreign income. Services include the Panama Canal, banking, commerce, the Colón Free Trade Zone, insurance, container ports, and flagship registry, medical and health and tourism. The country's industry includes manufacturing of aircraft spare parts, cement, drinks, adhesives and textiles. Additionally, exports from Panama include bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, and clothing. Panama's economy is fully dollarized,[16][17] with the US dollar being legal tender in the country. Panama was the first foreign country to adopt the U.S. dollar as its legal currency (1903) after its secession from Colombia (with U.S. help) temporarily deprived it of a local currency. Panama is a high income economy with a history of low inflation.

Economic history[edit]

Since the early 16th century, Panama's geographic location gave the country a comparative advantage. From the earliest Spanish times, ports on each coast and a trail between them handled much of Spain's colonial trade to the benefit of the inhabitants of the port cities.[18]

Panama has always been dependent on world commerce for its prosperity,[18] and it is affected by the cyclical nature of international trade. The economy stagnated in the 18th century as colonial exchange via the isthmus declined. In the mid-19th century, Panama's economy boomed as a result of increased cargo and passengers associated with the California Gold Rush. A railroad across the isthmus, completed in 1855, extended economic growth for about fifteen years until completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States led to a decline in trans-isthmian traffic.

France's efforts to construct a canal across the isthmus in the 1880s and efforts by the United States in the early 20th century stimulated the Panamanian economy.[18] The United States completed the canal in 1914.[19] However, the world depression of the 1930s reduced international trade and canal traffic, causing widespread unemployment in the terminal cities and generating a flow of workers to subsistence farming. During World War II, canal traffic did not increase, but the economy boomed as the convoy system and the presence of United States forces, sent to defend the canal, increased foreign spending in the canal cities. The end of the war was followed by an economic depression and another movement of unemployed people into agriculture.[18]

The postwar depression gave way to rapid economic expansion between 1950 and 1970. All sectors contributed to the growth. Agricultural output rose, and commerce evolved into a relatively sophisticated wholesale and retail system. Banking, tourism, and the export of services to the Canal Zone grew rapidly. Most importantly, an increase in world trade provided a major stimulus to use of the canal and to the economy.[18]

In the 1970s and 1980s, Panama's growth fluctuated with the vagaries of the world economy. After 1973, economic expansion slowed considerably as a result of a number of international and domestic factors. In the early 1980s, the economy rebounded. The acute recession in Latin America after 1982, however, wreaked havoc on Panama's economy.[18] This period coincided with the rise to power of General Manuel Noriega during which Panama became increasingly indebted.[20]

The United States started to pursue Noriega, culminating in sanctions that froze Panama's assets in the United States, and because Panama used the US dollar it was forced to default on its IMF debt in 1987.[20] Economic turmoil in the country included a general strike and the banking system closing down for two months.[20] The United States invaded Panama in 1989 and forced the surrender of Noriega.[20] Panama regained access to IMF funds in 1992.[21]

A proportional representation of Panama's exports.

After taking office in 1994, President Ernesto Perez Balladares instituted an economic liberalization program designed to liberalize the trade regime, attract foreign investment, privatize state-owned enterprises, institute fiscal discipline. After two years of near-stagnation, there was strong GDP growth in 1997–1998. The most important sectors which drove growth were the Panama Canal and the shipping and port activities of the Colón Free Trade Zone.

During the Moscoso administration beginning in 1999, Moscoso attempted to strengthen social programs. Moscoso's administration successfully handled the Panama Canal transfer and was effective in the administration of the Canal.

Under the Martín Torrijos administration beginning in 2004, Panama continued strong economic growth and initiated the 2007–2016 Panama Canal expansion project.[22] The canal expansion doubled the waterway capacity.[22] Strong economic performance had reduced the national poverty level to 29% in 2008.

In 2008, Panama had the second most unequal income distribution in Latin America. The Torrijos government implemented tax reforms, as well as social security reforms, and backed regional trade agreements and development of tourism. Not a CAFTA signatory, Panama in December 2006 independently negotiated a free trade agreement with the US.

In May 2009, Ricardo Martinelli was elected president, and promised to promote free trade, establish a metro system,[23] and complete the expansion plan for the Panama Canal.

Economic sectors[edit]

Financial services[edit]

Panama has a substantial financial services sector and no central bank to act as a lender of last resort to rescue banks that get in trouble. As a result, Panamanian banks are very conservatively run, with an average capital adequacy ratio of 15.6% in 2012, nearly double the legal minimum.[24] The sector grew up providing trade finance for trade passing through the Canal, and later evolved into money laundering for the drug trade under Noriega. Since the global financial crisis of 2007–08 the country has been trying to shake off its reputation as a tax haven, signing double taxation treaties with many (mostly OECD) countries and in April 2011 a treaty on the exchange of financial information with the United States.[24]


Maize cultivation in Panama.

Agriculture in Panama is an important sector of the Panamanian economy.[25] Major agricultural products include bananas, cocoa beans, coffee, coconuts, timber, beef, chicken, shrimp, corn, potatoes, rice, soybeans, and sugar cane.[26]

In 2009 agriculture and fisheries made up 7.4% of Panama's GDP.[26] Panama is a net food importer and the U.S. is its main supplier.[27] Agriculture employs many Panamanians (in relation to agriculture's percentage of Panamanian GDP) because many farmers are engaged in subsistence farming.


The mineral-mining industry of Panama accounted for about 1% of the country's GDP in 2006. This does not include any manufacturing of mineral commodities, such as cement or petroleum refinery products.
An economic activity map of Panama, 1981.

Real estate[edit]

Real estate in Panama is about how the Republic of Panama's real estate industry has grown since 2006, as foreign investments helped to fuel Panama's economy and housing market.

In spite of the economic and housing market growth, poverty is a problem in Panama. Most indigenous people live in extreme poverty while others located in rural areas live in basic poverty. Lack of sanitation, electricity, basic water, health, and education amongst the poor is a serious problem affecting Panama’s housing conditions.

In an attempt to encourage foreign investments for real estate projects and infrastructure, the government of Panama enacted laws protecting foreigners and citizens who make investments.

Corruption permeates the real estate market including claims of drug profits and money laundering financing real estate projects.

Similar to the U.S. and Canada, Panama uses a system of publicly recorded titled deeds as proof of real estate ownership. A unique Rights of Possession system exists allowing individuals to occupy unused government lands in order to make improvements to them.


Taxation in Panama, which is governed by the Fiscal Code, is on a territorial basis; this is to say, that taxes apply only to income or gains derived through business carried on in Panama itself.[28] The existence of a sales or administration office in Panama, or the re-invoicing of external transactions at a profit, does not of itself give rise to taxation if the underlying transactions take place outside Panama. Dividends paid out of such earnings are free of taxation.

In February 2005, Panama's unicameral legislature approved a major fiscal reform package in order to raise revenues from new business taxes, and increases the country's level of debt. The legislature voted 46 to 28 in favour of the measures, which include a new 1.4% tax on companies’ gross revenues, and a 1% levy on firms operating in the Colon Free Trade Zone – the largest free port in the Americas.

Further reforms[edit]

President Ricardo Martinelli had promised to implement a flat tax system with a flat tax of 10% and which promised to raise revenues, put inflation under control and which will allow enormous real wage gains.[citation needed] Instead the Martinelli government increased sales tax to 7% from 5%, as well as increasing other taxes, in order to finance many infrastructure projects around the country.

The current VAT rates are: 7% (standard rate); 15% (tobacco); 10% (alcohol and hotels); 5% (essential goods). The corporate tax rate is 25%, while the highest marginal income tax rate is 27%.

As tax haven[edit]

The Republic of Panama is one of the oldest and best-known tax havens in the Caribbean, as well as one of the most established in the region.[29] Panama has had a reputation for tax avoidance since the early 20th century, and Panama has been cited repeatedly in recent years as a jurisdiction which does not cooperate with international tax transparency initiatives.

Panama's offshore sector is intimately tied to the Panama canal, which has made it a gateway and entrepôt for international trade.[30] There are strong similarities between Panama and other leading tax havens like Hong Kong, Singapore and Dubai. On paper at least, Panama has the largest shipping fleet in the world, greater than those of the US and China combined, according to the Tax Justice Network.


In Panama City there are six highways: the Panama-Arraijan Bridge of the Americas, Panama-Arraijan Centennial Bridge, Arraijan-Chorrera, Corredor Norte, Corredor Sur, and Autopista Alberto Motta.

Panama's roads, traffic and transportation systems are generally safe, with older traffic lights having undergone a recent overhaul and most have been replaced by traffic lights that are capable of being controlled [and changed] remotely, even at busy intersections where they are not needed. Driving during the midday is usually slow and demanding due to dense traffic, frequent traffic jams, and street renovation programs. On roads where poor lighting and driving conditions prevail, night driving is difficult and in many cases, restricted by local authorities, this usually occurs in informal settlements. Night driving is particularly hazardous in these areas.[31] Traffic in Panama moves on the right, and Panamanian law requires that drivers and passengers wear seat belts.[31]

Currently, Panama used to have an extensive and efficient, yet confusing to tourists, form of public transportation consisting of colorful painted buses colloquially known as diablo rojo. A diablo rojo is usually "customized" or painted with bright colors, usually depicting famous actors, politicians or singers. It is now popular all over the city (and also in neighboring towns) for bus drivers to personally customize the interior and exterior of their diablo rojo. Panama City's streets experience frequent traffic jams due to poor planning.

"Diablos Rojos" are not allowed to operate in Panama city since 2010, except for recreational purposes. The Metrobus and the Metro are the only available public transportation methods.


The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2019 (with IMF staff stimtates in 2020–2026). Inflation below 5% is in green.[32]

Year GDP

(in Bil. US$PPP)

GDP per capita

(in US$ PPP)


(in Bil. US$nominal)

GDP per capita

(in US$ nominal)

GDP growth


Inflation rate

(in Percent)


(in Percent)

Government debt

(in % of GDP)

1980 7.0 3,530.8 4.1 2,071.0 Increase4.5% Negative increase13.8% 8.4% n/a
1981 Increase8.4 Increase4,120.3 Increase4.6 Increase2,288.4 Increase9.2% Negative increase7.3% Negative increase9.2% n/a
1982 Increase9.4 Increase4,501.2 Increase5.1 Increase2,469.1 Increase5.3% Increase4.3% Negative increase11.0% n/a
1983 Decrease9.3 Decrease4,365.3 Increase5.3 Increase2,477.1 Decrease-4.5% Increase2.1% Negative increase11.6% n/a
1984 Increase9.9 Increase4,540.9 Increase5.5 Increase2,527.5 Increase2.7% Increase1.6% Negative increase12.2% n/a
1985 Increase10.7 Increase4,807.3 Increase5.8 Increase2,614.8 Increase4.9% Increase1.0% Negative increase14.4% n/a
1986 Increase11.3 Increase4,969.0 Increase6.0 Increase2,658.3 Increase3.6% Increase-0.1% Positive decrease12.5% n/a
1987 Increase11.4 Decrease4,893.2 Increase6.1 Decrease2,613.1 Decrease-1.8% Increase1.0% Negative increase14.1% n/a
1988 Decrease10.2 Decrease4,295.8 Decrease5.3 Decrease2,211.7 Decrease-13.4% Increase0.4% Negative increase18.8% n/a
1989 Increase10.8 Increase4,440.3 Steady5.3 Decrease2,171.7 Increase1.6% Increase0.1% Negative increase18.9% n/a
1990 Increase12.1 Increase4,878.5 Increase5.7 Increase2,313.0 Increase8.1% Increase0.8% Positive decrease16.7% n/a
1991 Increase13.7 Increase5,402.2 Increase6.3 Increase2,489.7 Increase9.4% Increase1.5% Positive decrease16.0% n/a
1992 Increase15.1 Increase5,853.3 Increase7.2 Increase2,771.0 Increase8.2% Increase1.8% Positive decrease14.7% n/a
1993 Increase16.3 Increase6,188.0 Increase7.8 Increase2,963.3 Increase5.5% Increase0.5% Positive decrease13.3% n/a
1994 Increase17.1 Increase6,367.1 Increase8.3 Increase3,095.2 Increase2.8% Increase1.3% Negative increase14.0% 81.2%
1995 Increase17.8 Increase6,480.3 Increase8.5 Increase3,099.9 Increase1.8% Increase0.9% Negative increase14.0% Positive decrease79.5%
1996 Increase19.5 Increase6,941.6 Increase10.0 Increase3,580.9 Increase7.4% Increase1.3% Negative increase14.3% Positive decrease67.4%
1997 Increase21.1 Increase7,366.9 Increase10.8 Increase3,791.3 Increase6.5% Increase1.3% Positive decrease13.4% Positive decrease62.4%
1998 Increase22.9 Increase7,834.9 Increase11.8 Increase4,027.3 Increase7.3% Increase0.6% Positive decrease11.6% Positive decrease60.3%
1999 Increase24.1 Increase8,088.6 Increase12.3 Increase4,136.1 Increase3.9% Increase1.3% Positive decrease9.5% Positive decrease57.4%
2000 Increase25.3 Increase8,328.9 Increase12.5 Decrease4,111.7 Increase2.7% Increase1.4% Negative increase13.5% Positive decrease55.8%
2001 Increase26.0 Increase8,394.2 Increase12.7 Decrease4,095.0 Increase0.6% Increase0.3% Negative increase14.0% Negative increase60.2%
2002 Increase27.0 Increase8,545.6 Increase13.2 Increase4,172.7 Increase2.2% Increase1.0% Positive decrease13.5% Positive decrease59.3%
2003 Increase28.7 Increase8,907.5 Increase13.9 Increase4,312.6 Increase4.2% Increase0.1% Positive decrease13.0% Positive decrease58.8%
2004 Increase31.7 Increase9,647.3 Increase15.3 Increase4,638.7 Increase7.5% Increase0.5% Positive decrease11.7% Negative increase61.2%
2005 Increase35.1 Increase10,466.2 Increase16.6 Increase4,965.2 Increase7.2% Increase2.9% Positive decrease9.8% Negative increase61.7%
2006 Increase39.2 Increase11,496.5 Increase18.4 Increase5,401.6 Increase8.5% Increase2.5% Positive decrease8.7% Positive decrease56.9%
2007 Increase45.2 Increase12,999.8 Increase21.3 Increase6,127.0 Increase12.1% Increase4.2% Positive decrease6.4% Positive decrease49.4%
2008 Increase50.6 Increase14,298.8 Increase25.2 Increase7,110.2 Increase9.9% Negative increase8.8% Positive decrease5.6% Positive decrease41.6%
2009 Increase51.5 Increase14,318.3 Increase27.1 Increase7,532.4 Increase1.2% Increase2.4% Negative increase6.6% Positive decrease41.6%
2010 Increase55.2 Increase15,076.0 Increase29.4 Increase8,039.8 Increase5.8% Increase3.5% Positive decrease6.5% Positive decrease40.5%
2011 Increase62.7 Increase16,845.1 Increase34.7 Increase9,314.7 Increase11.3% Negative increase5.9% Positive decrease4.5% Positive decrease37.8%
2012 Increase70.4 Increase18,596.3 Increase40.4 Increase10,674.5 Increase9.8% Negative increase5.7% Positive decrease4.1% Positive decrease36.0%
2013 Increase79.8 Increase20,727.2 Increase45.6 Increase11,841.9 Increase6.9% Increase4.0% Negative increase4.1% Positive decrease35.6%
2014 Increase89.3 Increase22,827.4 Increase49.9 Increase12,757.0 Increase5.1% Increase2.6% Negative increase4.8% Negative increase36.6%
2015 Increase100.5 Increase25,275.2 Increase54.1 Increase13,606.6 Increase5.7% Increase0.1% Negative increase5.1% Positive decrease36.0%
2016 Increase112.3 Increase27,828.8 Increase57.9 Increase14,344.1 Increase5.0% Increase0.7% Negative increase5.5% Positive decrease35.3%
2017 Increase125.0 Increase30,511.0 Increase62.2 Increase15,178.3 Increase5.6% Increase0.9% Negative increase6.1% Positive decrease35.3%
2018 Increase132.6 Increase31,891.9 Increase64.9 Increase15,612.3 Increase3.6% Increase0.8% Positive decrease6.0% Negative increase37.3%
2019 Increase139.1 Increase32,973.2 Increase66.8 Increase15,831.0 Increase3.0% Increase-0.4% Negative increase7.1% Negative increase42.2%
2020 Decrease115.5 Decrease26,998.8 Decrease52.9 Decrease12,373.0 Decrease-17.9% Increase-1.6% Negative increase18.5% Negative increase66.3%
2021 Increase134.0 Increase30,889.2 Increase60.1 Increase13,861.1 Increase12.0% Increase1.4% Positive decrease10.2% Positive decrease62.2%
2022 Increase144.6 Increase32,886.6 Increase64.4 Increase14,643.9 Increase5.0% Increase2.0% Positive decrease9.2% Positive decrease61.2%
2023 Increase155.4 Increase34,896.8 Increase68.9 Increase15,481.4 Increase5.0% Increase2.0% Positive decrease8.9% Positive decrease60.6%
2024 Increase166.9 Increase37,005.5 Increase73.8 Increase16,372.1 Increase5.0% Increase2.0% Steady8.9% Positive decrease59.1%
2025 Increase179.0 Increase39,212.6 Increase79.1 Increase17,319.3 Increase5.0% Increase2.0% Steady8.9% Positive decrease57.2%
2026 Increase191.9 Increase41,522.5 Increase84.7 Increase18,326.5 Increase5.0% Increase2.0% Steady8.9% Positive decrease55.4%

Nominal GDP per capita in Panama was (in balboas or US dollars) 11,691 in 2002, 13,099 in 2004, 14,004 in 2005 (Prelim), 15,141.9 in 2006 (est), as reported by Office of Statistics and Census, Government of Panama.[33] Growth from 2002 to 2006 was especially strong in the transport and communications sector, which became the biggest component of GDP, although many sectors also saw strong growth. Real GDP rose 7.5% (2003–04), 6.9% (2004–05), 8.1% (2005–06).[34]

GDP growth in 2008 was 9.2%, reflecting a slowing of the robust growth of 11.5% seen in 2007. Although growth slowed to 2.4% in the first half of 2009, due to the global economic downturn, it is expected to improve in 2010 and is still one of the most positive growth rates in the region. Growth has been fueled by the construction sector, transportation, port and Panama Canal-related activities, and tourism. As a result of this growth, government deficit as a percentage of GDP dropped to 43% in 2009, and government-issued debt achieved investment grade in February 2010.[35] A recent United Nations report highlighted progress in poverty reduction from 2001 to 2007—overall poverty fell from 37% to 29%, and extreme poverty fell from 19% to 12%. However, Panama still has the second-most unequal income distribution in Latin America.[36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  2. ^ "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". World Bank. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  3. ^ "Population, total". World Bank. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  5. ^ "Global Economic Prospects, June 2020". World Bank: 86. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  7. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) - Panama". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  8. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Panama". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  10. ^ "Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)". HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
  11. ^ "Labor force, total - Panama". World Bank. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (national estimate) - Panama". World Bank. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  13. ^ "Ease of Doing Business in Panama". Retrieved 24 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  15. ^ a b c Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  16. ^ Berg, Andrew; Borensztein, Eduardo (2008-12-01). "Full Dollarization The Pros and Cons". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
  17. ^ "Panama". World Bank. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Scott D. Tollefson (December 1987). Sandra W. Meditz & Dennis M. Hanratty (ed.). Panama: A Country Study. Federal Research Division. Growth and Structure of the Economy.
  19. ^ "Building the Panama Canal, 1903–2030". Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs.
  20. ^ a b c d Boughton, James M. (1 October 2001). Silent Revolution - The International Monetary Fund 1979–1989 (PDF). IMF. pp. 799–803.
  21. ^ Boughton (2001), p763
  22. ^ a b The Associated Press (2016-06-26). "Panama Canal Opens $5B Locks, Bullish Despite Shipping Woes". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
  23. ^ "Route for Panama City's Metro rail system unveiled". Archived from the original on 2010-01-19. Retrieved 2010-07-25.
  24. ^ a b "Macroeconomic Report - Panama" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. June 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2014-08-20.
  25. ^ "Agriculture", Encyclopædia Britannica
  26. ^ a b Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Background note: Panama. U.S. Department of State (March 2009).
  27. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: Hugo Salazar. "Panama: Biotechnology: Biotechnology Report". USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (August 7, 2007).
  28. ^ "Panama Taxes Explained", Panama Taxes Feb, 2012.
  29. ^ Maverick, J. B. (September 30, 2015). "Why Is Panama Considered a Tax Haven?". Investopedia. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  30. ^ "Panama: the making of a tax haven and rogue state". Tax Justice Network. March 30, 2016. Retrieved April 7, 2016.
  31. ^ a b Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "Panama: Country-specific information" Archived 2013-12-04 at (Error: unknown archive URL). U.S. Department of State (March 18, 2009).
  32. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 2022-02-07.
  33. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2007-08-14.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ "Dirección de Estadística y Censo - Panamá". Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  35. ^ Retrieved 2010-07-25. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  36. ^ "Panama". U.S. Department of State.

External links[edit]