Economy of Uttar Pradesh
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Uttar Pradesh is the third largest economy in India after Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is $339.5 billion by PPP and $80.9 billion by nominal. After partition, the new Uttar Pradesh state produces about 92% of the output of the old Uttar Pradesh state.
Between 1999 and 2008, the economy grew only 4.4% per year, one of the lowest rates in India. But between 2007 and 2011 under the Mayawati govt, the economy grew at over 7% GDP growth rate in the time when Indian economy faced the melt down due to global recession. Furthermore, UP has been one of the five state including Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Maharashtra, have registered growth rates higher than their respective targets set for the 11th Plan period (2007–12) so far. Uttar Pradesh registered a growth rate of 7.28% against the target of 6.10%. Uttar Pradesh attains a 8.08% GDP growth rate in 2010–2011. The state's debt was estimated at 67 per cent of GDP in 2005.
Agriculture, livestock and fishing
Uttar Pradesh is a major contributor to the national food grain stock. Partly this is due to the fertile regions of the Indo-Gangetic plain and partly owing to irrigation measures such as the Ganges Canal and tube-wells. Lakhimpur Kheri is a densely populated sugar producing district in the country. It is also home to 78% of national livestock population. It has been the most common producer of food grains in India since the 1950s due to high-yielding varieties of seed, greater availability of fertilizers and increased use of irrigation .
Western Uttar Pradesh is more advanced in terms of agriculture as compared to the other regions in the state. Majority of the state population depends upon farming activities. Wheat, rice, pulses, oil seeds and potatoes are the major agricultural products. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop throughout the state. Uttar Pradesh is one of the most important state in India so far as horticulture is concerned. Apples and mangoes are also produced in the state.
Uttar Pradesh supports about 15% of India's total livestock population. Of its livestock in 1961, 15% were cattle, 21% buffaloes, 13% goats and 8% other livestock. Between 1951 and 1956 there was an overall increase of 14% in the livestock population. There are about 8,000 km² of water area, including lakes, tanks, rivers, canals and streams. The fishing area in the state is over 2,000 km² and there are more than 175 varieties of fish.
UP has also witnessed rapid industrialization in the recent past, particularly after the launch of policies of economic liberalization in the country. As of March 1996, there were 1,661 medium and large industrial undertakings and 296,338 small industrial units employing 1.83 million persons. The per capita state domestic product was estimated at Rs 7,263 in 1997-98 and there has been visible decline in poverty in the state. Yet, nearly 40 percent of the total population lives below the poverty line. There are numerous types of minerals and many industries have come up based upon these minerals. There are a number of cement plants in Mirzapur in the Vindhya region, a bauxite-based aluminium plant in the Banda region and sonbhadra region. In the hilly regions of the state many non-metallic minerals are found which are used as industrial raw materials. Coal deposits are found in the Singrauli region.
Uttar Pradesh has booming electronics industries, especially in UP-Delhi-NCR and Lucknow-Kanpur Corridor. It produces almost all types of durables.
Cottage industries, such as handloom and handicrafts, have traditionally provided livelihood to a large number of people in the state: -
- Varanasi is a world famous centre of handloom woven, embroidered textiles; the main products are Zari-embroidery and brocade-work on silk sarees. Lucknow is a centre of 'Chikan' embroidery, renowned for its grace and delicacy, a skill more than 200 years old. Uttar Pradesh produces about 15% of the total fabric production of the country, employs about 30% of the total workforce of artisans in India and is responsible for an annual production of about US$1.2 billion in the state.
- The state has two major production centres of leather and leather products, with over 11,500 units; Agra and Kanpur are the key centres. About 200 tanneries are located in Kanpur.
- Moradabad is renowned for brass work and has carved a niche for itself in the handicraft industry through out the world. Lately other products that are also produced here like iron sheet metalwares, aluminium artworks, wood works and glassware's have also become popular with the numerous foreign buyers and are therefore being exported in large quantities. On an average Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 3000-4000 crore each year, which constitutes 40% of total exports from India under this category.
- Meerut is the biggest gold market of Asia. It is the biggest exporter of sports related items and music instruments of the country.
Uttar Pradesh is the 'IT-Hub' of North India, with a share of software exports next to that of Karnataka. But, unlike South Indian states, IT enterprises are limited to particular areas only, like NOIDA, Greater NOIDA, Ghaziabad etc., which lie in National Capital Region (NCR), and in state capital Lucknow.
Noida is also famous for TV News broadcasters almost all News channels such as Star News, Zee News, Ndtv, Mahua News and several other News channels are in Film City.
Asia's first and the world's second human DNA bank has been set up in Lucknow. Rs 4-bn Discovery Park, for which an approval has been given by the Ministry of Science and Technology, is to be set up in the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology (RGIIT), Amethi.
Over 3% of the S&P CNX 500 coglomerates have corporate offices in Uttar Pradesh.
Uttar Pradesh has ample reserves of coal, dolomite and gems. Other Important minerals include diaspore, sulphur and magnesite, prophyllite, silica sand and limestone. It is of great use to the people of uttar pradesh as well as it supports the economy of the country and indirecly affects the economy of the world.
Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of both national and international visitors. There are two regions in the state where a majority of the tourists go. These are the city of Agra, Lucknow and the holy cities: the cities of Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura, and Allahabad, by the sacred rivers — the Ganges and the Yamuna are all located in the state. The state hosts a Kumbha Mela every 12 years, where over 10 million Hindus congregate — the largest gathering of human beings in the world.
A vast number of tourists visit the Taj Mahal in Agra. Another important tourist attraction in Agra is the Agra Fort. Also famous is a 16th-century capital city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar known as Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. Dayal Bagh is a temple built in modern times that many visit. It is still under construction, and would take an estimated one century for completion. The lifelike carving in marble is not seen anywhere else in India.
Dudhwa National Park is one of the best Tiger reserves in the country. Lakhimpur Kheri is a must see location, and home to the Tiger reserve., In September 2008, Uttar Pradesh has got another Tiger Reserve area in Pilibhit named Pilibhit Tiger Reserve. Millions of tourists and pilgrims visit the cities of Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya, as those are considered to be the holiest cities in India. Every year thousands gather at Allahabad to take part in the festival on the banks of the Ganges, the Magh Mela. The same festival is organised in a larger scale every 12th year and attracts millions of people and is called the Kumbha Mela.
Varanasi is widely considered to be the second oldest city in the world after Jerusalem. It is famous for its ghats (steps along the river) which are populated year round with people who want to take a dip in the holy Ganges River.
About 13 km from Varanasi is the historically important town of Sarnath. Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath after his enlightenment and hence is an important pilgrimage site for the Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Ashoka Pillar and the Lion Capital, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. Uttar pradesh industrial city is Kanpur. There are many places to visit: Nanarao Park, Sudhansu Ji Maharaj Aashram, Motijheel, Iskon Temple, Phoolbagh, Ganga Bairaj, etc., and many more other places. There is also a place in Bithoor 25 km from Kanpur city where goddess Sita lived with Maharishi Valmiki.
Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.
Handloom and handicrafts
Rs 4-bn Discovery Park, for which an approval has been given by the Ministry of Science and Technology, is to be set up in the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology (RGIIT), Amethi.[
Minerals and heavy industries
Uttar Pradesh has ample reserves of coal, dolomite and gems . Other Important minerals include diaspore, sulphur and magnesite, prophyllite, silica sand and limestone.
- Uttar Pradesh economy climbs to $55b by 2005
- GDP Shares of India's states @ mospi.nic.in Retrieved on - 2013-10-09
- "A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi". The Economist. 11 December 2008.
- "Only 5 states exceed 11th Plan growth targets: Govt: Ruled by CNBC TV18 News". CNBC TV18-MoneyControl Post. 13 May 2011.
- "Nitish steals Modi’s growth thunder: Ruled by R Jagannathan". First Post. 8 Nov 2011.
- "Asia's 1st human DNA bank in UP". Retrieved June 15, 2008.