Jump to content


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Ecuadorian)
Flag of Ecuador; symbol of Ecuadorian unity
Total population
c. 18.5 million
(Diaspora) c. 1.5m
Regions with significant populations
 Ecuador 17.8 million (2021 est.)[1][2]
 United States717,995[3]
 Spain444,347 [4][5]
 United Kingdom9,422[12]
Ecuadorian Spanish, Indigenous languages
Predominantly Roman Catholic;
Related ethnic groups
Other Latin Americans, Indigenous people of the Americas, Europeans

Ecuadorians (Spanish: ecuatorianos) are people identified with the South American country of Ecuador. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Ecuadorians, several (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Ecuadorian.

Numerous indigenous cultures inhabited what is now Ecuadorian territory for several millennia before the expansion of the Inca Empire in the fifteenth century. The Las Vegas culture of coastal Ecuador is one of the oldest cultures in the Americas. The Valdivia culture is another well-known early Ecuadorian culture. Spaniards arrived in the sixteenth century, as did sub-Saharan Africans who were enslaved and transported across the Atlantic by Spaniards and other Europeans. The modern Ecuadorian population is principally descended from these three ancestral groups.

As of the 2022 census, 77.5% of the population identified as Mestizo, a mix of Spanish and Indigenous American ancestry, up from 71.9% in 2000. The percentage of the population which identifies as European Ecuadorian was 2.2%, which fell from 6.1% in 2010 and 10.5% in 2000.[16] Indigenous Ecuadorians account for 7.7% of the population and 4.8% of the population consists of Afro-Ecuadorians.[17] [18] Other statistics put the Mestizo population at 55% to 65% and the Indigenous population at 25%.[19] Genetic research indicates that the ancestry of Ecuadorian Mestizos is predominantly Indigenous.[20]

Ethnic groups


There are five major ethnic groups in Ecuador: Mestizo, European Ecuadorian, Afro-Ecuadorian, Indigenous, and Montubio. The 2022 census reported Mestizos constitute more than 77.5% of the population, 7.7% Indigenous American, 7.7% Montubio, 4.8% Afro-Ecuadorian and 2.2% European Ecuadorian.[21]

Ecuador's population primarily descends from Spanish immigrants and South American Indigenous peoples, admixed with descendants of enslaved sub-Saharan Africans who arrived to work on coastal plantations in the sixteenth century. The mix of these groups is described as Mestizo or Cholo.

According to Kluck, writing in 1989, ethnic groups in Ecuador have had a traditional hierarchy of European Ecuadorian, Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorians, and then others.[22] Her review depicts this hierarchy as a consequence of colonial attitudes and of the terminology of colonial legal distinctions. Spanish-born persons residing in the New World (peninsulares) were at the top of the social hierarchy, followed by criollos, born of two Spanish parents in the colonies. The 19th century usage of Mestizo was to denote a person of mixed heritage, with one parent of European descent (often Spanish) and one parent of Indigenous American descent; a Cholo had one Indigenous American parent and one Mestizo parent. By the 20th century, Mestizo and Cholo were frequently used interchangeably. Kluck suggested that societal relationships, occupation, manners, and clothing all derived from ethnic affiliation.[22]

Ethnic composition of Ecuador - 2022 census[23]
Mestizo European Ecuadorian Indigenous Montubio Afro-Ecuadorian other
77.5 2.2 7.7 7.7 4.8 0.1

Nonetheless, according to Kluck, individuals could potentially switch ethnic affiliation if they had culturally adapted to the recipient group; such switches were made without resort to subterfuge.[22] Moreover, the precise criteria for defining ethnic groups varies considerably. The vocabulary that more prosperous Mestizos and European Ecuadorians used in describing ethnic groups mixes social and biological characteristics. Ethnic affiliation thus is dynamic; Indigenous Ecuadorians often become Mestizos, and prosperous Mestizos seek to improve their status sufficiently to be considered European Ecuadorian. Ethnic identity reflects numerous characteristics, only one of which is physical appearance; others include dress, language, community membership, and self-identification.[24]

A geography of ethnicity remained well-defined until the surge in migration that began in the 1950s. European Ecuadorians resided primarily in larger cities. Mestizos lived in small towns scattered throughout the countryside. Indigenous peoples formed the bulk of the Sierra rural populace, although Mestizos filled this role in the areas with few Indigenous peoples. Most Afro-Ecuadorians lived in Esmeraldas Province, with small enclaves found in the Carchi and Imbabura provinces. Pressure on Sierra land resources and the dissolution of the traditional hacienda, however, increased the numbers of Indigenous peoples migrating to the Costa, the Oriente, and the cities. By the 1980s, Sierra Indigenous people—or Indigenous peoples in the process of switching their ethnic identity to that of Mestizos—lived on Costa plantations, in Quito, Guayaquil, and other cities, and in colonization areas in the Oriente and the Costa. Indeed, Sierra Indigenous peoples residing in the coastal region substantially outnumbered the remaining original Costa inhabitants, the Chachi and Tsáchila Indigenous people. In the late 1980s, analysts estimated that there were only about 4,000 Chachi and Tsáchila Indigenous peoples. Some Afro-Ecuadorians had migrated from the remote region of the Ecuadorian-Colombian border to the towns and cities of Esmeraldas.[24]



Afro-Ecuadorians are an ethnic group in Ecuador who are descendants of enslaved sub-Saharan Africans brought by the Spanish during their conquest of Ecuador from the Incas. They make up from 3% to 5% of Ecuador's population.[25][26]

Ecuador has a population of about 1,120,000 descendants from sub-Saharan African people. The Afro-Ecuadorian culture is found primarily in the country's northwest coastal region. Afro-Ecuadorians form a majority (70%) in the province of Esmeraldas and also have an important concentration in the Valle del Chota in the Imbabura Province. They can be also found in important numbers in Quito and Guayaquil.



Sierra Indigenous

Otavalo girl from Ecuador

Sierra Indigenous people had an estimated population of 1.5 to 2 million in the early 1980s and live in the intermontane valleys of the Andes. Prolonged contact with Hispanic culture, which dates back to the conquest, has had a homogenizing effect, reducing the variation among the indigenous Sierra tribes.[27]

The Indigenous people of the Sierra are separated from European Ecuadorians and Mestizos by a caste-like gulf. They are marked as a disadvantaged group; to be an Indigenous person in Ecuador is to be stigmatized. Poverty rates are higher and literacy rates are lower among Indigenous than the general population. They enjoy limited participation in national institutions and are often excluded from social and economic opportunities available to more privileged groups. However, some groups of Indigenous people, such as the Otavalo people, have increased their socioeconomic status to extent that they enjoy a higher standard of living than many other Indigenous groups in Ecuador and many Mestizos of their area.

Visible markers of ethnic affiliation, especially hairstyle, dress, and language, separate Indigenous Ecuadorians from the rest of the populace. Indigenous Ecuadorians wore more manufactured items by the late 1970s than previously; their clothing, nonetheless, was distinct from that of other rural inhabitants. Indigenous Ecuadorians in communities relying extensively on wage labor sometimes assumed Western-style dress while still maintaining their Indigenous identity. Indigenous Ecuadorians speak Spanish and, Quichua—a Quechua dialect—although most are bilingual, speaking Spanish as a second language with varying degrees of facility. By the late 1980s, some younger Indigenous Ecuadorians no longer learned Quichua.[27]

Oriente Indigenous

Huaorani village

Although the Indigenous people of the Oriente first came into contact with Europeans in the 16th century, the encounters were more sporadic than those of most of the country's indigenous population. Until the 19th century, most non-Indigenous Americans entering the region were either traders or missionaries. Beginning in the 1950s, however, the government built roads and encouraged settlers from the Sierra to colonize the Amazon River Basin. Virtually all remaining Indigenous Ecuadorians were brought into increasing contact with national society. The interaction between Indigenous Americans and foreigners had a profound impact on the indigenous way of life.[28]

In the late 1970s, roughly 30,000 Quichua speakers and 15,000 Shuar and Achuar peoples lived in Oriente Indigenous communities. Quichua speakers (sometimes referred to as the Yumbo people) grew out of the detribalization of members of many different groups after the Spanish conquest. Subject to the influence of Quichua-speaking missionaries and traders, various elements of the Yumbo people adopted the language as a lingua franca and gradually lost their previous languages and tribal origins. Yumbo people were scattered throughout the Oriente, whereas the Shuar and the Achuar peoples were concentrated in southeastern Ecuador. Some also lived in northeastern Peru. Traditionally, both groups relied on migration to resolve intracommunity conflict and to limit the ecological damage to the tropical forest caused by slash-and-burn agriculture.[28]

The Yumbo, Shuar and Achuar peoples depended on agriculture as their primary means of subsistence. Manioc, the main staple, was grown in conjunction with a wide variety of other fruits and vegetables. Yumbo men also resorted to wage labor to obtain cash for the few purchases deemed necessary. By the mid-1970s, increasing numbers of Quichua speakers settled around some of the towns and missions of the Oriente. Indigenous Ecuadorians themselves had begun to make a distinction between Christian and jungle Indigenous people. The former engaged in trade with townspeople. The Shuar and Achuar peoples, in contrast to the Christian Quichua speakers, lived in more remote areas. Their mode of horticulture was similar to that of the non-Christian Yumbo people, although they supplemented crop production with hunting and some livestock raising.[28]

Shamans (curanderos) played a pivotal role in social relations in both groups. As the main leaders and the focus of local conflicts, shamans were believed to both cure and kill through magical means. In the 1980s group conflicts between rival shamans still erupted into full-scale feuds with loss of life.[28]

The Oriente Indigenous population dropped precipitously during the initial period of intensive contact with outsiders. The destruction of their crops by Mestizos laying claim to indigenous lands, the rapid exposure to diseases to which Indians lacked immunity, and the extreme social disorganization all contributed to increased mortality and decreased birth rates. One study of the Shuar people in the 1950s found that the group between ten and nineteen years of age was smaller than expected. This was the group that had been youngest and most vulnerable during the initial contact with national society. Normal population growth rates began to reestablish themselves after approximately the first decade of such contact.[28]

European Ecuadorian


According to the most-recent 2022 national census, 2.2% of Ecuadorians self-identified as European Ecuadorian, a decrease from 6.1% in 2010.[29]


A woman in Ecuadorian garment participating in the 2010 Carnaval del Pueblo

Ecuador's mainstream culture is defined by its Hispanic Mestizo majority, and like their ancestry, it is traditionally of Spanish heritage, influenced in different degrees by Amerindian traditions, and in some cases by African elements. The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Ecuador consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. A lower number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War.

Since African slavery was not the workforce of the Spanish colonies in the Andes Mountains of South America, given the subjugation of the indigenous people through evangelism and encomiendas, the minority population of African descent is mostly found in the coastal northern province of Esmeraldas. According to local fables, this is largely owing to the 17th century shipwreck of a slave-trading galleon off the northern coast of Ecuador.

Ecuador's indigenous communities are integrated into the mainstream culture to varying degrees,[30] but some may also practice their own indigenous cultures, particularly the more remote indigenous communities of the Amazon basin. Spanish is spoken as the first language by more than 90% of the population, and as a first or second language by more than 98%. Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language. Two percent of the population speak only Amerindian languages.



Most Ecuadorians speak Spanish,[31] though many speak Amerindian languages such as Kichwa.[32] People that identify as Mestizo, in general, speak Spanish as their native language. Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar Chicham (spoken by the Achuar), Shiwiar (spoken by the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani). Though most features of Ecuadorian Spanish are those universal to the Spanish-speaking world, there are several idiosyncrasies.



According to the Ecuadorian National Institute of Statistics and Census, 91.95% of the country's population have a religion, 7.94% are atheists and 0.11% are agnostics. Among those with a religion, 80.44% are Roman Catholic, 11.30% are Protestants, and 8.26% other (mainly Jewish, Buddhists and Latter-day Saints).[33][34]

In the rural parts of Ecuador, indigenous beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized. Most festivals and annual parades are based on religious celebrations, many incorporating a mixture of rites and icons.[35]

There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, indigenous religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼís. There are about 185,000 members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church),[36] and over 80,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in the country.[37]

The "Jewish Community of Ecuador" (Comunidad Judía del Ecuador) has its seat in Quito and has approximately 300 members. Nevertheless, this number is declining because young people leave the country towards the United States of America or Israel.[38] The Community has a Jewish Center with a synagogue, a country club and a cemetery. It supports the "Albert Einstein School", where Jewish history, religion and Hebrew classes are offered. Since 2004, there has also been a Chabad house in Quito.[39]

There are very small communities in Cuenca and Ambato. The "Comunidad de Culto Israelita" reunites the Jews of Guayaquil. This community works independently from the "Jewish Community of Ecuador".[40] Jewish visitors to Ecuador can also take advantage of Jewish resources as they travel[41] and keep kosher there, even in the Amazon Rainforest.[42] The city has also synagogue of Messianic Judaism.[43]


Julio Jaramillo is an icon of music.

The music of Ecuador has a long history. Pasillo is a genre of Indigenous Latin music. In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music." Through the years, many cultures have influenced to establish new types of music. There are also different kinds of traditional music like albazo, pasacalle, fox incaico, tonada, capishca, Bomba highly established in afro-Ecuadorian society like Esmeraldas, and so on.[44][45]

Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of foreign cultures' influence. One of the most traditional forms of dancing in Ecuador is Sanjuanito. It is originally from the North of Ecuador (Otavalo-Imbabura). Sanjuanito is a danceable music used in the festivities of the Mestizo and Indigenous culture. According to the Ecuadorian musicologist Segundo Luis Moreno, Sanjuanito was danced by Indigenous people during San Juan Bautista's birthday. This important date was established by the Spaniards on 24 June, coincidentally the same date when Indigenous people celebrated their rituals of Inti Raymi.


Ecuadorian ceviche, made of shrimp and lemon, onions, tomatoes and some herbs. Tomato sauce, mustard and orange are used at some places, but does not form a part of the basic recipe.

Ecuadorian cuisine is diverse, varying with the altitude and associated agricultural conditions. Most regions in Ecuador follow the traditional three course meal of soup, a second course which includes rice and a protein such as meat or fish, and then dessert and coffee to finish. Supper is usually lighter, and sometimes consists only of coffee or herbal tea with bread.

In the highland region, pork, chicken, beef, and cuy (guinea pig) are popular and are served with a variety of grains (especially rice and corn) or potatoes.

In the coastal region, seafood is very popular, with fish, shrimp and ceviche being key parts of the diet. Generally, ceviches are served with fried plantain (chifles y patacones), popcorn or tostado. Plantain- and peanut-based dishes are the basis of most coastal meals. Encocados (dishes that contain a coconut sauce) are also very popular. Churrasco is a staple food of the coastal region, especially Guayaquil. Arroz con menestra y carne asada (rice with beans and grilled beef) is one of the traditional dishes of Guayaquil, as is fried plantain which is often served with it. This region is a leading producer of bananas, cacao beans (to make chocolate), shrimp, tilapia, mangos and passion fruit, among other products.

In the Amazon region, a dietary staple is the yuca, elsewhere called cassava. Many fruits are available in this region, including bananas, tree grapes, and peach palms.


Juan Montalvo

Early literature in colonial Ecuador, as in the rest of Spanish America, was influenced by the Spanish Golden Age. One of the earliest examples is Jacinto Collahuazo,[46] an indigenous chief of a northern village in today's Ibarra, born in the late 1600s. Despite the early repression and discrimination of the native people by the Spanish, Collahuazo learned to read and write in Castilian, but his work was written in Quechua. The use of the Quipu was banned by the Spanish,[47] and in order to preserve their work, many Inca poets had to resort to the use of the Latin alphabet to write in their native Quechua language. The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any indigenous language in America,[48] shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo. Collahuazo was imprisoned, and all of his work burned. The existence of his literary work came to light many centuries later, when a crew of masons was restoring the walls of a colonial church in Quito, and found a hidden manuscript. The salvaged fragment is a Spanish translation from Quechua of the "Elegy to the Dead of Atahualpa",[46] a poem written by Collahuazo, which describes the sadness and impotence of the Inca people of having lost their king Atahualpa.

Other early Ecuadorian writers include the Jesuits Juan Bautista Aguirre, born in Daule in 1725, and Father Juan de Velasco, born in Riobamba in 1727. De Velasco wrote about the nations and chiefdoms that had existed in the Kingdom of Quito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the Spanish. His historical accounts are nationalistic, featuring a romantic perspective of precolonial history.

Famous authors from the late colonial and early republic period include: Eugenio Espejo a printer and main author of the first newspaper in Ecuadorian colonial times; Jose Joaquin de Olmedo (born in Guayaquil), famous for his ode to Simón Bolívar titled La Victoria de Junin; Juan Montalvo, a prominent essayist and novelist; Juan Leon Mera, famous for his work "Cumanda" or "Tragedy among Savages" and the Ecuadorian National Anthem; Luis A. Martínez with A la Costa, Dolores Veintimilla,[49] and others.

Contemporary Ecuadorian writers include the novelist Jorge Enrique Adoum; the poet Jorge Carrera Andrade; the essayist Benjamín Carrión; the poets Medardo Angel Silva, Jorge Carrera Andrade; the novelist Enrique Gil Gilbert; the novelist Jorge Icaza (author of the novel Huasipungo, translated to many languages); the short story author Pablo Palacio; the novelist Alicia Yanez Cossio; U.S. based Ecuadorian poet Emanuel Xavier.



The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña, which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito. Ecuadorian painters include: Eduardo Kingman, Oswaldo Guayasamín and Camilo Egas from the Indiginist Movement; Manuel Rendon, Jaime Zapata, Enrique Tábara, Aníbal Villacís, Theo Constante, León Ricaurte and Estuardo Maldonado from the Informalist Movement; and Luis Burgos Flor with his abstract, Futuristic style. The indigenous people of Tigua, Ecuador are also world-renowned for their traditional paintings.


Jefferson Pérez, Olympian gold medalist

The most popular sport in Ecuador, as in most South American countries, is football (soccer). Its best known professional teams include Barcelona and Emelec from Guayaquil; LDU Quito, Deportivo Quito, and El Nacional from Quito; Olmedo from Riobamba; and Deportivo Cuenca from Cuenca. Currently the most successful football club in Ecuador is LDU Quito, and it is the only Ecuadorian club that have won the Copa Libertadores, the Copa Sudamericana and the Recopa Sudamericana; they were also runners-up in the 2008 FIFA Club World Cup. The matches of the Ecuador national team are the most-watched sporting events in the country. Ecuador qualified for the final rounds of the 2002, 2006, and 2014 FIFA World Cups. The 2002 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign was considered a huge success for the country and its inhabitants. Ecuador finished in 2nd place on the qualifiers behind Argentina and above the team that would become World Champion, Brazil. In the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Ecuador finished ahead of Poland and Costa Rica to come in second to Germany in Group A in the 2006 World Cup. Futsal, often referred to as índor, is particularly popular for mass participation.

There is considerable interest in tennis in the middle and upper classes of Ecuadorian society, and several Ecuadorian professional players have attained international fame. Basketball has a high profile, while Ecuador's specialties include Ecuavolley, a three-person variation of volleyball. Bullfighting is practiced at a professional level in Quito, during the annual festivities that commemorate the Spanish founding of the city, and it also features in festivals in many smaller towns. Rugby union is found to some extent in Ecuador, with teams in Guayaquil, Quito and Cuenca.

Ecuador has won three medals in the Olympic Games. 20 km racewalker Jefferson Pérez took gold in the 1996 games, and silver 12 years later. Pérez also set a world best in the 2003 World Championships of 1:17:21 for the 20 km distance.[50] Cyclist Richard Carapaz, the winner of 2019 Giro d'Italia, won a gold medal at the road cycling race of the 2020 Summer Olympics.[51]


  1. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022: Demographic indicators by region, subregion and country, annually for 1950-2100" (XSLX) ("Total Population, as of 1 July (thousands)"). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  3. ^ "B03002 HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY RACE - United States - 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. July 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  4. ^ "Población por comunidades y provincias, país de nacimiento, edad (Grupos quinquenales) y sexo".
  5. ^ Immigration to Spain
  6. ^ "Ecuadoriani in Italia - statistiche e distribuzione per regione". Tuttitalia.it.
  7. ^ "Servicio de migraciones". www.serviciomigraciones.cl.
  8. ^ "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. 2019-02-20. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Ausländeranteil in Deutschland 2021". Destatis.
  10. ^ "Censo 2005". DANE. Retrieved 23 May 2013.[dead link]
  11. ^ "Ecuador - Emigrantes totales". December 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  12. ^ "Trends in International Migrant Stock: Migrants by Destination and Origin: Table 16: Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country or area of destination, 2015" (XLS). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". migrationpolicy.org. 10 February 2014.
  14. ^ "Befolkning efter födelseland, ålder, kön och år". Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  15. ^ The Latin American Socio-Religious Studies Program / Programa Latinoamericano de Estudios Sociorreligiosos (PROLADES) Archived 12 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine PROLADES Religion in America by country
  16. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2022". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  17. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2022". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  18. ^ Población del país es joven y mestiza, dice censo del INEC. (Census results, in Spanish) eluniverso.com (2011-09-02)
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities (2013), p. 422. Edited by Carl Skutsch
  20. ^ Zambrano, Ana Karina; Gaviria, Aníbal; Cobos-Navarrete, Santiago; Gruezo, Carmen; Rodríguez-Pollit, Cristina; Armendáriz-Castillo, Isaac; García-Cárdenas, Jennyfer M.; Guerrero, Santiago; López-Cortés, Andrés; Leone, Paola E.; Pérez-Villa, Andy; Guevara-Ramírez, Patricia; Yumiceba, Verónica; Fiallos, Gisella; Vela, Margarita; Paz-y-Miño, César (2019). "The three-hybrid genetic composition of an Ecuadorian population using AIMs-InDels compared with autosomes, mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome data". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 9247. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.9247Z. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-45723-w. PMC 6592923. PMID 31239502. S2CID 195354041.
  21. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2022". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2024.
  22. ^ a b c Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Patricia Kluck (1989). "Whites and Mestizos". In Hanratty, Dennis M. (ed.). Ecuador: A country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. LCCN 91009494.
  23. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2022". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  24. ^ a b Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Patricia Kluck (1989). "Ethnic Groups". In Hanratty, Dennis M. (ed.). Ecuador: A country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. LCCN 91009494.
  25. ^ "The World Factbook". Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  26. ^ "FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . Ecuador: Dreamtown – PBS". PBS. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  27. ^ a b Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Patricia Kluck (1989). "Sierra Indigenous". In Hanratty, Dennis M. (ed.). Ecuador: A country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. LCCN 91009494.
  28. ^ a b c d e Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Patricia Kluck (1989). "Oriente Indigenous". In Hanratty, Dennis M. (ed.). Ecuador: A country study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. LCCN 91009494.
  29. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2022". 21 September 2023. Retrieved 21 September 2023.
  30. ^ "South-images.com". Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Photos Indigenous people of Ecuador
  31. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: PAPUA NEW GUINEA". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  32. ^ "Constitución Política de la República del Ecuador". Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  33. ^ "El 80% de ecuatorianos es católico". Archived from the original on 11 August 2013.
  34. ^ "El 80% de los ecuatorianos afirma ser católico, según el INEC". El Universo. 15 August 2012.
  35. ^ Crane, R.; Rizowy, C. (2010-12-08). Latin American Business Cultures. Springer. p. 136. ISBN 9780230299108.
  36. ^ "Ecuador: Facts and Statistics", Church News, 2020. Retrieved on 27 March 2020.
  37. ^ 2015 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. p. 180.
  38. ^ "Tokyo Isea Clinic – At Tokyo Isea Clinic, we conduct courteous counseling and consultation first, prior to plastic surgery". Archived from the original on 20 February 2012.
  39. ^ Beit Chabad House of Ecuador Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ "Congreso Judío Latinoamericano" [Latin American Jewish Congress]. congresojudio.org.ar (in Spanish).[dead link]
  41. ^ Traveling Rabbi Guide to Ecuador. Travelingrabbi.com (16 August 2012). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  42. ^ Keeping Kosher in the Amazon Rainforest. Travelingrabbi.com (4 May 2011). Retrieved on 2012-08-21.
  43. ^ "Kehilá Mishkán Yeshúa" (in Spanish). mishkanyeshua.com. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  44. ^ "Da Pawn". Spotify. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  45. ^ "La Máquina Camaleón". Spotify. Retrieved 2020-02-25.
  46. ^ a b Borja,Piedad. Boceto de Poesía Ecuatoriana,'Journal de la Academia de Literatura Hispanoamericana', 1972
  47. ^ Robertson, W.S., History of the Latin-American Nations, 1952
  48. ^ Karnis, Surviving Pre-Columbian Drama, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1952
  49. ^ Veintimilla, Dolores. "Dolores Veintimilla de Galindo". cmsfq.edu.ec (in Spanish). Archived from the original (DOC) on 25 April 2012.
  50. ^ "The pride of Ecuador". Synergos.org. 14 August 1996. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  51. ^ "Richard Carapaz conquers men's road race after Geraint Thomas crashes out". The Guardian. 24 July 2021. Retrieved 2022-05-15.