|Regions with significant populations|
|New York City, Northern New Jersey, Connecticut, Florida, California, and much of Texas (including Houston and Dallas)|
|American English, Spanish|
|Major: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism Minor: Judaism|
Ecuadorian Americans (Spanish: ecuatorio-americanos, norteamericanos de origen ecuatoriano or estadounidenses de origen ecuatoriano) are Americans of full or partial Ecuadorian ancestry. Ecuadorian Americans can be White, Mestizo, Afro-Ecuadorian, Indigenous, Mulato, or Zambo. Some Ecuadorians are also of Lebanese, Sephardic and Japanese descent.
- 1 History
- 2 Ecuadorian Return Migration
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Notable people
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Until the 1960s, very few Ecuadorians migrated to the United States. Between the years of 1930 to 1959, 11,025 Ecuadorians received lawful permanent resident status in the United States. From here, slow trickles of emigration continued. Trade relations with and seasonal migration to New York became an avenue for emigration in the 1950s and 1960s. In the late 1960s, several waves of migration started. Most Ecuadorian immigration to the United States has occurred since the early 1970s. This emigration was because of several reasons: The first of them was that United States immigration law changed.
Before 1965, national quotas on immigrants favored more European immigration than Latin American immigration. After 1965, changes in immigration law made it easier for Latin Americans and other foreign groups to emigrate to United States. In addition, the price of air travel lowered making immigration more accessible to Latin Americans. They were drawn to the U.S. for economic opportunities and political freedoms.
Another factor in Ecuadorian emigration was the 1964 Ecuadorian land reform. This improved the lives of many Ecuadorian poor, but also had far-reaching and unpredictable consequences. Many new small landowners were forced to sell their land. Many landowners abandoned their land and migrated to countries like Spain, Venezuela, and the United States. In the early 1980s, Ecuadorian emigration also saw a spike as oil prices fell, and again emigration peaked in the political turmoil of 1996-97 and national banking crisis of 1998-99. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act legalized the status of 16,292 Ecuadorians in the United States, which became a major source of family-sponsored Ecuadorian migration to the country
Most immigrants who live in the United States send money home. Many immigrants get American citizenship, others simply are legalized, while other groups live illegally, crossing the border from Mexico or entering by boat from Puerto Rico. Ecuadorian Americans come from every part of Ecuador. During the 1970s, most of the Ecuadorians came from the northern and central highlands, including the area around Quito.
In the 1980s, many Ecuadorians came from the coast. In the 1990s, most of them came from the southern highlands, near the border with Peru. The majority of Ecuadorian immigrants emigrate into New York City and its surrounding suburbs. The 1990 census recorded that 60 percent of Ecuadorians living in the United States live in the New York City Metropolitan Area; while another 10% live in Miami.
Ecuadorian Return Migration
In 2008, the Great World Recession made for a decline in Ecuadorian emigration. This event also hindered two of Ecuador’s major cash flows: remittances and exports. To aid in the country's recovery, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa implemented the Welcome Home Plan. The plan fights unemployment and serves to boost the economy by encouraging migrants to come home through various ways, including aiding returnees in their own business ventures.
Many Ecuadorians in the United States have settled in cities such as New York City (most residing in various areas of Queens, as well as in Bushwick, Brooklyn and Fordham, Bronx); Ossining, New York; Hudson, New York; Washington Heights, Manhattan; Danbury, Connecticut; Jersey City, New Jersey; Union City, New Jersey; Newark, New Jersey; Plainfield, New Jersey; Chicago, Illinois; Orlando, Florida; Tampa, Florida; Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Miami, Florida; Houston, Texas; Dallas, Texas; San Antonio, Texas; Minneapolis, Minnesota; San Francisco, California; Los Angeles, California; and Cleveland, Ohio.
Queens County's percentage of Ecuadorians is about 4.7%, and it has the largest Ecuadorian community of any county in New York and in the United States, numbering just about 101,000 in 2010. Ecuadorians are the largest South American Latino group in New York City as well as in the State of New York.
Ecuadorians are the fourth largest Latino group in New York after Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Mexicans. Ecuadorians also constitute Queens County's largest Latino group. Another New York group of Ecuadorians live in the Bronx, in the Morris Heights and Highbridge neighborhoods north of Yankee Stadium. Still other Ecuadorian neighborhoods are situated in Brooklyn; in New Jersey cities such as Newark and Jersey City; and in towns in Connecticut.
States with highest Ecuadorian population
The 10 states with the largest Ecuadorian population were (Source: Census 2010):
- New York - 228,216 (1.2% of state population)
- New Jersey - 100,480 (1.1% of state population)
- Florida - 60,574 (0.3% of state population)
- California - 35,570 (0.1% of state population)
- Connecticut - 23,677 (0.7% of state population)
- Illinois - 22,816 (0.2% of state population)
- Texas - 10,793 (less than 0.1% of state population)
- Pennsylvania - 10,680 (0.1% of state population)
- North Carolina - 8,110 (0.1% of state population)
- Massachusetts - 7,592 (0.1% of state population)
US Metro areas with largest Ecuadorian population
The largest Ecuadorian populations are found within these areas (Source: Census 2010)
- New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA MSA - 316,243
- Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach, FL MSA - 37,029
- Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, CA MSA - 23,118
- Chicago-Joliet-Naperville, IL-IN-WI MSA - 22,445
- Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT MSA - 13,335
- Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV MSA - 10,189
- Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL MSA - 9,129
- Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI MSA - 7,121
- New Haven-Milford, CT MSA - 6,680
- Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD MSA - 6,440
- Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL MSA - 5,292
- Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown, TX MSA - 5,011
- Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA MSA - 4,662
- Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC MSA - 4,590
- Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, MA-NH MSA - 4,287
- Trenton-Ewing, NJ MSA - 4,264
- Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA MSA - 3,944
- Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX MSA - 3,004
- Poughkeepsie-Newburgh-Middletown, NY MSA - 2,957
- Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ MSA - 2,700
US communities with high percentages of people of Ecuadorian ancestry
The top 25 US communities with the highest percentage of people claiming Ecuadorian ancestry (as of the 2000 census, 2010 numbers in parenthesis) are:
- Sleepy Hollow, New York 10.76% (17.54%)
- Montauk, New York 8.08% (4.21%)
- East Newark, New Jersey 7.87% (19.87%)
- Ossining, New York 7.48% (19.31%)
- Patchogue, New York 7.09%
- Hightstown, New Jersey 6.31% (14.11%)
- Union City, New Jersey 5.94% (9.23%)
- North Plainfield, New Jersey 5.39%
- Town of Ossining, New York 4.98% (19.31%)
- Port Chester, New York 4.90% (9.58%)
- Hackensack, New Jersey 4.78% (9.98%)
- Springs, New York 4.46% (17.25%)
- West New York, New Jersey 4.45%
- Peekskill, New York 4.32%
- North Bergen, New Jersey 4.02%
- Harrison, New Jersey 3.90%
- Guttenberg, New Jersey 3.88%
- East Hampton, New York 3.81%
- East Windsor, New Jersey 3.39%
- Dover, New Jersey 3.37%
- Rye, New York 3.18%
- Belleville, New Jersey 3.06%
- Danbury, Connecticut 2.92% (7.57%)
- Guttenberg, New Jersey 2.9%
- Weehawken, New Jersey 2.83%
U.S. communities with the most residents born in Ecuador
The top 25 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Ecuador are:
- Sleepy Hollow, New York 10.4%
- East Newark, New Jersey 10.3%
- Ossining, New York 10.1%
- Hightstown, New Jersey 9.5%
- North Plainfield, New Jersey 7.8%
- Montauk, New York 7.8%
- Patchogue, New York 7.7%
- Union City, New Jersey 7.5%
- Wainscott, New York 6.4%
- Peekskill, New York 5.9%
- Springs, New York 5.4%
- Hackensack, New Jersey 5.3%
- West New York, New Jersey 5.2%
- Port Chester, New York 4.8%
- Queens, New York 4.7%
- Dover, New Jersey 4.6%
- Harrison, New Jersey 4.1%
- Twin Rivers, New Jersey 4.0%
- Belleville, New Jersey 3.8%
- Danbury, Connecticut 3.7%
- Newark, New Jersey 3.6%
- Spring Valley, New York 3.5%
- Tarrytown, New York 3.4%
- Brewster, New York 3.1%
- Guttenberg, New Jersey 2.9%
|Lists of Americans|
|By U.S. state|
|By ethnicity or nationality|
- US Census Bureau 2015 American Community Survey B03001 1-Year Estimates HISPANIC OR LATINO ORIGIN BY SPECIFIC ORIGIN retrieved September 22, 2016.
- Monsy Alvarado (April 18, 2016). "In North Jersey's Ecuadorean community, excruciating worry". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
- "Immigration Data & Statistics". Department of Homeland Security. 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
- "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- Jokisch, Brad (November 24, 2014). "Ecuador: From Mass Emigration to Return Migration?". Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- Jeremy Mumford (2010). "A Countries and Their Cultures: Ecuatorians Americans". Countries and their cultures. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
- American FactFinder - QT-P10: Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010
- "Ancestry Map of Ecuadorian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2008-07-29.
- "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Ecuador (population 500+)". city-data.com. Retrieved 2008-07-30.
- If The Glove Fits: Charles Castronovo & The Rake’s Progress. Royal Opera 7-18 July
- Castro, Tony (January 14, 2003). "Eastside Mourns Death of Pacheco's Top Aide". WAVE Community Newspapers.[permanent dead link]