Edamame

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Edamame
Edamame by Zesmerelda in Chicago.jpg
Boiled green fruit soybeans in the pod.
Course Appetizer, side dish
Main ingredients Soybeans
Cookbook: Edamame  Media: Edamame

Edamame (枝豆?) /ˌɛdəˈmɑːm/ or edamame bean is a preparation of immature soybeans in the pod, found in the cuisine of China, Japan, Korea and Hawaii. The pods are boiled or steamed and served with salt. In Japan, it is usually blanched in 4% salt water and not served with salt.

Outside East Asia, the dish is most often found in Japanese restaurants, some Chinese restaurants, and health food restaurants. In the United States it is sold packaged in frozen sections of grocery stores, in cans, or fresh in the produce sections of health food stores.

Name[edit]

Edamame beans and a Japanese beer.

The Japanese name, edamame (枝豆?), is used commonly to refer to the dish.A It literally means, "stem bean" (eda = "branch" or "stem" + mame = "bean"), because the beans were often sold while still attached to the stem.

History[edit]

The earliest documented reference to the term "edamame" dates from the year 1275, when the Japanese monk Nichiren wrote a note thanking a parishioner for the gift of "edamame" he had left at the temple.[1] In 1406 during the Ming Dynasty in China, the leaves of the soybeans were eaten and during outbreaks of famine, it was recommended for citizens to eat the beans whole or use them ground up and added to flour. Years later in China in 1620 they are referred to again, but as Maodou, which translates to the term “hairy bean”. They are found in the records of the Runan vegetable gardens and stated as having a medicinal purpose as well as being a snack type food.[1] Edamame appeared in haikai verse in Japanese in the Edo period (1603 – 1868), with one example as early as 1638.[2] They were first recognized in the United States in 1855 when a farmer commented on the difficulties he had shelling them after harvest. In March 1923, the immature soy bean is first referred to in text in the United States. In this book they are first pictured and shown as being eaten out of open shell pods. The first nutritional facts about them are published and some recipes are included as they were a new type of vegetable to the public.[1] The earliest recorded usage in English of the word edamame is in 1951 in the journal Folklore Studies.[3] Edamame appeared as a new term in the Oxford English Dictionary in 2003, and in the Merriam-Webster dictionary in 2008.[4] In 2008, the first soybeans were grown in Europe to be sold in grocery stores as edamame and eaten as an alternative source of protein.[5]

Preparation[edit]

To effectively harvest edamame, the pods should be picked by hand and not by machine to avoid stems and leaves. Green soybeans in the pod are picked before they ripen in order to prepare edamame. The ends of the pod may be cut before boiling or steaming.

Pods may be boiled in water, steamed, or microwaved. The most common preparation uses salt for taste, either dissolved in the boiling water before introducing the soybean pods or added after cooking. Fresh edamame should be blanched first before being frozen.[6]

Edamame is a popular side dish at Japanese izakaya restaurants with local varieties being in demand, depending on the season.[citation needed] Salt and garlic are typical condiments for edamame. In Japan, a coarse salt wet with brine is preferred on beans eaten directly from the pod.[7][8]

Edamame purchased fresh is preferred when eaten the same day, but will stay edible for two days when stored in the refrigerator if not already brown. Freezing fresh edamame is another option for maintaining good quality over a few months.[9]

Nutrient content[edit]

Edamame, frozen, prepared
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 509 kJ (122 kcal)
9.94 g
Sugars 2.18 g
Dietary fiber 5.2 g
5.2 g
10.88 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(17%)
0.2 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(13%)
0.155 mg
Niacin (B3)
(6%)
0.915 mg
(8%)
0.395 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
(78%)
311 μg
Vitamin C
(7%)
6.1 mg
Vitamin E
(5%)
0.68 mg
Vitamin K
(26%)
26.8 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(6%)
63 mg
Iron
(17%)
2.27 mg
Magnesium
(18%)
64 mg
Manganese
(49%)
1.024 mg
Phosphorus
(24%)
169 mg
Potassium
(9%)
436 mg
Zinc
(14%)
1.37 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The United States Department of Agriculture states that edamame beans are, "a soybean that can be eaten fresh and are best known as a snack with a nutritional punch".[10]

Edamame and other preparations of soybeans are rich in protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients, particularly folate, manganese, phosphorus and vitamin K (table).[11]

The balance of fatty acids in 100 grams of edamame is 361 mg of omega-3 fatty acids to 1794 mg of omega-6 fatty acids.[12]

As a significant source of plant protein, edamame beans are under research to establish whether a relationship exists for soy consumption with reduction of disease risk.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c History of Edamame, Green Vegetable Soybeans, and Vegetable-Type Soybeans (1275-2009)
  2. ^ "枝豆" [Edamame]. Nihon Kokugo Daijiten (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  3. ^ "Edamame, n.". Oxford English dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. March 2012. LCCN 2002565560. OCLC 357047940. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Edamame". Jōhō chishiki imidas (in Japanese). Tōkyō: Shūeisha. 2012. OCLC 297351993. Retrieved June 6, 2012. 
  5. ^ Prince, Rose. "British grown edamame beans arrive in supermarkets". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-05-07. 
  6. ^ "HFreezing". National Center for Home Food Preservation. 2014-05-28. 
  7. ^ Ono, Tadashi (2011). The Japanese Grill: From Classic Yakatori to Steak, Seafood, and Vegetables. Crown Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-1580087377. 
  8. ^ Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko. History of Edamame, Green Vegetable Soybeans, and Vegetable-Type Soybeans (PDF). Soyinfo Center. ISBN 978-1-928914-24-2. 
  9. ^ Daley, Bill. "Edamame". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2015-05-07. 
  10. ^ USDA government article about edamame.
  11. ^ "Edamame nutrition profile (frozen, unprepared)". NutritionData. Retrieved 2010-04-08. 
  12. ^ "Edamame nutrition profile (frozen, prepared)". NutritionData. Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  13. ^ Michelfelder A (1 January 2009). "Soy: A complete source of protein". Am Family Physician. pp. 43–7. Retrieved 7 May 2015. 

External links[edit]