Eddie Koiki Sambo
29 June 1936
|Died||21 January 1992 (aged 55)|
Bonita Mabo (m. 1959)
Eddie Mabo (c. 29 June 1936 – 21 January 1992) was an Indigenous Australian man from the Torres Strait Islands known for his role in campaigning for Indigenous land rights and for his role in a landmark decision of the High Court of Australia which overturned the legal doctrine of terra nullius ("nobody's land") which characterised Australian law with regard to land and title.
Early life and family
Mabo was born Eddie Koiki Sambo but he changed his surname to Mabo when he was adopted by his uncle, Benny Mabo. He was born on the island of Mer (Murray Island) in the Torres Strait between mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Mabo married Bonita Neehow, an Australian South Sea Islander, in 1959. The couple had seven children and adopted three more. One daughter, Gail, is an Aboriginal artist and dancer who works with schools in New South Wales as a cultural advisor and serves as the family's designated spokesperson.
Bonita Mabo died in Townsville on 26 November 2018, aged 75, just days after receiving an honorary doctorate of letters from James Cook University for her contributions to social justice and human rights.
The time he spent on the campus had a massive impact on his life. In 1974, he was talking with JCU historians Noel Loos and Henry Reynolds, and Loos recalls:
we were having lunch one day in Reynolds' office when Koiki was just speaking about his land back on Mer, or Murray Island. Henry and I realised that in his mind he thought he owned that land, so we sort of glanced at each other, and then had the difficult responsibility of telling him that he didn't own that land, and that it was Crown land. Koiki was surprised, shocked and even ... he said and I remember him saying 'No way, it's not theirs, it's ours.'
Later, when Mabo was a research assistant on an oral history project in the Torres Strait, Reynolds records:
He got as far as Thursday Island and no further. He was refused permission to land on any of the other islands in the Straits[sic]. A reputation as a radical was a heavy burden in Queensland at the time. For Eddie the rejection was devastating. He could not go home. He was not only landless in the eyes of white man's law, he was an exile as well.
Land rights advocate
In 1981 a land rights conference was held at James Cook University and Mabo made a speech to the audience where he explained the land inheritance system on Murray Island. The significance of this in terms of Australian common law doctrine was taken note of by one of the attendees, a lawyer, who suggested there should be a test case to claim land rights through the court system. Perth-based solicitor Greg McIntyre was at the conference and agreed to take the case; he then recruited barristers Ron Castan and Bryan Keon-Cohen. McIntyre represented Mabo during the hearings.
Death and Mabo decision
On 21 January 1992, Eddie Mabo died of cancer at the age of 55..
Five months later, on 3 June 1992, the High Court announced its historic decision, namely overturning the legal doctrine of terra nullius – which is a term applied to the attitude of the British towards land ownership on the continent of Australia.
That decision, formally "Mabo v Queensland (No 2)", now commonly called "Mabo" in Australia, is recognised for its landmark status. Three years after Mabo died, that being the traditional mourning period for the people of Murray Island, a gathering was held in Townsville for a memorial service.
Overnight, Mabo's gravesite was attacked by vandals who spray-painted swastikas and the word "Abo" (a derogatory slang term for an Aboriginal person) on his tombstone and removed a bronze bas-relief portrait of him. His family decided to have his body reburied on Murray Island. On the night of his re-interment, the Islanders performed their traditional ceremony for the burial of a king, a ritual not seen on the island for 80 years.
In 1992, Mabo was posthumously awarded the Australian Human Rights Medal in the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Awards, together with the Reverend Dave Passi, Sam Passi (deceased), James Rice (deceased), Celuia Mapo Salee (deceased) and Barbara Hocking (deceased). The award was in recognition "of their long and determined battle to gain justice for their people" and the "work over many years to gain legal recognition for indigenous people's rights".
In 1993 The Australian newspaper commemorated his work by voting him the 1992 Australian of the Year (not to be confused with the official Australian of the Year awards issued by the Australian Government).
On 21 May 2008, James Cook University named its Townsville campus library the Eddie Koiki Mabo Library.
In 2017, the Royal Australian Mint issued a commemorative 50c coin, commemorating 25 years since Mabo's death and the legal decision and 50 years since the referendum. It was designed by his grand-daughter Boneta-Marie Mabo and was released in National Reconciliation Week.
- "Mabo: The Man – Adoption". Screen Australia Digital Learning. Archived from the original on 2014-08-10. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- "Facts Sheet – Edward Koiki Mabo 1936–1992". Racism No Way. Archived from the original on 28 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- "It's time, says Bonita Mabo". Sydney Morning Herald. 2004-08-01. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-03-11.
- "Mabo Art". jcu.edu.au. 21 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26.
- "Social Justice and Human Rights Issues: A Global Perspective". csu.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2014-08-26.
- "Mabo's gift". Sydney Morning Herald. 2 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 September 2014.
- Higgins, Isabella (26 November 2018). "Bonita Mabo, prominent Indigenous rights activist, dies days after receiving accolade". ABC News. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Allam, Lorena (27 November 2018). "Bonita Mabo: tributes pour in for 'mother of native title'". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- "Black Community School". Screen Australia Digital Learning. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Created by Thomas Rickard (2 November 2008). "We Are No Longer Shadows". First Australians. Australia. 13:45 minutes in. SBS. SBS. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. See also Reynolds, Henry (1992). The Law of the Land (2 ed.). Ringwood, Vic: Penguin. pp. 185–186.
- Id., p. 186.
- "About Bryan Keon-Cohen". Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- "You're part of the family, Mabo clan tells lawyer who led landmark case". Sydney Morning Herald. 4 June 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- "Eddie Mabo". ABC. 12 November 2015. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015.
- Noel, Loos. "Mabo, Edward Koiki (Eddie) (1936–1992)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "1992 Human Rights Medal and Awards". Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- "Papers of Edward Koiki Mabo – MS 8822". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Architecture – Eddie Koiki Mabo Library Building Award – JCU". James Cook University. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- "Mabo Day". Torres Strait regional authority. Archived from the original on 12 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- "Personal face of a public battle". Sydney Morning herald. 31 May 2012. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-31.
- "Tony Abbott visits Eddie Mabo's grave on Murray Island". ABC. Archived from the original on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2015-08-25.
- "Edward Koiki Mabo's 80th birthday". Google.com. Archived from the original on 2016-07-02. Retrieved 2016-06-28.
- "New coin designed by Boneta-Marie Mabo released into circulation for National Reconciliation Week". Royal Australian Mint. 24 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- Copp, Amanda (25 May 2017). "New 50c coin commemorates Mabo and 1967 referendum". SBS News. Special Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
- "Collection of art works by Edward Koiki Mabo". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- Apek kebile: Eddie Koiki Mabo : the boy from the other side of the island (videorecording) – "about Eddie Mabo, his love for his people and his homeland ..." / Office for Torres Strait Islander Affairs
- Mabo: life of an island man / original screenplay by Trevor Graham (1999, ISBN 0-86819-580-4)
- "Acquiring the Mabo Papers: Celebrating Edward Koiki Mabo". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- Mabo, Gail. "Torres Strait Islands, Mer (Murray Island) and Eddie 'Koiki' Mabo". Archived from the original on 27 March 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- "Eddie Mabo Biography". Retrieved 15 April 2018.
- on YouTube