Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

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The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10-item questionnaire that was developed to identify women who have postpartum depression.[1] Items of the scale correspond to various clinical depression symptoms, such as guilt feeling, sleep disturbance, low energy, anhedonia, and suicidal ideation. Overall assessment is done by total score, which is determined by adding together the scores for each of the 10 items. Higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms.[2] The EPDS may be used within 8 weeks postpartum and it also can be applied for depression screening during pregnancy.[3]

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is a widely used depression screening tool, which has been adapted and validated in many languages.[4][5][6]

History[edit]

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was first developed (1987) by Scottish health centres in Edinburgh and Livingston.[7]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • EPDS - PDF version
  • EPDS - Online version

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cox J.L.; Holden J.M.; Sagovsky R. (1987). "Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale". Br J Psychiatry. 150: 782–6. PMID 3651732. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782. 
  2. ^ Cox J.L.; Holden J.M.; Sagovsky R. (1987). "Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale". Br J Psychiatry. 150: 782–6. PMID 3651732. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782. 
  3. ^ Bergink V, Kooistra L; Lambregtse-van, den Berg MP; Wijnen H; Bunevicius R; van Baar A; Pop V (Apr 2011). "Validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale during pregnancy". J Psychosom Res. 70 (4): 385–9. PMID 21414460. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.07.008. 
  4. ^ Garcia-Esteve L, Ascaso C, Ojuel J, Navarro P (Jun 2003). "Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in Spanish mothers". J Affect Disord. 75 (1): 71–6. PMID 12781353. doi:10.1016/s0165-0327(02)00020-4. 
  5. ^ Bergant AM, Nguyen T, Heim K, Ulmer H, Dapunt O (Jan 1998). "German language version and validation of the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale". Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 123 (3): 35–40. PMID 9472218. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1023895. 
  6. ^ Vivilaki VG, Dafermos V, Kogevinas M, Bitsios P, Lionis C (Sep 2009). "The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: translation and validation for a Greek sample". BMC Public Health. 9: 329. PMC 2748079Freely accessible. PMID 19740443. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-329. 
  7. ^ http://www2.illinois.gov/hfs/MedicalProvider/MaternalandChildHealthPromotion/Pages/Edinburgh.aspx,