Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

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Edinburgh of the Seven Seas

"The Settlement"
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
Location on Tristan da Cunha
Coordinates: 37°4′2.2″S 12°18′36″W / 37.067278°S 12.31000°W / -37.067278; -12.31000
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
British overseas territory Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Island Tristan da Cunha
First inhabited1816
Named1867
Founded byWilliam Glass (British Army)
Named forAlfred, Duke of Edinburgh
Capital ofTristan da Cunha
Population
 (October 2018)
 • Total250
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
Area code(s)+44

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is the main settlement of the island of Tristan da Cunha, in Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Locally, it is always referred to as The Settlement or The Village.[1]

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is regarded as the most remote permanent settlement on Earth, being 2,173 kilometres (1,350 mi)[2] from the nearest other human settlement, on Saint Helena.

History[edit]

The settlement was founded on the island of Tristan da Cunha in 1816 by a Sergeant Glass from the Borders of Scotland[citation needed] after the UK annexed Tristan da Cunha. A military garrison was maintained on the islands as a guard against any French attempts to rescue Napoleon, who was imprisoned on Saint Helena. The military garrison remained until the end of World War II.

It is named after Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second son of Queen Victoria, in honour of his visit to the island in 1867.[3]

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas is the only major settlement of Tristan da Cunha, and contains a small port, the Administrator's residence, and the post office. It was damaged in a volcanic eruption on the island in 1961, which forced the entire population to abandon the settlement and evacuate to Calshot, Hampshire in the UK. The eruption destroyed the settlement's crayfish factory.

After the return of most of the islanders in 1963, the settlement was rebuilt. The harbour at Edinburgh was named Calshot Harbour, after their temporary home during the eruption.[4]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

The archipelago has a wet oceanic climate under the Köppen system with mild temperatures, but consistent moderate to heavy rainfall and very limited sunshine, due to the persistent westerly winds. Under the Trewartha classification, Tristan da Cunha is a humid subtropical climate due to the lack of cold weather. The number of rainy days is comparable to the Aleutian Islands at a much higher latitude in the northern hemisphere, while sunshine hours are comparable to Juneau, Alaska, 20° farther from the equator. Frost is unknown below elevations of 500 metres (1,600 ft) and summer temperatures are similarly mild, never reaching 25 °C (77 °F). Sandy Point on the east coast is reputed to be the warmest and driest place on the island, being in the lee of the prevailing winds.

Climate data for Tristan da Cunha
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.7
(74.7)
24.4
(75.9)
24.4
(75.9)
22.4
(72.3)
20.3
(68.5)
18.7
(65.7)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
17.1
(62.8)
18.4
(65.1)
22.4
(72.3)
21.8
(71.2)
24.4
(75.9)
Average high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.5
(68.9)
18.9
(66.0)
16.9
(62.4)
15.3
(59.5)
14.4
(57.9)
14.2
(57.6)
14.3
(57.7)
15.4
(59.7)
17.0
(62.6)
18.9
(66.0)
17.3
(63.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.9
(64.2)
18.8
(65.8)
17.9
(64.2)
15.4
(59.7)
14.6
(58.3)
13.1
(55.6)
12.2
(54.0)
11.9
(53.4)
12.0
(53.6)
13.0
(55.4)
14.6
(58.3)
16.5
(61.7)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
11.9
(53.4)
12.3
(54.1)
10.9
(51.6)
10.0
(50.0)
9.6
(49.3)
9.7
(49.5)
10.6
(51.1)
12.2
(54.0)
14.1
(57.4)
12.4
(54.3)
Record low °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
11.8
(53.2)
10.3
(50.5)
9.5
(49.1)
7.4
(45.3)
6.3
(43.3)
4.8
(40.6)
4.6
(40.3)
5.1
(41.2)
6.4
(43.5)
8.3
(46.9)
9.7
(49.5)
4.6
(40.3)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 93
(3.7)
113
(4.4)
121
(4.8)
129
(5.1)
155
(6.1)
160
(6.3)
160
(6.3)
175
(6.9)
169
(6.7)
151
(5.9)
128
(5.0)
127
(5.0)
1,681
(66.2)
Average rainy days 18 17 17 20 23 23 25 26 24 22 18 19 252
Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 75 78 78 79 79 79 78 79 79 80 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 139.5 144.0 145.7 129.0 108.5 99.0 105.4 105.4 120.0 133.3 138.0 130.2 1,498
Percent possible sunshine 31 35 38 38 35 34 34 32 33 33 32 29 34
Source #1: Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System[5]
Source #2: Climate and Temperature[6][7]
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
93
 
 
20
16
 
 
113
 
 
21
17
 
 
121
 
 
20
16
 
 
129
 
 
18
15
 
 
155
 
 
17
13
 
 
160
 
 
15
11
 
 
160
 
 
14
11
 
 
175
 
 
14
10
 
 
169
 
 
14
10
 
 
151
 
 
15
11
 
 
128
 
 
17
13
 
 
127
 
 
19
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Climate and Temperature Information

Transport[edit]

There is one road, M1, which connects the town with Patches and is used by the few private cars on the island.[8] Paved paths provide walking access to buildings around town. A bus service called Potato Patches Flier (using a 24-seat Isuzu mini school bus from South Africa[9]) is available to pensioners in town to travel to places around the island.[10]

All motor vehicles on the island have Tristan da Cunha plates consisting of letters TDC and 2 or 3 numbers.[11]

The town has a small harbour with berths accessible by small vessels only.

Gallery[edit]

Art[edit]

Graphic artist Rolf Weijburg produced an etch of Edinburgh of the Seven Seas[12] and other places on the island of Tristan da Cunha.[13]

Local government[edit]

The island's local affairs are managed by the Island Council, a 14-member administration that meets six times a year and is elected every three years.[14]

Government services[edit]

The town is home to the island's emergency services, which comprise one ambulance (a Toyota Hilux operated by Camogli Hospital), one fire engine (a Land Rover Defender with a small ladder) and one police car (Land Rover Series).[10]

The town administration also has a vehicle for official use.[10]

Places of interest and attractions[edit]

Most buildings in town are single story, with the largest being the factory and the tallest being St Joseph's Church.

  • St Mary's Anglican Church – built 1923[15]
  • St. Joseph Catholic Church – built 1995–96 and replaced earlier church from 1983[15]
  • St Mary's School – built 1975[16]
  • Camogli Hospital – built in 1971 to replace Station Hospital (c. 1940s)[17]
  • Calshot Harbour – built 1967[18]
  • Prince Philip Hall and the Albatross Bar
  • Tristan Thatched House Museum
  • Agriculture Department warehouse
  • Tristan Island Store – only supermarket on the island[19]
  • Tristan Post Office, Tourism Centre and Café da Cunha – opened 2009[19]
  • Administration Building – home to Island Council
  • Crayfish Canning Factory – built 1963[20]
  • Park 61 – volcanic park site

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saint Helena Independent Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine 25 March 2011 p. 3
  2. ^ "Tristan da Cunha Settlement of Edinburgh of the Seven Seas". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  3. ^ Courtney, Nicholas (2004). The Queen's Stamps. ISBN 0-413-77228-4, page 28. The visit took place during the circumnavigation the Duke of Edinburgh did while commanding HMS Galatea. Tristan da Cunha post office issued four stamps in 1967 to celebrate the centenary of this visit.
  4. ^ "Tristan da Cunha's Calshot Harbour". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  5. ^ "South Africa: Tristan Da Cunha". March 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015.
  6. ^ "Tristan Da Cunha Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity". March 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2011.
  7. ^ http://www.tristandc.com/wildclimate.php
  8. ^ "Tristan da Cunha Visitor Excursions". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  9. ^ "The Tristan Times Newspaper – News from Tristan da Cunha". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  10. ^ a b c "Tristan da Cunha Land Transport News". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Olav's Tristanian number plates – Photographed in Tristan da Cunha". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  12. ^ http://www.weijburg.nl/portofolio/etsen/116v.jpg
  13. ^ Rolf Weijburg’s website: http://www.weijburg.nl
  14. ^ http://capital.osd.wednet.edu/media/capital/library/pdf/tristan_da_cunha.pdf
  15. ^ a b "Tristan Churches". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Tristan School". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Camogli Hospital Tristan da Cunha". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  18. ^ "Tristan da Cunha's Calshot Harbour". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  19. ^ a b http://www.tristandc.com/shops.php
  20. ^ "Tristan Fishing". Retrieved 30 January 2016.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°04′S 12°19′W / 37.067°S 12.317°W / -37.067; -12.317